Mobile Wireless

Exponential Growth of World Wide GSM Data Users
 Growth in mobile data is expected to be 70% p.a. in next 5 yrs (Merryl Lynch)
in million subscriber

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

innovators

early adaptors

early majority

Late majority

~ 1%

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

N+I_2k

© 2000, Peter Tomsu

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Dramatic Increase of Mobile Data Volume
UMTS study funded by the European Comission
data will account for up to 75% of total mobile traffic  by 2005 up to 40% of people in the EU will be using mobile phones

Mbytes per user per month

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
© 2000, Peter Tomsu

Today 0.8 Mb/user/month

N+I_2k

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Wireless Data Network Drivers

• Information access • PDAs • Network computers • Alpha paging, information distribution • Web/WAP technology

N+I_2k

© 2000, Peter Tomsu

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Services Most Often Requested
After Basic Wireless Telephony Service
Call Forwarding Paging Internet/E-mail Traffic/Weather Conference Calling News
Source: CTIA Web Page Peter D. Hart Research Associates, March 1997
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© 2000, Peter Tomsu

37% 33% 24% 15% 13% 3%

Data Applications

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Data Services on Cellular
• Standards for packet services on cellular are already defined
GSM: GPRS - GSM Packet Radio System CDMA: IWF and MobileIP

• Both utilize bandwidth over the backhaul/backbone to gateway devices • A data network built for packet data transport can reduce the need to expand the backbone beyond voice requirements

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Wireless Market Segments
Wireless Market Segments & Partners
Wireless Internetworking Overview
Residential/ Premise/ Campus Fixed Broadband Multiservice IEEE 802.11 BLUE TOOTH MMDS LMDS Cisco/ Bosch Mobile

2G+ Cellular Data Services GPRS Mobile IP

3G Cellular Packet Data/Voice UMTS

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Residential WLANs

• Found in office environment for wireless network access • Either infrared or radio • Standards are
Bluetooth IEEE 802.11

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© 2000, Peter Tomsu

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Fixed Wireless
• Provide high speed wireless link to connect remote sites • Point-to-point or point-to-multipoint • Line-of-sight or non-line-of-sight systems • Two standards LMDS – Local Multipoint Distribution System MMDS
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Mobile Wireless Networks

• Usually digital cellular radion networks • Provide voice and data services • 1G – analog transmission • 2G – digital cellular networks (like GSM) Circuit switched • 2G+ HSCSD (circuit switched bundeled timeslots) GPRS (voice CS, data PS) • 3G – like UMTS Completely packet switched voice and data

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GPRS and other Mobile Wireless Technologies
Type Throughput Investment Std. Body Availability

chnology

GSM data HSCSD 2000

Circuit 9.6 kbits/s Circuit 56 kbits/s

Low ETSI Medium

Now ETSI 1999 2000-2001 2000-2001 ETSI 2002

EDGE Packet 380 kbits/s GPRS Packet 150 kbits/s UMTS Packet 2 Mbits/s
… … … …

Medium Medium

Ericsson ETSI

High (radio)

HSCSD EDGE GPRS UMTS
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High Speed Circuit Switched Data Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution General Packet Radio Service Universal Mobile Telephone Service
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GSM Packet Data Service Options
• Two services as part of "Phase 2+" of the GSM specification

High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

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High Speed Circuit Switched Data
(HSCSD)
• allows the combination of multiple timeslots • Channels can be multiplexed together to offer a data rate of up to 56 Kbit/s when using all four slots (14.4 Kbs/channel) • because each time slot could carry a conventional conversation, the use of multiple slots restricts the capacity for speech traffic, resulting in the handset user specifying a minimum acceptable data rate and a preferred (and usually higher) data rate • will prove particularly useful for applications with high-speed data requirements, such as large-scale file transfers, advanced fax services and mobile video communications

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General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS)
• available over GSM networks • Data is packet switched - voice remains circuit switched • may also be supported as part of other standards, such as DECT and TDMA • based on the transportation and routing of packetized data • Capacity limitation is hence in terms of the amount of data being transmitted rather than the time of connection • reduces the time spent setting up and taking down connections • works with public data networks using Internet protocol & X.25 • "bursty" applications such as e-mail, traffic telematics, telemetry, broadcast services, and Web browsing • requires modifications to the GSM system architecture and has targeted commercial availability in the 1999 timeframe
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HSCSD vs GPRS
• HSCSD is a small market • HSCD doesn’t do anything to ease spectrum capacity constraints that operators are facing • GPRS benefits
ultimately, higher speed data the packet data element is most important because it uses the spectrum in a better way not tying up a whole channel end-to-end for one user

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Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
•GSM Standard bodies are defining data networking technologies which will build upon GPRS •One such technology is Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
•EDGE will offer a theroretical rate of up to 384 Kbs.

•Beyond EDGE, 3G (UMTS) cellular systems will eventually offer data rates up to 2 Mbs

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Universal Mobile Telephone Service UMTS
• 3G mobile system • Developed within ITU-2000 framework • Frequency bands
Terrestrial: 1885 – 2025 MHz and 2110 – 2200 MHz Sattelite: 1980 – 2010 MHz and 2170 – 2200 MHz

• Data rates up to 2Mbps • Inherent IP support • Fully packet switched (data and voice) • Concept of VME (Virtual Home Environment)
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GSM Cellular Packet Data
BSS … Base Station Subsystem BSC … Base Station Controller BTS … Base Transceiver Stations BTS SSS … Switching Subsystem VLR … Visitor Location Register HLR … Home Location Register AUC … Authentication Center EIR … Equipment Identity Center MSC … Mobile Switching Center GPRS SGSN and VLR GGSN provide packet data SSS HLR services AUC EIR Internet GGSN

BSS

Backhaul BSC

MSC BTS

MSC BSC

Transit Net SGSN GSN … GPRS Support Node SGSN … Serving GSN GGSN … Gateway GSN
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Transit Net

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© 2000, Peter Tomsu

01_mobile_wirel

GSM Network Areas
B a s e S ta tio n S u b s y s te m
BS

BSC

BS BSC

BS BS

BSC

BS BSC

HLR E IR

AUC

BS

BS

BSC

BS BSC

VLR

M SC
S w itc h in g S u b s y s t e m
BS BSC

BS BS

BSC

M S C S e r v ic e A re a
BS

L o c a tio n A r e a
BS

BSC

BS BSC

C e ll S e r v ic e A re a 1 S e r v ic e A r e a 2 S e r v ic e A re a n

BS

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B a s e S t a ti o n S u b s y s te m
BS

BSC

BS BSC

BS BS

BSC

BS BS C

HLR E IR

AUC

BS

GSM Network Areas
S e r v ic e A r e a n

BS

BSC

BS B SC

VLR

M SC
S w it c h in g S u b s y s t e m
BS BSC

BS BS

BSC

M S C S e r v ic e A r e a
BS

L o c a t io n A r e a
BS

BSC

BS BSC

C e ll S e rv ic e A re a 1 S e r v ic e A r e a 2

BS

• GSM network consists of geographical areas Location Areas – LA
made up of a group of cells served by a BSC BSC hndles inter cell signaling updates Keeps track of the cell a user is located

MSC/VLR Service Areas
MSC administers several BSCs handles signaling traffic of inter LA updates

Public Land Mobile Networks – PLMNs

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GPRS Logical Architecture
SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC E Gd MSC/VLR A TE R MT Um BSS Gn Gs Gb SGSN Gn Gp GGSN Other PLMN Signalling Interface Signalling and Data Transfer Interface
D

SM-SC C

HLR Gr Gc Gi GGSN Gf EIR PDN TE

SGSN

• PS GPRS uses completely different network architecture as underlying GSM network • Thus introduction of two new network nodes GPRS Support Nodes SGSN … Serving GSN (GPRS Support Node) GGSN … Gateway GSN (GPRS Support Node)
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SGSN and GGSN Functionality
SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC E Gd MSC/VLR A TE R MT Um BSS Gn Gs Gb SGSN Gn Gp GGSN Other PLMN Signalling Interface Signalling and Data Transfer Interface
D

SM-SC C

HLR Gr Gc Gi GGSN Gf EIR PDN TE

SGSN

• SGSN
Keeps track of user’s location

Performs security functions and access control

• GGSN
Provides internetworking functions with external networks Simply a strong router with IP and X.25 capability
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© 2000, Peter Tomsu

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Further Elements and Enhancements
SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC E Gd MSC/VLR A TE R MT Um BSS Gn Gs Gb SGSN Gn Gp GGSN Other PLMN Signalling Interface Signalling and Data Transfer Interface
D

SM-SC C

HLR Gr Gc Gi GGSN Gf EIR PDN TE

SGSN

• SGSNs are connected to PCUs (Packet Control Units which are part of the BSC)
Via Gb interface – with FR links

• GSNs are interconnected over Gn interface via IP backbone
GPRS backbone or GPRS network

• HLR is enhanced with GPRS subscriber information • SMS components are upgraded to support SMS transmission via SGSN
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Intra and Inter PLMN Backbone Networks
• Gp interface
Packet Data Network Inter-PLMN Backbone Gi Gp Gi

Connects two independent GPRS networks for message exchange Message exchange done by BG (router)

GGSN

BG

BG

GGSN

Intra-PLMN Backbone

Intra-PLMN Backbone

SGSN

SGSN

SGSN PLMN B

• Gi interface
Connection between operator’s GPRS networks and external networks (Internet)
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PLMN A

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© 2000, Peter Tomsu

GPRS Support Nodes
• GSN is main element in GPRS infrastructure
Mobility router Provides connection
GGSN

BS

BSC

BS BSC

BS B S BS BSC

BSC

SGSN GGSN SGSN

In te r n e t

BS

BS

BSC

BS B SC

BS

IP B a c k b o n e
B S

BSC

BS BSC

SGSN

In tr a n e t IS P

BS BS BS BSC

BSC

B S

Enables interworking with various data networks

N+I_2k

© 2000, Peter Tomsu

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GGSN
• Used to access external data network • IP router containing all necessary routing info for attached GPRS users • Routing info used to tunnel PDUs to MS’s current point of attachement (SGSN) • Allocation of dynamic IP addresses Either itself or external DHCP server
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SGSN

• Serves MS in terms of packet data services • SGSN establishes connection via GGSN to requested data network • Maintains all data structures (contexts) for
Authentication Routing process

• In case of roaming (SGSN and GGSN in different PLMNs) – interconnected via Gp interface
Provides security and others

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© 2000, Peter Tomsu

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PCU

• Located in the BSC • Acts as an interface to the SGSN • Distinguishes data and voice • Sends data over FR via SGSN into GPRS backbone • Realized in SW or HW
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© 2000, Peter Tomsu

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APN

• Access Point Name • Defined by ETSI in order to deal with huge number of IP networks to connect to • Uniquely identifies the network a user wants to access • L3 protocols defined are IPv4 and IPv6
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© 2000, Peter Tomsu

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APN

Access Point Name (username) Access mode (non/transparent) Accept network initiate PDP create request IP for DHCP, RADIUS …

Type (Ipv4, Ipv6, X.25) DHCP local pool information List of PDP contexts on the APN IP for charging gateway

• Contains
Name of foreign NW Network access mode

• Stored in HLR • User may select APN by himself from the MS

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© 2000, Peter Tomsu

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GPRS Concepts

• APN: targeted network (ISP, intranet) • PDP context: session id • 1) reach the SGSN (telecom part) • 2) reach the GGSN serving the APN (GTP=moving tunnel) • 3) reach the APN (dedicated link, tunnel)

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GPRS PDN Interworking Model

GGSN

Gi

IP GPRS Bearer

IP L2 L1

• GGSN is access point for internetworking Seen from outside as normal router GPRS network seems to be normal IP subnet
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GPRS Transmission Plane
Application IP / X.25
Relay

IP / X.25 SNDCP LLC
Relay

SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF RLC MAC BSSGP

GTP UDP / TCP IP L2 L1 Gn

GTP UDP / TCP IP L2 L1

BSSGP Network Service L1bis Gb

Network Service GSM RF L1bis Um

MS

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

Gi

Um … radio interface Uses same PL coding as classical GSM Thus no HW changes TE requires up to 8 slots / TDMA frame

GTP … GPRS Tunneling Protocol SNDCP … Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol BSSGP … Base Station System GPRS Protocol
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© 2000, Peter Tomsu

Gb Interface

Application IP / X.25
Relay

IP / X.25 SNDCP LLC
Relay

SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF RLC MAC BSSGP

GTP UDP / TCP IP L2 L1 Gn

GTP UDP / TCP IP L2 L1

BSSGP Network Service L1bis Gb

Network Service GSM RF L1bis Um

MS

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

Gi

• Link layer is FR • BSSGP (BSS GPRS) conveys routing and QoS info between BSS and SGSN • SNDCP encapsulates IP traffic between terminal and SGSN
Multiplexing of L3 connections Ciphering, segmentation, compression
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Gn Interface

Application IP / X.25
Relay

IP / X.25 SNDCP LLC
Relay

SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF RLC MAC BSSGP

GTP UDP / TCP IP L2 L1 Gn

GTP UDP / TCP IP L2 L1

BSSGP Network Service L1bis Gb

Network Service GSM RF L1bis Um

MS

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

Gi

• GTP (ETSI) tunnels IP packets between SGSN and GGSN One tunnel per active TE • Runs either over UDP or TCP
P o rt # 3 3 8 6 IP UDP GTP DATA

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MS
R reference point TE MT Um GPRS network 1 Gi reference point PDNs or other networks

MS

Gp

GPRS network 2

• MS could be Only GPRS phone User with NW connection via GPRS to his PC
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Transparent Internet Access
The GGSN is effectively a router

The GPRS network appears to the PDN as another IP subnet

• User who wants to get connected to internet • MS is given an IP address out of the operators address space Could be statically or dynamically allocated May be public or private • Authentication performed by SGSN via HLR
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Transparent Internet Access

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Non Transparent Access
C o rp o ra te VPN G G SN G SM SG SN F ir e w a ll and N AT
G P R S IP B ackbone

In t e r n e t
L 2 T P & IP s e c T u n n e l

F ir e w a ll and NAT

• Allows user to select SPs of his choice • Connection to intranet VPN for email access, intraweb, databases • Has to request IP address and perform authentication in company network • Realized by SGSN during PDP context activation via selected APN • MS sends authentication request • GGSN requests authentication and IP address from specified server (Radius, DHCP) of customers intranet • Use of Ipsec and/or L2 tunnel for terminating private IP addresses at GGSN via Internet
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Interworking Between GPRS Roaming User’s

BGP (RFC 1771)

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QoS on GPRS

BTS

BSC

FR

SGSN

Transit Net

GGSN

IP

H.323 GW

PSTN

H.323 client IP QoS CRTP

FR CoS

IP QoS

IP QoS WFQ WRED

Priotities CAR WFQ CRTP

H.323 Gateway IP QoS

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Quality of Service
Mapping between GPRS QoS and IP QoS levels
D e la y C la s s P re c e d e n c eM e a n -T h ro u g h R u ts u ltin g “c a n o n ic a l” Q o S pe C la s s B e s t E ffo rt a n y 1, 2, 3 1 ,2 , 3 1 ,2 , 3 1 ,2 ,3 lo w any n o rm a l h ig h any any B e s t E ffo rt s p e c ifie d s p e c ifie d B e s t E ffo rt B e s t E ffo rt B e s t E ffo rt N o rm a l P re m iu m

• Use of IP CoS mechanisms in GGSN/SGSN and in the Backbone: WRED, WFQ, CAR • Admission Control (GGSN): Σ traffic < Total BW
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Backbone Issues

• Leverage End-to-End Consistency • WFQ, WRED, CAR • MPLS (GGSN as edge router) • Integrated management

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IP Address Management

• GGSN can hold (local pool/DHCP):
– Operator’s public IP addresses – Operator’s private IP addresses (NAT) – Other’s public IP addresses (local pool) – Other’s private IP addresses (local pool, dedicated I/F)

• configuration per APN

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IP Address Management
• GGSN can allocate addresses:
– transparently (local pool using built-in DHCP
server/DHCP) – non-transparently (CHAP/IPCP processing, RADIUS/DHCP requests generation) through IOS built-in RADIUS/DHCP clients

• configuration per APN

N+I_2k

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GSM to UMTS Evolution

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Evolution Towards UMTS

• UMTS Backward compatibility to legacy systems • Operators will try to use existing infrastructure as long as possible • Development steps 1) MIP on top of GPRS 2) optimize existing routing mechanisms 3) SGSN and GGSN combined in one node • In future UMTS will completely integrate PSTN VSCs will replace all class 4 and class 5 switches Calls will be routed over IP backbone
N+I_2k
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