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SOCIAL CHANGE:

SESSIONS 17-20
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Social Change:
Nature:

Change is the law of nature/life & with the passage
of time every society must change.

It refers to any modification in the social
organization of a society in any of its social
institutions or patterns of social roles.
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Social Change:
Nature:

Generally social change refers to a significant
change in social behavior or a change in some
larger social system rather than to minor changes
within a small group.

The reorganization of society in terms of time &
place.

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Social Change:
Nature:
In other words we can say that:

The transformation of culture & social institutions
over time.
Definition: According to the Dictionary of Sociology
(Fair Child)
Variations or modifications in any aspect of social
process, pattern or form.


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Social Change:
Distinction Between Social Change, Cultural
Change & Progress:
Social change: (According to Sociologist)
Changes in the social structure & social relation-
ships.
Cultural change: (According to Anthropologist)
Changes in the culture of a society.
Progress: (According to Intellectuals)
A social or cultural change in a desirable direction
is called progress.



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Social Change:
Social Change & Development:

The changes in society can be both positive &
negative.

If the change (by most of the people/nation) are
balanced, desired & pre-planned, it is to be hoped
that such changes will establish positive correlation
with the countrys development.
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Social Change:
Process Of Social Change:
The process of social change has four major
characteristics:

1) Social Change Is Universal But Variable:
Few dimensions of human experience remain the
same over time.
But Although
Every society is affected by social change, all do not
change at the same rate.

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Social Change:
Process Of Social Change:

1) Social Change Is Universal But Variable:
Hunting & gathering societies changed little over
thousands of years.
Furthermore
All cultural elements not change at the same
rate.(the concept of cultural lag)




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Social Change:
Process Of Social Change:
1) Social Change Is Universal But Variable:

o Example:
The rapid development of medical devices to
prolong the life of seriously ill people (elements of
material culture) has outpaced our ability to
clearly define death (an element of nonmaterial
culture)

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Social Change:
Process Of Social Change:

2) Social Change Is Both Intentional/Planned & Un-
Planned:
Especially in industrial societies, many dimensions
of social change are deliberately encouraged.

Scientists continually seek more effective forms of
energy & medical technology.


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Social Change:
Process Of Social Change:

2) Social Change Is Both Intentional/Planned & Un-
Planned:

o Example:

The role of automobile (motor vehicles) in the
United States early in 20
th
century.

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Social Change:
Process Of Social Change:

3) Social Change Is Often Controversial:

Any transformation of society is likely to be
supported by some & opposed by others.

Anyone is likely to find some good & some bad in
any example of social change.


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Social Change:
Process Of Social Change:
3) Social Change Is Often Controversial:
In The Case Of Automobile,(Motor Vehicles)

Most American appreciate the mobility that auto-
mobile provide.
Auto exhaust is a major cause of air pollution.
More than 50,000 deaths that occur in car
accidents each year in the United States alone.

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Social Change:
Process Of Social Change:
3) Social Change Is Often Controversial:

o Example:
The Industrial Revolution, was welcomed by
capitalists who saw advanced technology &
factories as a means of earning greater profits. But
many worker fearful of losing their jobs to
machines, had good reason to oppose progress.




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Social Change:
Process Of Social Change:

4) Social Change Differ In Duration & Consequences:

Once introduced, some social changes are of
passing importance but others endure for
generations.

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Social Change:
Process Of Social Change:
4) Social Change Differ In Duration & Consequences:

o Example:
Like the automobile & television, the computer has
both positive & negative effects.
Providing new kinds of jobs while eliminating old
ones.
Allowing easier processing of information while
reducing personal privacy.

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Social Change:

Sources Of Social Change:

Social changes can come from many sources.

Some of these sources originate outside of the
society, others develop from processes occurring
within the society.
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Social Change:

Sources Of Social Change:

Those that come from out side the society are
called exogenous sources.

Those that originate within the society are called
endogenous sources.


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Social Change:
Sources Of Social Change:
There are many sources of social change, among
them are:

1) Discovery:
A discovery is a shared human perception of an
aspect of reality which already exist.
A discovery becomes a factor in social change only
when it is put to use.




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Social Change:

Sources Of Social Change:

1) Discovery:

The ancient Greeks knew about the power of
steam, but steam power produced no social
changes until it was put to serious use.

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Social Change:

Sources Of Social Change:

1) Discovery:

o Examples:

Steam Engine:- (Transportation)
Pressure Cooker:- (Cooking)





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Social Change:
Sources Of Social Change:

2) Invention:
An invention is a new combination or a new use of
existing knowledge.

It is the idea of combining elements in a useful way
that produces something which never before
existed.


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Social Change:

Sources Of Social Change:

2) Invention:

Inventions may be classified as material
inventions, such as the bow & arrow, telephone, &
social inventions, such as the alphabet,
constitutional government , or the corporation.





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Social Change:
Sources Of Social Change:

2) Invention:

Iron with the addition of small amounts of others
metals become steel.

In each case, old elements are used ,combined, &
improved for a new application.

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Social Change:
Sources Of Social Change:

2) Invention:

o Example:
The jet engine & the piston engine use the same
principle (expansion of burning gases) but differ in
form (one uses expanding gases directly for thrust,
the other to push a piston in a cylinder)


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Social Change:
Sources Of Social Change:

3) Diffusion:

Most of the social changes in all known societies
have developed through diffusion, the spread of
culture traits from group to group.

Diffusion operates both within societies & between
societies.



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Social Change:
Sources Of Social Change:

3) Diffusion:

Diffusion takes place whenever societies come into
contact.

Societies may seek to prevent diffusion by
forbidding contact.

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Social Change:
Sources Of Social Change:

3) Diffusion:

Diffusion Is Always A Two-Way Process:

Traits cannot diffuse unless there is some kind of
contact between peoples, & these contacts always
entail some diffusion in both directions.


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Social Change:
Sources Of Social Change:

3) Diffusion:

Diffusion Is A Selective Process:

Group accepts some culture traits from a neighbor,
at the same time rejecting others, we accepted
much Red Indian food but rejected Red Indian
religion.

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Social Change:
Sources Of Social Change:

3) Diffusion:

Diffusion Is A Selective Process:

Jazz originated among black musicians of New
Orleans & become diffused to other groups within
the society. Later it spread to other societies & has
now been diffused throughout the civilized world.





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Social Change:
Sources Of Acceptance & Resistance To Social
Change:

Acceptance:
I. Role of mass media.
II. Role of leaders.
III. Role of education.
IV. Role of technology.
V. Acculturation process.
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Social Change:
Sources Of Acceptance & Resistance To Social
Change:
Resistance:
I. More the primitive society lesser the rate of social
change.
II. Vested interests/pressure groups.
III. Trend of non-acceptance of inventions.
IV. Ideological conflicts.
V. Defective means of transportation & communi-
cation.


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Social Change:
Social /Cultural & Political Changes In Pakistani
Society:
Before General Elections 1970 :

Political Crisis/Instability:
Governors-General:- 04
(15/08/1947 - 22/03/1956)

Presidents:- 03
(23/03/1956- 20/12/1971)

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Social Change:
Social /Cultural & Political Changes In Pakistani
Society:

Before General Elections 1970 :
Political Crisis/Instability:

Prime Ministers:- 08
(15/08/1947-27/12/1971)

Chief Martial Law Administrators/Chief
Executives:- 02
(07/10/1958-20/12/1971)

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Social Change:
Social /Cultural & Political Changes In Pakistani
Society:

After General Elections 1970 -2011 :
Political Crisis/Instability:
Presidents:- 10
Vice President:- 01
Prime Ministers:-15
Chief Martial Law Administrators/Chief
Executives:- 03










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Social Change:
Social /Cultural & Political Changes In Pakistani
Society:

The Constitution of 1973:

Islamic Provisions of 1973 Constitution:
Official name.
State religion.
Sovereignty belongs to Allah.
Definition of a Muslim.


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Social Change:
Social /Cultural & Political Changes In Pakistani
Society:

The Constitution of 1973:

Islamic Provisions of 1973 Constitution:
A Muslim to be a President & Prime Minister.
Islamic way of life.
Promotion of social justice & eradication of social
evils.

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Social Change:
Social /Cultural & Political Changes In Pakistani
Society:
The Constitution of 1973:

Islamic Provisions of 1973 Constitution:
Teachings of Holy Quran & Islamiyat.
Council of Islamic Ideology.
Ahmadis declare a Non Muslim Minority.
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Social Change:
Social /Cultural & Political Changes In Pakistani
Society:

Steps towards Islamization in Pakistan:

Hadood Ordinance.
Zakat & Ushr Ordinance.
Establishment of Federal Shariat Courts.
Interest-Free Banking.
Establishment of Islamic University.

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Social Change:
Social /Cultural & Political Changes In Pakistani
Society:
Bhuttos Era:
Land Reforms.
Nationalization of Institutions.

Role/Contribution of different Institutions:
Education:-Private Education Sector.
Technology:-(VCR, Computer, Dish, Cable, Internet,
Mobile /Cell phone , etc.)

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Social Change:
Social /Cultural & Political Changes In Pakistani
Society:
Role/Contribution of different Institutions:
Electronic Media:-(Film, T.V)
Fast Food.
Islamic Banking.
Fashion Industry.
Political Awareness. (Urban Areas)
Nuclear State, etc.



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Assignment # 01

Q.
Make a list of all the recent (Last 20 Years) socio
cultural changes in every aspect / field (Business
environment, Technology, Education, Politics, etc) of
Pakistani society, which people consider desirable &
undesirable? Discuss with logical reasoning &
related examples.

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