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CHAPTER TWO
Strategy and Tactics of
Distributive Bargaining
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The Distributive Bargaining
Situation
Goals of one party are in fundamental,direct
conflict to another party
Resources are fixed and limited
Maximizing ones own share of resources is
the goal
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The Distributive Bargaining
Situation
Preparationset a
Target point, aspiration point
Walkaway, resistance point
Asking price, initial offer

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The Distributive Bargaining
Situation



Party B - Buyer
Party A - Seller
Walkaway Point Target Point Asking Price
Initial Offer Target Point Walkaway Point
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The Role of Alternatives to a
Negotiated Agreement
Alternatives give the negotiator power to walk
away from the negotiation
If alternatives are attractive, negotiators can:
Set their goals higher
Make fewer concessions
If there are no attractive alternatives:
Negotiators have much less bargaining power
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The Distributive Bargaining
Situation



Party B - Buyer
Party A - Seller
Walkaway Point Target Point Asking Price
Initial Offer Target Point Walkaway Point
Alternative
Alternative
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Fundamental Strategies
Push for settlement near opponents resistance
point
Get the other party to change their resistance
point
If settlement range is negative, either:
Get the other side to change their resistance point
Modify your own resistance point
Convince the other party that the settlement is
the best possible
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Keys to the Strategies
The keys to implementing any of the four
strategies are:
Discovering the other partys resistance
point
Influencing the other partys resistance
point

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Tactical Tasks of Negotiators
Assess outcome values and the costs of
termination for the other party
Manage the other partys impressions
Modify the other partys perceptions
Manipulate the actual costs of delay or
termination
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Assess Outcome Values and the Costs
of Termination for the Other Party
Indirectly
Determine information opponent used to set:
Target
Resistance points
Directly
Opponent reveals the information
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Manage the Other Partys
Impressions
Screen your behavior:
Say and do as little as possible

Direct action to alter impressions
Present facts that enhance ones position
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Modify the Other Partys
Perceptions
Make outcomes appear less attractive
Make the cost of obtaining goals appear higher
Make demands and positions appear more or
less attractive to the other party whichever
suits your needs
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Manipulate the Actual Costs of
Delay or Termination
Plan disruptive action
Raise the costs of delay to the other party
Form an alliance with outsiders
Involve (or threaten to involve) other parties
who can influence the outcome in your favor
Schedule manipulations
One party is usually more vulnerable to
delaying than the other
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Positions Taken
During Negotiations
Opening offer
Where will you start?
Opening stance
What is your attitude?
Competitive? Moderate?
Initial concessions
Should any be made? If so, how large?

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Positions Taken
During Negotiations
The role of concessions
Without them, there is either capitulation or
deadlock
Patterns of concession making
The pattern contains valuable information
Final offer (making a commitment)
This is all I can do
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Commitments:
Tactical Considerations
Establishing a commitment
Three properties:
Finality
Specificity
Consequences
Preventing the other party from committing
prematurely
Their commitment reduces your flexibility

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Commitments:
Tactical Considerations
Ways to abandon a committed position
Plan a way out
Let it die silently
Restate the commitment in more general terms
Minimize the damage to the relationship if the
other backs off

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Closing the Deal
Provide alternatives (2 or 3 packages)
Assume the close
Split the difference
Exploding offers
Deal sweeteners

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Dealing with Typical
Hardball Tactics
Four main options:
Ignore them
Discuss them
Respond in kind
Co-opt the other party (befriend them)
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Typical Hardball Tactics
Good Cop/Bad Cop
Lowball/Highball
Bogey (playing up an issue of little
importance)
The Nibble (asking for a number of small
concessions to)
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Typical Hardball Tactics
Chicken
Intimidation
Aggressive Behavior
Snow Job (overwhelm the other party
with information)

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Summary
Negotiators need to:
Set a clear target and resistance points
Understand and work to improve their
BATNA
Start with good opening offer
Make appropriate concessions
Manage the commitment process