OUTLINE
19 3
N+ substrate N = 10 cm 250
D
microns
Cathode
anode i
1
i
R on
BVBD
v v
≈ 1 V v
cathode
2 εΦχ( Να+ Νδ )
∞ Ωο =
θ ΝαΝδ 4ÊΦ χ
¥ (Em ax )2 = (EBD )2 = Βς Β∆
Ω ο2
2Φ χ
¥ Em ax = 1 ⊇+ ⊇ς / Φ χ
Ωο
∞ Σο λϖε φο ρ Ω ( Βς Β∆ ) ανδ Βς Β∆
∞ Πο ω ε ρ δ ιο δ ε ατ ρε ϖε ρσε β ρε ακ δ ο ω ν:
Να >> Νδ ; Ε = ΕΒ∆ ; ς = Βς Β∆ >> Φ χ το ο β ταιν ( π υτ ιν Σι ϖαλυε σ)
ε⊇ΕΒ∆ 2 1 .3 ξ 1 0 1 7
Ω ο 2 ⊇Βς Β∆ 2 εΦ χ
2 2 = Βς Β∆ = = ; [ς ]
∞ Ω ( Βς Β∆ ) = Φχ ; Ω ο 2 ⊇θ ⊇Νδ Νδ
θ ⊇Νδ
2 ⊇Βς Β∆
Ω ( Βς Β∆ ) = = 1 0 −5 Βς Β∆ ; [∝µ ]
ΕΒ∆
¥ Conclusions
1.Large BV BD (10 3 V ) requires N d < 10 15 cm 3
 V + ¥ V 1 + V 2 = BV BD
+ +
P N N ¥ E1 + E2 = EBD
W qN dW d2
d
¥ BV BD = EBD W d 
Electric 2ε
E + E2 field
1
V
1 ε( ΕΒ∆) 2
E
2 ∞ Ιφ Νδ < < ( ρε θ υιρε δ
V2 2 θ ( Βς Β∆ )
x ϖαλυε οφ Νδ φορ νον−πυνχη−τηρυ
δ ιοδ ε ) , τηε ν
qN dW d θ Νδ Ω δ 2
¥ E1 = ;ς1 = ∞ Βς Β∆ ⊕ ΕΒ∆ Ω δ ανδ
ε 2ε
∞ Ω δ ( Πυνχη−τηρυ)
∞ ς 2 = Ε2 Ω δ ⊕ 0 .5 Ω δ ( νον−πυνχη−τηρυ)
N
+ N+
SiO
2
N
N
P+ P+
bonding pad bonding pad
high field
region
QF θ⊇Α⊇Ω δ ⊇να
¥ IF = = ; Χυρρεντ νεεδεδ
τ τ
το µαινταιν στορεδ χηαργε Θ Φ.
W
d
θ⊇[∝ ν⊇+⊇∝π ]⊇ν α⊇Α⊇ς δ x
∞ ΙΦ = ;
Ωδ
Οηµ∏σ Λαω (ϑ = σΕ)
+ + 
P N  N+
IF
Ωδ2
∞ ςδ= ; Εθυατε αβοϖε +V  + V 
⊇[∝ν⊇+⊇∝π ]⊇τ j d
Crosssectional
τωο εθυατιονσ ανδ σολϖε φορ ς δ
area = A
µo
¥ µn + µp = ; nb Å 10 17 cm 3 .
na
1Ê+Ê
nb
¥ M obility reduction due to increased
carriercarrier scattering at large na.
qÊnaÊA ÊV d µo
¥ IF = ; O hm s Law
Wd na
1Ê+Ê IfÊW d
nb
¥ Vd =
w ith densitydependent m obility. qÊµoÊnbÊA
¥ V d = IF Ron
¥ Invert O hm Õs Law equation to find V d as
function IF assum ing na >> nb.
¥ V = V j+ V d
Copyright © by John Wiley & Sons 2003 Diodes  10
Diode Switching Waveforms in Power Circuits
Q rr = I t /2
rr rr
di / dt d i / dt
F I F R 0.25 I rr
I
rr
t t t
3 4 5 diF diR
¥ and determined
dt dt
V on t
V
FP
rr by external circuit.
t ¥ Inductances or power
t V
V
R semiconductor devices.
2 rr
t
t 5
1 S =
t
4
t interval
2
 +
P+  + N  N+
i (t)  +
F
V j Å 1.0 V
time
• Injection of excess
time carriers into drift
time
region greatly
reduces Rd.
x
Rd
carriers are rem oved via
C L
sc recom bination and carrier
sw eepout (negative current).
time
time time diR
¥ V r = IrrR d + L
dt
ts inte rv al
¥ Insufficient excess carriers rem ain to support Irr,so
aluminum
cathode
contact 
ohmic
Copyright © by John Wiley & Sons 2003 Diodes  16
Physics of Schottky Diode Operation
¥ Sm allradius of curvature of
depletion region w here
m etallization ends on surface
of silicon.Guard rings help to
m itigate this problem .
E
¥ Contact potentialand rectifying Si
junction com pletely m asked by Accumulation layer
i(t)
enhanced conductivity.Socalled PSi or

Al
ohm ic contact.  N + Si
+ i
diode
j
C
i (v )
stored charge in drift region of diode.
C
dc j
v j
d
diode

diode
j
s diode currents.
+  +
• One dimensional diagram of a
P N N
power diode.
n(x,t) n(x,t)
time
0 Wd
x
• Redistribution of excess
carriers via diffusion ignored.
time
Equ;ivalent to carriers moving
with inifinte velocity.
time
time
stray
50 nH
+
D
f
I
o
• Test circuit example  stepdown converter.
V 50 A
Diode
Voltage
0V
100V
200V
300V
• Diode voltage transient
400V
500V
time
Diode
Current
100A
50A
0A
50A
100A
• Diode current transient.
0s 100ns 200ns 300ns 400ns 500ns
time
N  region
• More accurately model distributed nature p(x) = n(x)
of excess carrier distribution by dividing
it into several regions, each described by N+
P+ Q
a quasistatic function. Termed the Q1 Θ Q3 region
region 2 4
lumpedcharge approach.
x
δ d
diode
• Circuit diagram of improved diode model. Circuit written in
+
D
terms of physical equations of the lumpedcharge model.
v Gd
CJ j
Vsense1

6
5 7 8
+ 
2
R
s + + +
Re
Ee Em Rm Edm Cdm
Rdm
  
3
+
Emo
 0
+
Vsense2
 • Detailed equations of model given in subcircuit listing.
• Many other even better (but more complicated models available in
9
technical literature..
Copyright © by John Wiley & Sons 2003 Diodes  25
Details of LumpedCharge Model
Subcircuit Listing
.Subckt DMODIFY 1 9 Params: Is1=1e6, Ise=1e40, Tau=100ns, • Symbolize subcircuit listing into
+Tm=100ns,Rmo=Rs=.001, Vta=.0259, CAP=100p, Gde=.5,
+ Fbcoeff=.5, Phi=1, Irbk=1e20,Vrbk=1e20
SCHEMATICS using SYMBOL
*Node 1= anodeand Node 9 = cathode WIZARD
Dcj 1 2 Dcap ; Included for space charge capacitance and reverse
*breakdown. • Pass numerical values of
.model Dcap D (Is=1e25 Rs=0 TT=0 Cjo={CAP} M={Gde} parameters Tau, Tm, Rmo,Rs, etc.
+FC={Fbcoeff} Vj={Phi} +IBV={Irbk} BV=Vrbk})
Gd 1 2 Value={(v(5)v(6))/Tm +Ise*(exp(v(1,2)/Vta)1)}
by entering values in PART
*Following components model forward and reverse recovery. ATTRIBUTE window (called up
Ee 5 0 VALUE = {Is1*Tau*(exp(V(1,2)/(2*Vta))1)}; Ee=Qe
Re 5 0 1e6
within SCHEMATICS).
Em 6 0 VALUE = {(V(5)/Tmi(Vsense1))*Tm*Tau/(Tm+Tau)}
*Em=Qm
• See reference shown below for
Rm 6 0 1e6 more details and parameter
Edm 7 0 VALUE = {v(6)};Edm=Qm extraction procedures.
Vsense1 7 8 dc 0 ; i(vsense1)=dQm/dt
Cdm 8 0 1 • Peter O. Lauritzen and Cliff L. Ma,
Rdm 8 0 1e9 "A Simple Diode Model with
Rs 2 3 4e3
Emo 3 4 VALUE={2*Vta*Rmo*Tm*i(Vsense2) Forward and Reverse Recovery",
+/(v(6)*Rmo+Vta*Tm)}; Vm IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics,
Vsense2 4 9 dc 0 Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 342346, (Oct.,
.ends
1993)
Copyright © by John Wiley & Sons 2003 Diodes  26
Simulation Results Using LumpedCharge Diode Model
Diode voltage and current waveforms Simulation Circuit
L
Diode
10V
stray
50 nH
Voltage
0V
0V
Io
.
D
+ V f
10V d 50 A
410ns 415ns 420ns
 100 V Sw
100V
200V
time
Diode
Current
measurements.
50A
time