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Speaker: Abeda Sultana
The most widely used sugar for ethanol fermentation is blackstrap molasses which contains about 35 – 40 wt% sucrose, 15 – 20 wt% invert sugars such as glucose and fructose, and 28 – 35 wt% of non-sugar solids. Starches: All potable alcohol and most fermentation industrial alcohol is currently made principally from grains. Cellulosic Materials: Each step in the process of the conversion of cellulose to ethanol proceeded with 100% yield.
Ethanol production from corn
and Heating the
Cornmeal. Enzyme Hydrolysis Yeast Fermentation: Distillation Dehydration
Liquefying and Heating the Cornmeal
Use of Biofuel
Ethanol is the most common biofuel,
Ethanol ultra-low emissions bus
and over the years many engines have been designed to run on it. Ethanol performs well as a fuel in cars, either in a neat form or in a mixture with gasoline.
E85 (85%Ethanol) mail Van
addition to ethanol/gasoline blend markets, ethanol has other motor fuel applications including: Use as E85, 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, Use as E100, 100% ethanol with or without a fuel additive, and Use in oxy-diesel, typically a blend of 80% diesel fuel, 10% ethanol and 10% additives and blending agents.
Ethanol Pump at Sao Paulo, Brazil
Direct electricity generation
The methane in biogas is often pure enough
to pass directly through gas engines to generate green energy. Anaerobic digesters or biogas powerplants convert this renewable energy source into electricity. This can either be used commercially or on a local scale.
combustion-engines are being produced for very low prices lately. They allow the private house-owner to utilize low amounts of "weak" compression of methane to generate electrical and thermal power (almost) sufficient for a well insulated residential home.
Bioethanol Refineries in Europe
Nedalco 2,2 Blue Ocean 1,0 BER 1,0 British Sugar 0,7 Alcodis 1,0 Abengoa 2,0 Sudzucker 3,0 Sekab 1,0 Agroetanol 0,5 Nawaro 2,0 Sauter 1,8
Wessex Grain 1,3
Tereos 2,5 Tereos 2,0 Crystal Union 2,5 Roquette 2,0
Brazil 17 bl ethanol/y USA 17 bl ethanol/y EU 4 b l/y, incl. 70% biodiesel
Brasco 1,0 Sudzucker 2,6 Sauter 1,0 Agrana 2,0 Projectplan
Abengoa 1,8 JV Abengoa 2,25 Abengoa 2,0 Abengoa 1,5 JV Alceste 1,0
Bioethanol Refinery Examples in Europe
Wheat & winery waste
Wheat and barley waste
Wood chips, pilot
Biodiesel and oleochemicals