5-1 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.

02/EN February, 2000
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Section 5
Data Transmission
5-2 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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Data transmission on the Radio Interface
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
- Show why data have to be processed before transmission
- Describe the data transmission and reception chains
- Explain the role of each adapter
- Describe the Radio Link Protocol
Objectives
5-3 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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USER DATA
TRANSMISSION
BETWEEN
FAX OR COMPUTER
AND
A NETWORK
BSS
MS
64 kbit/s
asynchronous
or synchronous
from 300 bit/s
to 14400 bit/s
A RATE ADAPTATION
IS NEEDED
2 PROTECTION MODES
l Transparent l Non Transparent
Data Transmission Overview
22.8 kbits/s
5-4 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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RA0
ASYNCHRONOUS
300 - 14400 bit/s
SYNCHRONOUS
600 - 14400 bit/s
SYNCHRONOUS
1200 - 14 400 bit/s
RA1'
AIR INTERFACE
RA1'/RA1
3.6, 6, 12 or 14.5 kbit/s
8 or 16 kbit/s
RA2
64 kbit/s
BSS
MS
3.6, 6, 12 or 14.5 kbit/s
TCU
BTS
S 7
S 7
22.8 kbit/s
22.8 kbit/s
Information
Processing
(Section 7)
Transparent Transmission
5-5 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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RLP
/
L2R
ASYNCHRONOUS
300 - 9600 bit/s
SYNCHRONOUS
1200 - 9600 bit/s
AIR INTERFACE
MS
RA1'/RA1
8 or 16 kbit/s
RA2
64 kbit/s
BSS
6, 12 or 14.5 kbit/s
TCU
BTS
S 7
22.8 kbit/s
22.8 kbit/s
Information
Processing
(Section 7)
S 7
14.4 kbits/s
6 or 12 kbit/s
14.5 kbits/s
Non Transparent Transmission
5-6 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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Asynchronous-to-Synchronous Conversion
DATA
START BIT STOP SIGNAL
ADD OF A
SHORT DELAY
SKIP OF A
STOP SIGNAL
REGULAR
CLOCK
ASYNCHRONOUS
SYNCHRONOUS
Only T mode
(300 - 14400 bit/s)
Rate Adapter 0
5-7 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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12
bits
• Modem
Control
Signals (8 bits)

• Network
Independent
Clocking (3 bits)

• Multiframe
Synchronization
(1 bit)
12
bits
12
bits
12
bits
48 bits
60 bits
6 kbit/s
only sub-multiples
of 24 bits
BIT REPEATING
up to 24 bits
24 bits
36 bits
3.6 kbit/s
4800 bit/s 600 - 2400 bit/s 9600 bit/s
48 bits
60 bits
12 kbit/s
every
10 ms
every
10 ms
every
5 ms
Only T mode
14 400 bit/s
36 bits
every
2.5 ms
288 bits
every
20 ms
2
bits
290 bits
14.5 kbit/s
Rate Adapter 1'
2
bits
Modem bits
M1 and M2
x 8
5-8 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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Only NT mode
every 20 ms
 12 kbit/s
(4.8 - 9.6 kbits/s)
every 40 ms
 6 kbits/s or 14.5 kbits/s
(300 - 2400 bits/s) (14.4 kbits/s)
INFORMATION
200 or 536 Bits 24 bits 16 bits
FCS Field:
transmission
error detector
Heading
Asynch.: 300 - 14400 bit/s
Synch.: 1200 - 14400 bit/s
OR
Radio Link Protocol
5-9 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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60 bits
6 kbit/s
36 bits
3.6 kbit/s
60 bits
12 kbit/s
8 kbit/s 16 kbit/s
every
10 ms
every
10 ms
every
5 ms
60 bits
DATA BIT
DOUBLING
(only for 24 bits)
80 bits 80 bits
20
bits
20
bits
Only T mode T & NT modes T & NT modes
20
bits
l User Data Rate
(3 bits)

l Synchronization
Bits (17 bits)
80 bits
20
bits
Rate Adapter 1' / Rate Adapter 1
30
bits
l User Data Rate
of 14.4 kbit/s
(4 bits)
l Idle or data frame
(1 bit)
l Z bits (8 bits)
l Synchronization
bits (17 bits)
290 bits
14,5 kbit/s
16 kbit/s
every
20 ms
320 bits
30
bits
T & NT modes
5-10 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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8 kbit/s
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
7 ADDED BITS
16 kbit/s
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
64 kbit/s
6 ADDED BITS
1
Rate Adapter 2 For T and NT Modes
5-11 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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VLR
MSC
BSC/
TCU
IWF
ISDN TA
V.32bis
modem
Data (9.6 kbps)
Standard full
rate traffic channel used
Less bits available
for error correction
22.8 kbps
Data (14.4 kbps)
Error
Correction
Error
Correction
50% higher data throughput using same bandwidth
NSS and BSS software upgrade only
14.4 data terminals expected on the market for 1Q99
V11
ISDN
PSTN
Increase of the Transmission Rate
14.4 kbits/s Channel Coding
5-12 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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2 techniques are used to increase
the data transmission rate
t
Single TS allocation
TDMA frame
Multiple TS allocation
MULTIPLE TS ALLOCATION
(used by HSCSD and GPRS)
TDMA frame
Circuit mode: fixed allocation of the TS
Packet mode : sporadic allocation of the TS
according to the needs
REAL TIME TS ALLOCATION:
static or dynamic blocks
allocation
(used by GPRS)
Increase of the Transmission Rate
t
t
t
TS Allocation
5-13 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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PSTN/ISDN
HLR
BSS
GSM
NSS
GPRS

Core Network
IP, X.25, ...
V12
GPRS
Impact on the Network Architecture
TCU
MSC
GMSC
PCU
SGSN
GGSN
5-14 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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GPRS
NETWORK
GSM
NSS
BSC
CCU
PCU
PDCH DL
PDCH UL
CS1
CS2
CS3
CS4
data
Headers and
protection
22.8 kbits/s
V12
GPRS
Impact on the GPRS Access Network
TCU
CS: Coding Scheme
8 kbits/s
12 kbits/s
14.4 kbits/s
20 kbits/s
5-15 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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GSM TS (circuit switched)
GPRS
PDCH Allocation
TDMA 1 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS6 TS5 TS7
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS6 TS5 TS7
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS6 TS5 TS7
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS6 TS5 TS7
TDMA 2
TDMA 3
TDMA 4
Combined GSM/GPRS TS
Configuration TCH/PDTCH
GPRS TS (PDCH: packet switched)
Possible configurations:
PDTCH
PCCCH/PDTCH
PBCCH/PCCCH
PBCCH/PCCCH/PDTCH
5-16 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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GPRS
Packet Logical Channels
GPRS
CORE
NETWORK
BSC
PCUSN
PDCH = Packet Data
CHannel
PPCH
PAGCH
PNCH
PDTCH
PACCH
PTCCH
PDTCH
PACCH
PTCCH
PBCCH
PRACH
DL
UL
Packet Common
Control
CHannels
Packet
Traffic
CHannels
PBCCH
5-17 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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 Cycle of 52 TDMA frames divided in:
 12 radio blocks B0-B11 (of 4 consecutive frames)
 4 idle frames (X)
Idle frames
Radio Blocks
TDMA Frame 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51
Block B 0 B 1 B 2 1 B 3 B 4 B 5 2 B 6 B 7 B 8 3 B 9 B 10 B 11 4
GPRS
Multiframe Structure on a PDCH
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
GPRS Time Slot (PDCH)
TDMA Frame
= 4.615 ms
5-18 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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Mobile data bandwidth explosion in the next 3 years
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

k
b
p
s

10 k
100 k
64 k
1 M
2 M
1 k
98 99 00 01 02
timeframe
EDGE
UMTS
GPRS
alternative: A2
30 min delay
HSCSD
9.6
SMS

14.4
Mobile Data Technology Evolution
5-19 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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1- Give the 2 possible transmission modes for data
2- Give the role of RA0 and RA1'
3- What is the rate of coded information
transmitted on the Radio Interface?
4- Give some techniques that enable to increase
the data transmission rate
5- Give the main characteristics of GPRS
Check Your Learning
5-20 Data Transmission PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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