Florrench M. Gabin, Lisa L. Serafica & Teresa May A. Mundiz
How’s the weather like? That reminds me of the time…
Do I know you from somewhere?
So, tell me about yourself?
a light start before a “heavy meal” of discussion
A pleasant conversation about common interests—Kenneth Beare
On business, it’s a picture frame around business conversation.— Debra Fine
Small talk is like appetizer. It can create wonder by turning a challenging situation into a favorable one.
is a casual form of conversation that “breaks the ice” and fills the awkward silence around people.
What do you say when… 1. somebody is in your way (e.g. elevator)? 2. somebody sneezes? 3. you accidentally bumped into somebody? 4. somebody is in danger? 5. the noise from someone’s conversation is disturbing you? 6. there is only an empty seat at a table where there are already people?
“Everyone is human and its our nature to talk”.
Even you don’t realise it, you use small talk everyday to interact with people.
Scott McArthur, executive consultant at Atos Consulting, says that first impressions are made within 0.4 of a second, with people making snap judgments on the way you dress, use body language and shake hands.
Why is it important?
At work, people tend to overlook the importance of small talk as they're too busy trying to look efficient and impress the boss. If you're seen to be making small talk, you may think your peers are judging you for wasting time and not focusing on your workload.
Overcoming Shyness Small talk helps to achieve this by encouraging people to talk in an informal way and, through this, resolve an issue, negotiate effectively or find solutions.
Striking up a conversation and engaging with your peers opens up dialogue. Small talk could lead into talking about the similar challenges you face, sharing ideas, or even giving or receiving advice to help solve a problem.
Hooks and cues Use small talk as a tool to move into more serious topics.
Raise your profile By engaging in small talk, not only will you help to raise your profile, but you may also gain recognition from the directors if they overhear something of interest and are drawn into the conversation.
Do the five (5) things: 1. Don't talk about yourself, focus on others; 2. Encourage colleagues to engage in small talk; 3. Use small talk to open up lines of communication at conferences or other working environments ;
4. Stick to small talk - don't use it to gossip; and 5. Use hooks and cues to drill down to key issues
In the 1980s, many companies used to allow employees to take coffee breaks, giving staff a chance to socialise.
Small Talk: a waiter/waitress can engage in with their customer to make them feel more welcome I am a timid person around new people and I am currently doing work experience at a restaurant. I am usually very polite and smiling at the customers but don't say much apart from hello, thank you and you're welcome. What are some good topics for small talk I can engage the customers in to make them feel more welcome?
Small Talk vs Gossip
IMPLICATIONS OF SMALL TALK
DEVELOPING CLASSROOM SPEAKING ACTIVITIES
From Theory to Practice
In speaking and listening we tend to be getting something done, exploring ideas, working out some aspect of the world , or simply being together. In writing we may be creating a record, committing events or moments to paper.
Features of Spoken Discourse (Louma, 2004)
• Composed of idea units (conjoined short phrases and clauses) • May be planned or unplanned • Employs more vague or generic words than written language • Employs fixed phrases, fillers and hesitation markers • Contains slips and errors reflecting on-line processing • Involved reciprocity • Shows variation, reflecting speaker roles, speaking purpose , and the context
Functions of Speaking (Brown and Yule’s Framework)
Talk as interaction Talk as transaction Talk as performance
Talk as Interaction
Main features of talk as interaction
Has a primarily social function Reflects speaker’s identity May be formal or casual Uses conversational conventions Reflects many generic words Uses conversational registrar Is jointly constructed
Skills involved in using talk as interaction:
Opening and closing conversations Choosing topics Making small-talk Recounting personal incidents and experiences Turn-taking Using adjacency-pairs Interrupting Reacting to others
Talk as Transaction
Examples of these kinds of talk are:
Main Features of talk as Transaction
It has a primarily information focus The main focus is the message and not the participants Participants employ communication strategies to make themselves understood There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks There may be negotiation and digression Linguistic accuracy is not always important
Skills involved in using talk for transactions
Explaining a need or intention Describing something Asking questioning Confirming information Justifying an opinion Making suggestions Clarifying understanding Making comparisons Agreeing and disagreeing
Talk as Performance
Examples of Talk as Performance
Main features of Talk as Performance:
There is a focus on both message and audience It reflects organization and sequencing Form and accuracy is important Language is more like written language It is monologic
Skills in using Talk as Performance:
Using an appropriate format Presenting information in an appropriate sequence Maintaining audience engagement Using correct pronunciation and grammar Creating an effect on the audience Using appropriate vocabulary Using appropriate opening and closing
Implications for Teaching
Three issues need to be addressed in planning speaking activities for an oral English course: • To determine what kinds of speaking skills the course will focus on • To identify teaching strategies to teach each kind of talk
Talk as Interaction
Talk as Transaction
Talk as Performance
Initially talk as performance needs to be prepared for and scaffolded in much the same way as written text, and many of the teaching strategies used to make understandings of written text accessible can be applied to the formal uses of spoken language
The third issue involved in planning speaking activities is determining the expected level of performance on a speaking task and the criteria that will be used to assess student performance.
Mastering the Art of Small Talk
You will learn to: • • • • • • Create rapport through small talk Spontaneously start conversations Maintain stimulating conversations Change topics gracefully End conversations tactfully Converse with confidence
Questions such as the following guide as follows:
• What is the speaker’s purpose? • Who is the audience? • What kind of information does the audience expect? • How does the talk begin, develop and end?What moves or stages are involved • Is any special language used?
• What will the focus of the activity be: talk as interaction, transaction or performance? • How will the activity be modeled? • What stages will the activity be divided into? • What language support will be needed? • What resource will be needed? • What learning arrangements will be needed? • What level of performance is expected? • How and when will be feedback be given?
Thank You for Listening!