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# Problem-1 (Drying)

## An insoluble wet granular material is dried in a pan 0.457 x 0.457 m

and 25.4 mm deep. The material is 25.4 mm deep in the pan,
and the sides and bottom can be considered to be insulated.
Heat transfer is by convection from an air stream flowing parallel
to the surface at a velocity of 6.1 m/s. The air is at 65.6
o
C and
has a humidity of 0.01 kg of water/kg dry air. Estimate:
1) The rate of drying for the constant-rate period. Assume
convective heat transfer coefficient for the parallel flow can be
expressed by the following empirical equation: h=0.0204 G
0.8
,
where mass velocity, G = air density x air flow velocity.
2) If the air stream were to flow normal to the drying surface (all
other conditions remaining same) what would be the new drying
rate? Assume convective heat transfer coefficient for air flow
normal to the drying surface can be expressed by the following
empirical equation: h=1.17 G
0.37
. (Assume the correlation holds
for the G values used).
3) If the air velocity is decreased 50% and its temperature is
increased 10
o
C, what should be the new drying rate?
Given:
Velocity of drying air, V
air
= 6.1 m/s
Temperature of drying air, T
air
= 65.6
o
C
Absolute humidity of drying air, e = 0.01 kg water/kg dry air

Estimate:
Drying rate for the constant-rate period, R
c
= ?
If air were to flow normal to drying surface, R
c
= ?
If Vair = 0.5 x 6.1 m/s, Tair = (65.6+10)
o
C, R
c
= ?

0.457 m
25.4 mm
0
.
4
5
7

m
Drying air
Side walls and bottom are insulated
Granular material
Problem-1 (Drying)
Solution:
Part-1
At constant drying-rate period, moisture will evaporate from the product at wet bulb
temperature, T
wb
.

From humidity chart, following adiabatic saturation line from T
air
= 65.6
o
C and e =
0.01 kg water/kg dry air, wet bulb temperature, T
wb
can be determined as:
T
wb
= 29
o
C and corresponding absolute humidity e
wb
= 0.026 kg water/kg dry air

Humid volume, V
H
= (22.41/273) T
air
(1/28.97 + e/18.02)
= T
air
(2.83 x 10
-3
+ 4.56 x 10
-3
e)
= (65.6+273)(2.83 x 10
-3
+ 4.56 x 10
-3
x 0.01)
= 0.974 m
3
/kg dry air
Density of moist air,
moist air
:
1 kg dry air (1+0.01) kg moist air
1.01 kg moist air

moist air
= 1.01 / 0.974 = 1.037 kg/m
3

Mass velocity, G =
moist air
x V
air
= 1.037 x 6.1 x 3600 = 22772.5 kg/m
2
hr

Problem-1 (Drying)
For parallel flow,
convective heat transfer coefficient, h = 0.0204 G
0.8
= 0.0204 x (22772.5)
0.8
= 62.45 W/m
2
K
= 62.45 J/s m
2
K

From steam table, latent heat of vaporization at T
wb
= 29
o
C is
h
fg
= 2433 kJ/kg
= 2433000 J/kg

For constant rate period:
R
c
h
fg
= h(T
air
T
wb
)
R
c
x 2433000 = 62.45 (65.6 29)
R
c
= 9.394 x10
-4
kg/m
2
s
= 3.38 kg/m
2
hr

For surface area A = 0.457 x 0.457 = 0.208849 m
2
Drying rate = R
c
A = 3.38 x 0.208849 = 0.706 kg of water/hour

Note: If thickness of layer is increased, no change of R
c
in the constant rate period

Problem-1 (Drying)
Part-2
As G = 22772.5 kg/m
2
hr > 19,500, a higher degree of uncertainty exist in
estimation of R
c

For flow normal to the drying surface:
convective heat transfer coefficient, h = 1.17 G
0.37
= 1.17 x (22772.5)
0.37
= 47.91 W/m
2
K
= 47.91 J/s m
2
K

For constant rate period:
R
c
h
fg
= h(T
air
T
wb
)
R
c
x 2433000 = 47.91 (65.6 29)
R
c
= 7.207x10
-4
kg/m
2
s
= 2.594 kg/m
2
hr

For surface area A = 0.457 x 0.457 = 0.208849 m
2
Drying rate = R
c
A = 2.594 x 0.208849 = 0.54 kg of water/hour

Problem-1 (Drying)
Solution:
Part-3
Velocity of drying air, Vair = 0.5 x 6.1 m/s
Temperature of drying air, Tair = (65.6+10)
o
C = 75.6
o
C
Absolute humidity of drying air, e = 0.01 kg water/kg dry air

Again from humidity chart, following adiabatic saturation line from T
air
= 75.6
o
C and e
= 0.01 kg water/kg dry air, wet bulb temperature T
wb
can be determined as:
T
wb
= 30.5
o
C

Humid volume, V
H
= (22.41/273) T
air
(1/28.97 + e/18.02)
= T
air
(2.83 x 10
-3
+ 4.56 x 10
-3
e)
= (75.6+273)(2.83 x 10
-3
+ 4.56 x 10
-3
x 0.01)
= 1.0024 m
3
/kg dry air
Density of moist air,
moist air
:
1 kg dry air (1+0.01) kg moist air
1.01 kg moist air

moist air
= 1.01 / 1.0024 = 1.0076 kg/m
3

Mass velocity, G =
moist air
x V
air
= 1.00076 x (0.5 x 6.1) x 3600 = 11063.45kg/m
2
hr
Problem-1 (Drying)
For parallel flow,
convective heat transfer coefficient, h = 0.0204 G
0.8
= 0.0204 x (11063.45)
0.8
= 35.05 W/m
2
K
= 35.05 J/s m
2
K

From steam table, latent heat of vaporization at T
wb
= 30.5
o
C is
h
fg
= 2429 kJ/kg
= 2429000 J/kg

For constant rate period:
R
c
h
fg
= h(T
air
T
wb
)
R
c
x 2429000 = 35.05 (75.6 30.5)
R
c
= 6.5 x10
-4
kg/m
2
s
= 2.34 kg/m
2
hr

For surface area A = 0.457 x 0.457 = 0.208849 m
2
Drying rate = R
c
A = 2.34 x 0.208849 = 0.489 kg of water/hour

Problem-1 (Drying)
Problem-2 (Drying)
The experimental average diffusion coefficient of moisture in a
given wood is 2.97 x 10
-6
m
2
/hr. Large planks of this wood 25.4
mm thick are dried from both sides by air having a humidity such
that the equilibrium moisture content in the wood is 0.04 kg
water/kg dry wood. The wood is to be dried from a total moisture
content of 0.29 to 0.09 kg water/kg dry wood. Calculate
a) Drying time.
b) If the drying takes place at a higher temperature when the effective
diffusivity of water is increased tenfold, what would be the final moisture
content of the plank if the drying time is still kept the same? (Note that
the simple diffusion model assumes drying to occur very slowly under
isothermal conditions)
c) How long will it take to dry a ball made of the same wood, 2.54 cm in
diameter? All other conditions are the same as in (a)
Given:
Diffusivity of water in wood D
L
= 2.97 x 10
-6
m
2
/hr
Air relative humidity is such that the equilibrium moisture content
X
*
m
= 0.04 kg water/kg dry wood
Initial moisture content X
m,initial
= 0.29 kg water/kg dry wood
Final moisture content X
m,final
= 0.09 kg water/kg dry wood

Estimate:
Drying time, t = ?
H Mid-plane
x = H/2
Drying air Drying air
Drying air Drying air
Problem-2 (Drying)

Only free moisture can participate in transport process
One dimensional diffusion equation in Cartesian coordinates:

Where X
m
= free moisture content
= X
m,total
X
*
m
If X
m,total
= X
*
m
; free moisture X
m
= 0 and no more drying for this drying
condition

2
2
x
X
D
t
X
m
L
m
c
c
=
c
c
H Mid-plane
0
,
=
c
c
x
X
total m
0 =
c
c
x
X
m
x = H/2
Drying air Drying air
Drying air Drying air
x = 0
x
At t = 0, X
m
= X
m,initial
= 0.29 kg/kg every where
Evaporated moisture
Evaporated moisture
Part-a
Problem-2 (Drying)

Keeping only the first term of the infinite series (see any book on conduction)
and integrating across thickness to obtain average moisture content,

:
m
X
2
) 2 / ( 2
2
,
8
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
H
t
L
D
initial m
m
e
X
X
t
t
m
initial m
l
X
X
H
t D
2
,
2
8
ln
) 2 / ( 2
t
t
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
m
initial m
L
X
X
D
H
t
2
,
2
2
8
ln
) 2 / ( 4
t t
=
X
m,initial
= 0.29 0.04 = 0.25 kg water/kg dry wood

X
m,final
= 0.09 0.04 = 0.05 kg water/kg dry wood

=
m
X
(1)

Problem-2 (Drying)
D
L
= 2.97 x 10
-6
m
2
/hr
H/2 = 25.4/2 = 12.7 mm = 0.0127 m

hours
x
x
x
t 8 . 30
05 . 0
25 . 0 8
ln
10 97 . 2
) 0127 . 0 ( 4
2 2 6
2
= =

t t
D
L
= 2.97 x 10
-6
x 10 = 2.97 x 10
-5
m
2
/hr
t = 30.8 hours
Insert in equation (1) above to find
(Other parameters held constant)
m
X
Part-b
Part-c
Solution (approximate) to the one-dimensional diffusion equation in spherical
geometry:
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
2
2
,
8
R
l
tD
initial m
m
e
X
X
t
t
Problem-2 (Drying)
Note:
We can use equation (1) to determine D
L
for a given solid by properly designing
a drying experiment to ensure one dimensional diffusion. Once D
L
is
determined, it can be used to estimate the falling rate period for any other
geometry of the same solid over the same moisture content range and at the
same temperature. D
L
can vary by two to three orders-of-magnitude for a given
solid during a single drying run. It is a sensitive function of both moisture content
and temperature.

Problem-2 (Drying)