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1 2013 - Julian Dyke
Web Version
Oracle 12c
New Features
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Agenda
Introduction
Pluggable Database
Partial Indexes
Online Data File Move
Online Partition Move
Index Columns
Invisible Columns
Identity Clause
Session Sequences
Global Temporary Table Undo
Temporal Validity
Extended Columns
Row Limiting Clause
Histograms
Application Continuity




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Introduction
This presentation investigates a selection of Oracle 12c new features that
I believe will be interesting to DBAs
The presentation was originally delivered at the UKOUG Conference 2013
in Manchester, England
I have added section headers containing comments and feedback from
delegates
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What History Tells Us....
Oracle 9i , 10g and 11g
R1 releases have been available for 18-24 months
R2 releases have been available for several years
R2 releases include terminal release
Support has often been extended for terminal release

CPU and PSU support is limited for R1 releases
Longer and more comprehensive for R2 releases

It is occasionally necessary to upgrade to a terminal release in order to
migrate to new functionality

In past releases there have been compatibility issues between new features
Occasionally bugs....

Sometimes new features are documented but not released

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New Features
Oracle Marketing concentrates on a limited subset of new features

Particularly new licensing options

Product Managers and Pre Sales are usually a better source of information

New features are often overlooked by everyone:

Particularly additional features in Standard/Enterprise Editions

Too many in each release to investigate them all

Documentation and support is often limited at initial release

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Pluggable Database
Other presenters will have discussed pluggable databases in more detail
The concept was announced in September 2012 and I now believe it is
time to consider how and where it is appropriate to deploy pluggable
databases
My example of a possible deployment was a container database with a
large number of pluggable databases replacing SYBASE. I know that
SYBASE replacement has been a goal at a few of the larger banks for
many years.
Something I missed is that pluggable databases can be cloned allowing
test databases to be created rapidly from production databases.
I have not investigated this feature yet, so have limited my comments to
technical questions I would still like to answer
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Pluggable Database
Definitely the most attractive marketing feature
Easy to explain
Impresses managers and technical staff
Obvious benefits

May be more efficient than virtualization for large numbers of similar
databases
For example migrations from SYBASE

Potential reduction in resource consumption including:
CPU
memory
background processes
management costs






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Pluggable Database
Reduction in CPU might reduce processor license requirements

Separately licensed as Oracle Multi Tenant option
US list price is $17,500 per processor (EE is $47,500)

All options will need to be licenced for all pluggable databases
Possibly irrespective of usage e.g.
Partitioning, Advanced Compression, Advanced Security






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Pluggable Database
Only one redo thread per container instance
Online redo logs may be a bottleneck

Data Guard
Single configuration for container database
Pluggable databases share redo thread
May become difficult to manage if standby databases need to be rebuilt

Single large SGA may increase size of kernel page tables area for each
process (foreground / background or both)
Will offset some of the savings in background process memory
New In-Memory database may have same problem

Pluggable databases may contend for resources
e.g. RAC background processes

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Partial Indexes
I believe this is one of the best features in Oracle 12c for sites using the
Partitioning Option
Most sites partition their tables based on time e.g. year, month, week, day
etc. Most activity centres around the latest (hot) partitions where indexes
are often required to optimize access paths. However, the cost of creating
an index for the entire table often prevents creation of appropriate
indexes as, in current versions, the index needs to be created for all
partitions, requiring additional storage and increasing backup and restore
times.
Partial indexes will not reduce redo generation, but could significantly
reduce overall database sizes as they will often affect the largest tables
I think the current implementation is limited, but I still think this is a great
feature
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Partial Indexes
One of the most important new features in Oracle 12.1

Allows additional indexes to be created for performance tuning

Potentially reduces amount of storage required for indexes
May reduce backup and restore times
Will probably not reduce redo / archive generation

Functionality is limited
For a specific table, only one set of table partitions can be enabled for
index partitions




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Partial Indexes
Useful for range-based partitioned tables
Create partial indexes on most recent (hot) partitions
Alternatively create partial indexes on older (archived) partitions
However cannot create partial indexes on both

Partial indexing must specified on table partitions
INDEXING ON partial indexes enabled
INDEXING OFF partial indexes disabled

If a table partition has INDEXING ON then all rows in that partition will be
indexed in each partial index

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Partial Indexes
Partial Local and Global Indexes
CREATE TABLE pcar
(
season_key NUMBER,
race_key NUMBER,
driver_key VARCHAR2(4),
team_key VARCHAR2(3),
position NUMBER,
laps_completed NUMBER,
race_points NUMBER
)
PARTITION BY RANGE (season_key)
(
PARTITION p2008 VALUES LESS THAN (2009) INDEXING OFF,
PARTITION p2009 VALUES LESS THAN (2010) INDEXING OFF,
PARTITION p2010 VALUES LESS THAN (2011) INDEXING OFF,
PARTITION p2011 VALUES LESS THAN (2012) INDEXING ON,
PARTITION p2012 VALUES LESS THAN (2013) INDEXING ON
);
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Partial Indexes
Partial Local and Global Indexes
SELECT season_key, COUNT(*)
FROM pcar
GROUP BY season_key
ORDER BY season_key;
SEASON_KEY COUNT(*)
2008 368
2009 338
2010 456
2011 456
2012 480
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Partial Indexes
Example - Partial Local Index
CREATE INDEX pcar1 ON pcar (driver_key) LOCAL
INDEXING PARTIAL;
dbms_stats.gather_index_stats
(
ownname => 'GP',
indname => 'PCAR1',
estimate_percent => NULL
);
SELECT partition_name,num_rows
FROM dba_ind_partitions
WHERE index_name = 'PCAR1';
PARTITION_NAME NUM_ROWS
P2008 0
P2009 0
P2010 0
P2011 456
P2012 480
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Partial Indexes
Example - Partial Global Index
CREATE INDEX pcar2 ON pcar (team_key) GLOBAL
INDEXING PARTIAL;
dbms_stats.gather_index_stats
(
ownname => 'GP',
indname => 'PCAR2',
estimate_percent => NULL
);
SELECT num_rows
FROM dba_indexes
WHERE index_name = 'PCAR2';
NUM_ROWS
936
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Partial Indexes
Execution Plans - Partial Local Index
CREATE INDEX pcar3 ON pcar (season_key,race_key,position)
LOCAL INDEXING PARTIAL;
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pcar
WHERE season_key = '2010'; -- Unindexed
0 SELECT STATEMENT
1 SORT AGGREGATE
2 PARTITION RANGE SINGLE
3 TABLE ACCESS FULL (PCAR)
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
3 - filter("SEASON_KEY"=2010)
Cost = 14
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Partial Indexes
Execution Plans - Partial Local Index
CREATE INDEX pcar3 ON pcar (season_key,race_key,position)
LOCAL INDEXING PARTIAL;
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pcar
WHERE season_key = '2011'; -- Indexed
0 SELECT STATEMENT
1 SORT AGGREGATE
2 PARTITION RANGE SINGLE
3 INDEX FAST FULL SCAN (PCAR3)
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
3 - filter("SEASON_KEY"=2011)
Cost = 2
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Partial Indexes
Execution Plans - Partial Local Index
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pcar
WHERE season_key IN ('2010','2011'); -- Combined
0 SELECT STATEMENT
1 SORT AGGREGATE
2 PARTITION RANGE INLIST
3 TABLE ACCESS FULL (PCAR)
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
3 - filter("SEASON_KEY"=2010 OR "SEASON_KEY"=2011)
Cost = 27
CREATE INDEX pcar3 ON pcar (season_key,race_key,position)
LOCAL INDEXING PARTIAL;
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Online Data File Move
This is a great new feature which I have already been using to resolve
space issues in my own virtual machines
I have successfully used this to move the data file containing the
SYSAUX tablespace not sure I would want to risk it with the SYS
tablespace
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Online Data File Move
In Oracle 12.1 and above any data file can be moved online

For example:

ALTER DATABASE MOVE
DATAFILE '/u01/app/oradata/PROD/users01.dbf
TO '/u02/app/oradata/PROD/users01.dbf';
The database can be open and accessing the data file while the move is in
progress

Data files can be moved online:
from file system to file system
from file system to ASM
from ASM to file system
from ASM to ASM
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Online Partition Move
This feature could be very useful for sites with partitioned tables on tiered
storage. Most likely usage is migrating partitions from fast expensive
storage (SSD) to slower cheaper storage (SAS or SATA)
The Oracle documentation hints that there are a lot of places where this
partition move can fail, and the DBMS_PART package contains some
subroutines that allow recovery from failures.
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Online Partition Move
In Oracle 12c partitions can be moved online

Useful for tiered storage
Move from SSD to SAS to SATA

May be useful with OLTP compression

Also works for sub-partitions

Not supported in the following cases:
For tables owned by SYS
For IOTs
For heap tables containing object types
For heap tables containing bitmap join indexes or domain indexes
If database-supplemental logging is enabled
When parallel DML or direct path INSERTs are executing on the table




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Online Partition Move
Consider the following example
CREATE TABLE pcar
(
season_key NUMBER,
race_key NUMBER,
driver_key VARCHAR2(4),
team_key VARCHAR2(3),
position NUMBER,
laps_completed NUMBER,
race_points NUMBER
)
PARTITION BY RANGE (season_key)
(
PARTITION p2010 VALUES LESS THAN (2011) TABLESPACE sas,
PARTITION p2011 VALUES LESS THAN (2012) TABLESPACE sas,
PARTITION p2012 VALUES LESS THAN (2013) TABLESPACE ssd,
PARTITION p2013 VALUES LESS THAN (2014) TABLESPACE ssd
);
ALTER TABLE pcar MOVE PARTITION P2012 TABLESPACE sas;
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Online Partition Move
If online partition move operation fails, it can be cleaned up manually using:
DBMS_PART.CLEANUP_ONLINE_OP
DBMS_PART.CLEANUP_ONLINE_OP (<schema>,<table>,<partition>);
Clean up failed operations on <partition>
Clean up failed operations on <table>
DBMS_PART.CLEANUP_ONLINE_OP (<schema>,<table>);
Clean up failed operations on <schema>
DBMS_PART.CLEANUP_ONLINE_OP (<schema>);
Clean up all failed operations in database
DBMS_PART.CLEANUP_ONLINE_OP;
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Index Columns
This is a useful new feature that allows multiple indexes to be created
with the same column list
For any given column list, only one index can be visible at a time.
However, this enhancement will allow new indexes to be created invisibly
and then made visible at an appropriate time.
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Index Columns
Multiple indexes can be created on the same set of columns

The following conditions must be met:

The indexes must have different properties e.g. type, partitioning,
uniqueness

Only one of the indexes can be VISIBLE at any given time
Recommendation: Check existing databases for indexes that
have been made invisible and then forgotten.
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Index Columns
Consider the following table and global index

CREATE TABLE pcar
(
season_key NUMBER,
race_key NUMBER,
driver_key VARCHAR2(4),
team_key VARCHAR2(3),
position NUMBER,
laps_completed NUMBER,
race_points NUMBER
)
PARTITION BY RANGE (season_key)
(
PARTITION p2010 VALUES LESS THAN (2011),
PARTITION p2011 VALUES LESS THAN (2012),
PARTITION p2012 VALUES LESS THAN (2013),
PARTITION p2013 VALUES LESS THAN (2014)
);
CREATE INDEX pcar_global ON pcar (season_key,race_key,position);
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Index Columns
We realise the index should be local so we can drop partitions efficiently

The following statement fails with ORA-01408
CREATE INDEX pcar_local ON pcar (season_key,race_key,position) LOCAL;
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01408: such column list already indexed
Create the new index INVISIBLE
CREATE INDEX pcar_local ON pcar (season_key,race_key,position) LOCAL
INVISIBLE;
Index created *
ALTER INDEX pcar_global INVISIBLE;
ALTER INDEX pcar_local VISIBLE;
Switch the indexes
The new index (PCAR_LOCAL) is now visible
The old index (PCAR_GLOBAL) can be dropped

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Invisible Columns
I strongly believe this is a very dangerous feature. Whilst it achieves its
objectives, it is open to both accidental and malicious misuse as shown
in the example.
Misuse of this feature could introduce data corruptions that may go
unnoticed for months or years and prove to be extremely difficult to
resolve
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Invisible Columns
Consider the following table:
CREATE TABLE icar
(
season_key NUMBER,
race_key NUMBER,
driver_key VARCHAR2(4),
team_key VARCHAR2(3),
position NUMBER,
laps_completed NUMBER,
race_points NUMBER
);
DESCRIBE icar
Name Null? Type
SEASON_KEY NUMBER
RACE_KEY NUMBER
DRIVER_KEY VARCHAR2(4)
TEAM_KEY VARCHAR2(3)
POSITION NUMBER
LAPS_COMPLETED NUMBER
RACE_POINTS NUMBER
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Invisible Columns
In the data dictionary COL$ contains the following rows for the ICAR table
SELECT c.name,c.type#,c.col#,c.intcol#,c.segcol#,
TO_CHAR (c.property,'XXXXXXXXXXXX') AS property
FROM sys.col$ c, sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u
WHERE c.obj# = o.obj#
AND o.owner# = u.user#
AND u.name = 'GP
AND o.name = 'ICAR';
NAME TYPE# COL# INTCOL# SEGCOL# PROPERTY
SEASON_KEY 2 1 1 1 0
RACE_KEY 2 2 2 2 0
DRIVER_KEY 1 3 3 3 0
TEAM_KEY 1 4 4 4 0
POSITION 2 5 5 5 0
LAPS_COMPLETED 2 6 6 6 0
RACE_POINTS 2 7 7 7 0
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Invisible Columns
Make the LAPS_COMPLETED column invisible:
ALTER TABLE icar MODIFY laps_completed INVISIBLE;
DESCRIBE icar
Name Null? Type
SEASON_KEY NUMBER
RACE_KEY NUMBER
DRIVER_KEY VARCHAR2(4)
TEAM_KEY VARCHAR2(3)
POSITION NUMBER
RACE_POINTS NUMBER
Describe the table again
The LAPS_COMPLETED column is now invisible
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Invisible Columns
In the data dictionary COL$ now contains the following rows for ICAR:
SELECT c.name,c.type#,c.col#,c.intcol#,c.segcol#,
TO_CHAR (c.property,'XXXXXXXXXXXX') AS property
FROM sys.col$ c, sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u
WHERE c.obj# = o.obj#
AND o.owner# = u.user#
AND u.name = 'GP
AND o.name = 'ICAR';
NAME TYPE# COL# INTCOL# SEGCOL# PROPERTY
SEASON_KEY 2 1 1 1 0
RACE_KEY 2 2 2 2 0
DRIVER_KEY 1 3 3 3 0
TEAM_KEY 1 4 4 4 0
POSITION 2 5 5 5 0
LAPS_COMPLETED 2 0 6 6 400000020
RACE_POINTS 2 6 7 7 0
0x400000000 = Invisible Column? 0x20 = Hidden Column
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Invisible Columns
Make the LAPS_COMPLETED column visible again:
ALTER TABLE icar MODIFY laps_completed VISIBLE;
DESCRIBE icar
Name Null? Type
SEASON_KEY NUMBER
RACE_KEY NUMBER
DRIVER_KEY VARCHAR2(4)
TEAM_KEY VARCHAR2(3)
POSITION NUMBER
RACE_POINTS NUMBER
LAPS_COMPLETED NUMBER
The LAPS_COMPLETED column now appears at end of table
Describe the table again:
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Invisible Columns
In the data dictionary COL$ now contains the following rows for ICAR:
SELECT c.name,c.type#,c.col#,c.intcol#,c.segcol#,
TO_CHAR (c.property,'XXXXXXXXXXXX') AS property
FROM sys.col$ c, sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u
WHERE c.obj# = o.obj#
AND o.owner# = u.user#
AND u.name = 'GP
AND o.name = 'ICAR';
NAME TYPE# COL# INTCOL# SEGCOL# PROPERTY
SEASON_KEY 2 1 1 1 0
RACE_KEY 2 2 2 2 0
DRIVER_KEY 1 3 3 3 0
TEAM_KEY 1 4 4 4 0
POSITION 2 5 5 5 0
LAPS_COMPLETED 2 7 6 6 0
RACE_POINTS 2 6 7 7 0
LAPS_COMPLETED is now COL# 7
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Invisible Columns
Why is this dangerous? Consider the following:
INSERT INTO icar VALUES (2013,1,'KRAI','LOT',1,58,25);
SEASON_KEY RACE_KEY DRIVER_KEY TEAM_KEY POSITION LAPS_COMPLETED RACE_POINTS
2013 1 KRAI LOT 1 58 25
SELECT * FROM icar;
ALTER TABLE icar MODIFY laps_completed INVISIBLE;
ALTER TABLE icar MODIFY laps_completed VISIBLE;
SEASON_KEY RACE_KEY DRIVER_KEY TEAM_KEY POSITION RACE_POINTS LAPS_COMPLETED
2013 1 KRAI LOT 1 25 58
2013 1 FALO FER 2 58 18
INSERT INTO icar VALUES (2013,1,'FALO','FER',2,58,18);
SELECT * FROM icar;
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Invisible Columns
Continued...
ALTER TABLE icar MODIFY race_points INVISIBLE;
ALTER TABLE icar MODIFY race_points VISIBLE;
SEASON_KEY RACE_KEY DRIVER_KEY TEAM_KEY POSITION LAPS_COMPLETED RACE_POINTS
2013 1 KRAI LOT 1 58 25
2013 1 FALO FER 2 18 58
2013 1 SVET RBR 3 58 15
INSERT INTO icar VALUES (2013,1,SVET',RBR',3,58,15);
SELECT * FROM icar;
Column order is restored, but Fernando Alonso now has 58 points
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Identity Clause
This new feature simplifies management of sequences used as primary
keys for tables. The identity clause allows an implicit index to be created
for the specified column.
If the table is truncated, the sequence is unaffected
If the table is dropped and recreated the sequence will dropped and
recreated and will restart at the minimum value for the next insertion
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Identity Clause
In Oracle 12.1 and above an identity clause can be used to specify a sequence
column in CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements
GENERATED
[ ALWAYS | BY DEFAULT [ ON NULL ] ]
AS IDENTITY [ ( identity_options ) ]
Syntax is:
where <identity_options> are:
{ START WITH ( integer | LIMIT VALUE )
| INCREMENT BY integer
| ( MAXVALUE integer | NOMAXVALUE )
| ( MINVALUE integer | NOMINVALUE )
| ( CYCLE | NOCYCLE )
| ( CACHE integer | NOCACHE )
| ( ORDER | NOORDER ) } . . .
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Identity Clause
Example:
CREATE TABLE driver2
(
driver_key NUMBER GENERATED AS IDENTITY,
driver_name VARCHAR2(30),
driver_dob DATE,
country_key VARCHAR2(3)
);
INSERT INTO driver2 (driver_name,driver_dob,country_key)
VALUES ('Sebastian Vettel','03-JUL-1987','GER');
INSERT INTO driver2 (driver_name,driver_dob,country_key)
VALUES ('Fernando Alonso',29-JUL-1981','SPA');
INSERT INTO driver2 (driver_name,driver_dob,country_key)
VALUES ('Kimi Raikkonen','17-OCT-1979','FIN');
SELECT * FROM driver2;
DRIVER_KEY DRIVER_NAME DRIVER_DOB COUNTRY_KEY
1 Sebastian Vettel 03-JUL-1987 GER
2 Fernando Alonso 29-JUL-1981 SPA
3 Kimi Raikkonen 17-OCT-1979 FIN
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Identity Clause
DESCRIBE includes identity column
DESCRIBE driver2
Name Null? Type
DRIVER_KEY NOT NULL NUMBER
DRIVER_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
DRIVER_DOB DATE
COUNTRY_KEY VARCHAR2(3)
No additional indexes are created
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Identity Clause
Columns are stored in the data dictionary as follows:
SELECT c.name,c.type#,c.col#,c.intcol#,c.segcol#,
TO_CHAR (c.property,'XXXXXXXXXX') AS property
FROM sys.col$ c, sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u
WHERE c.obj# = o.obj#
AND o.owner# = u.user#
AND u.name = 'GP
AND o.name = 'DRIVER2
ORDER BY intcol#;
NAME TYPE# COL# INTCOL# SEGCOL# PROPERTY
DRIVER_KEY 2 1 1 1 2800000000
DRIVER_NAME 1 2 2 2 0
DRIVER_DOB 12 3 3 3 0
COUNTRY_KEY 1 4 4 4 0
0x800000000 = Default as Sequence
0x2000000000 = Generated ALWAYS identity column
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Identity Clause
Default value for DRIVER_KEY column can be found in DBA_TAB_COLUMNS:
SELECT data_default
FROM dba_tab_columns
WHERE owner = 'GP
AND table_name = 'DRIVER2
AND column_name = 'DRIVER_KEY';
"GP"."ISEQ$$_92584".nextval
SELECT
sequence_owner AS owner,min_value,max_value,increment_by,
cycle_flag,order_flag,cache_size
FROM dba_sequences
WHERE sequence_name = 'ISEQ$$_92584';
OWNER MIN_VALUE MAX_VALUE INCREMENT_BY C O CACHE_SIZE
GP 1 1.0000E+28 1 N N 20
In this example 92584 is the object ID of the GP.DRIVER2 table
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Session Sequences
This new feature allows sequences to be created that exist for the lifetime
of the current session only.
Intended for use with global temporary tables, but possibly useful in
other places and more flexible than the ROWNUM pseudo column
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Session Sequences
In Oracle 12.1 and above sequences can have session visibility
Current value only visible to session

For example:

CREATE SEQUENCE seq1 SESSION;
SQL> CONNECT gp/gp
SQL> SELECT seq1.NEXTVAL FROM dual;
NEXTVAL
1
SQL> SELECT seq1.NEXTVAL FROM dual;
NEXTVAL
2
SQL> CONNECT gp/gp
SQL> SELECT seq1.NEXTVAL FROM dual;
NEXTVAL
1
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Global Temporary
Table Undo
This new feature allows undo for global temporary tables to be written to
the temporary table space
It will not have much impact for insertions, but could have a significant
impact on redo generation caused by GTT undo during updates
I envisage this becoming the default in future versions
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Global Temporary Table Undo
By default DML on Global Temporary Tables
Does not generate redo directly
Does generate undo and indirect redo

Undo is required to rollback transactions

Redo will be archived, backed up , propagated to standby etc

In Oracle 12c Global Temporary Table undo can be stored in a temporary
tablespace
Set TEMP_UNDO_ENABLED = TRUE

Will not have much impact for INSERT statements
May have significant impact for UPDATE and DELETE statements
Review whether DELETE statements are necessary
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Temporal Validity
Temporal validity allows tables to be created where rows are valid for a
specific period of time
A major defect is that is not possible to create primary keys with temporal
validity. This functionality may be added in a future release, until which
time this feature may be of limited use.
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Temporal Validity
Flashback Data Archive was introduced in Oracle 11.1
Originally known as Total Recall

Allows historic data to be inspected at any point in time

Was a separately licensed option
Consequently not very popular

Now available free in Enterprise Edition (at least)
Including Oracle 11.2

In Oracle 12.1 and above Temporal Validity builds on these concepts
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Temporal Validity
For example:
CREATE TABLE driver
(
driver_key VARCHAR2(4),
team_key VARCHAR2(3),
joining_date DATE,
leaving_date DATE,
PERIOD FOR team_member_valid_time (joining_date,leaving_date)
);
INSERT INTO driver VALUES ('FALO','FER','01-JAN-2010',NULL);
INSERT INTO driver VALUES ('FMAS','FER','01-JAN-2006','31-DEC-2013');
INSERT INTO driver VALUES ('KRAI','FER','01-JAN-2007','31-DEC-2009');
INSERT INTO driver VALUES ('RBAR','FER','01-JAN-2000','31-DEC-2007');
INSERT INTO driver VALUES ('MSCH','FER','01-JAN-1996','31-DEC-2006');
Insert some data
Note: the above data is inaccurate
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Temporal Validity
For example:
SELECT * FROM driver;
DRIVER_KEY TEAM_KEY JOINING_DATE LEAVING_DATE
FALO FER 01-JAN-2010
FMAS FER 01-JAN-2006 31-DEC-2013
KRAI FER 01-JAN-2007 31-DEC-2009
RBAR FER 01-JAN-2000 31-DEC-2007
MSCH FER 01-JAN-1996 31-DEC-2006
SELECT * FROM driver
AS OF PERIOD FOR team_member_valid_time TO_DATE (20-JUN-2009);
DRIVER_KEY TEAM_KEY JOINING_DATE LEAVING_DATE
FMAS FER 01-JAN-2006 31-DEC-2013
KRAI FER 01-JAN-2007 31-DEC-2009
Who was in the team for the 2009 British Grand Prix qualifying?
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Temporal Validity
Describe the driver table
DESCRIBE driver
Name Null? Type
DRIVER_KEY VARCHAR2(4)
TEAM_KEY VARCHAR2(3)
JOINING_DATE DATE
LEAVING_DATE DATE
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Temporal Validity
List the columns in COL$
SELECT c.name,c.col#,c.intcol#,c.segcol#,c.type#,TO_CHAR (c.property,'XXXXX')
FROM sys.col$ c, sys.obj$ o
WHERE c.obj# = o.obj#
AND o.name = 'DRIVER3
ORDER BY c.intcol#
NAME COL# INTCOL# SEGCOL# TYPE# PROPERTY
TEAM_MEMBER_VALID_TIME 0 1 0 2 10028
DRIVER_KEY 1 2 1 1 0
TEAM_KEY 2 3 2 1 0
JOINING_DATE 3 4 3 12 0
LEAVING_DATE 4 5 4 12 0
0x10000 = Virtual Column
0x20 = Hidden Column
0x8 = Virtual Column
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Extended Columns
This feature allows the size of VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2 and RAW
columns stored in the database to be increased to 32767 bytes. If the
value is longer than 4000 bytes it is stored as an out of line LOB
Built-in functions appear to work correctly with the longer column sizes
This feature needs to be enabled by setting MAX_STRING_SIZE to
EXTENDED. This parameter is not set by default. You may want to set this
parameter before creating a database, otherwise you will need an outage
as the parameter must be set when the database is in UPGRADE mode
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Extended Columns
In Oracle 12c and above maximum column length has increased



Data Type Oracle 11.2
and below
Oracle 12.1
and above
VARCHAR2 4000 32767
NVARCHAR2 2000 16383
RAW 2000 32767
Note that NVARCHAR2 limits assume two bytes per character

Maximum length of CHAR and NCHAR remains at 2000 and 1000 respectively

Extended columns are stored as SECUREFILE LOBs
Stored in line if <= 4K
Stored out of line if > 4K

COMPATIBLE parameter must be 12.0.0.0.0 or above

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Extended Columns
By default attempts to create an extended column will fail:
ALTER SYSTEM SET max_string_size = 'EXTENDED'
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02097: parameter cannot be modified because specified value is
invalid
ORA-14694: database must in UPGRADE mode to begin
MAX_STRING_SIZE migration
MAX_STRING_SIZE parameter must be set to EXTENDED
Default is value is STANDARD
ALTER TABLE car MODIFY notes VARCHAR2(32767);
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00910: specified length too long for its datatype
MAX_STRING_SIZE parameter cannot be updated when database is open:
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Extended Columns
To change the MAX_STRING_SIZE parameter, restart the database in
UPGRADE mode

SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
SQL> STARTUP MIGRATE
Set the parameter value to EXTENDED:

SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET max_string_size = EXTENDED;
Run the utl32k.sql script

SQL> @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utl32k.sql;
Restart the database

SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
SQL> STARTUP
It is not possible to convert the MAX_STRING_SIZE parameter back from
EXTENDED to STANDARD
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Extended Columns
When MAX_STRING_SIZE is set to EXTENDED then tables can be created with
extended columns:
CREATE TABLE ecar
(
season_key NUMBER,
race_key NUMBER,
driver_key VARCHAR2(4),
team_key VARCHAR2(3),
position NUMBER,
laps_completed NUMBER,
notes VARCHAR2(32767),
race_points NUMBER
);
Alternatively maximum size of columns in existing tables can be increased:
ALTER TABLE car MODIFY notes VARCHAR2(32767);
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Extended Columns
Extended columns are implemented as SECUREFILE LOBs
SELECT column_name,segment_name,securefile
FROM dba_lobs
WHERE owner = 'GP
AND table_name = 'ECAR';
COLUMN_NAME SEGMENT_NAME SECUREFILE
NOTES SYS_LOB0000092626C00007$$ YES
SECUREFILE LOBs have a system-created index
SELECT column_name,index_name
FROM dba_lobs
WHERE owner = 'GP
AND table_name = 'ECAR';
COLUMN_NAME INDEX_NAME
NOTES SYS_IL0000092626C00007$$
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Row Limiting Clause
This feature provides a more comprehensive syntax for Top-N queries
The new syntax uses analytic query operations as opposed to regular
sort options
It is probably worth doing comparative performance tests before adopting
the new syntax
Beware with the OFFSET clause each invocation will require a full sort
of the data before returning any rows
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Row Limiting Clause
In Oracle 12c and above SELECT statements can include the FETCH FIRST
clause
Limits rows returned by query
Optional replacement syntax for TOP-N queries





[ OFFSET offset { ROW | ROWS } ]
[ FETCH { FIRST | NEXT } [ { rowcount | percent PERCENT } ]
{ ROW | ROWS } { ONLY | WITH TIES } ]
Syntax is:






OFFSET specifies number of rows to skip before row limiting begins

FETCH specifies number of rows or percentage of rows to return
ONLY return exactly the number of rows specified
WITH TIES return additional rows with same sort key as last row fetched







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Row Limiting Clause
An ORDER BY clause is normally required to ensure that sort order is
deterministic

Restrictions
Cannot be specified in SELECT FOR UPDATE statements
Cannot be used with CURRVAL or NEXTVAL pseudo-columns
Cannot be used with materialized view incremental refresh


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Row Limiting Clause
Example top ten drivers in 2012


Driver Name Points
Sebastian Vettel 281
Fernando Alonso 278
Kimi Raikkonen 207
Lewis Hamilton 190
Jenson Button 188
Mark Webber 179
Felipe Massa 122
Romain Grosjean 96
Nico Rosberg 93
Sergio Perez 66
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Row Limiting Clause
Example Top N query
SELECT * FROM
(
SELECT d.driver_name,t.team_name,SUM(c.driver_points)
FROM car c,driver d,team t
WHERE c.season_key = 2012
AND c.driver_key = d.driver_key
AND c.team_key = t.team_key
GROUP BY d.driver_name,t.team_name
ORDER BY SUM(c.driver_points) DESC
)
WHERE ROWNUM <= 5;
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 5 | 335 | 41 (0)|
|* 1 | COUNT STOPKEY | | | | |
| 2 | VIEW | | 480 | 32160 | 41 (0)|
|* 3 | SORT ORDER BY STOPKEY| | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
| 4 | HASH GROUP BY | | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
|* 5 | HASH JOIN | | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
| 6 | TABLE ACCESS FULL | TEAM | 104 | 1248 | 2 (0)|
|* 7 | HASH JOIN | | 480 | 17760 | 39 (0)|
|* 8 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| CAR | 480 | 8160 | 36 (0)|
| 9 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| DRIVER | 493 | 9860 | 3 (0)|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Driver Name Points
Sebastian Vettel 281
Fernando Alonso 278
Kimi Raikkonen 207
Lewis Hamilton 190
Jenson Button 188
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Row Limiting Clause
Example Fetch Only Clause
SELECT d.driver_name,t.team_name,SUM(c.driver_points)
FROM car c,driver d,team t
WHERE c.season_key = 2012
AND c.driver_key = d.driver_key
AND c.team_key = t.team_key
GROUP BY d.driver_name,t.team_name
ORDER BY SUM(c.driver_points) DESC
FETCH FIRST 5 ROWS ONLY;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)|
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 480 | 44640 | 41 (0)|
| 1 | SORT ORDER BY | | 480 | 44640 | 41 (0)|
|* 2 | VIEW | | 480 | 44640 | 41 (0)|
|* 3 | WINDOW SORT PUSHED RANK| | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
| 4 | HASH GROUP BY | | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
|* 5 | HASH JOIN | | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
| 6 | TABLE ACCESS FULL | TEAM | 104 | 1248 | 2 (0)|
|* 7 | HASH JOIN | | 480 | 17760 | 39 (0)|
|* 8 | TABLE ACCESS FULL | CAR | 480 | 8160 | 36 (0)|
| 9 | TABLE ACCESS FULL | DRIVER | 493 | 9860 | 3 (0)|
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Driver Name Points
Sebastian Vettel 281
Fernando Alonso 278
Kimi Raikkonen 207
Lewis Hamilton 190
Jenson Button 188
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Row Limiting Clause
Example Fetch Percent With Ties Clause
SELECT d.driver_name,t.team_name,SUM(c.driver_points)
FROM car c,driver d,team t
WHERE c.season_key = 2012
AND c.driver_key = d.driver_key
AND c.team_key = t.team_key
GROUP BY d.driver_name,t.team_name
ORDER BY SUM(c.driver_points) DESC
FETCH FIRST 20 PERCENT ROWS WITH TIES;
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 480 | 50880 | 41 (0)|
| 1 | SORT ORDER BY | | 480 | 50880 | 41 (0)|
|* 2 | VIEW | | 480 | 50880 | 41 (0)|
| 3 | WINDOW SORT | | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
| 4 | HASH GROUP BY | | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
|* 5 | HASH JOIN | | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
| 6 | TABLE ACCESS FULL | TEAM | 104 | 1248 | 2 (0)|
|* 7 | HASH JOIN | | 480 | 17760 | 39 (0)|
|* 8 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| CAR | 480 | 8160 | 36 (0)|
| 9 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| DRIVER | 493 | 9860 | 3 (0)|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Driver Name Points
Sebastian Vettel 281
Fernando Alonso 278
Kimi Raikkonen 207
Lewis Hamilton 190
Jenson Button 188
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Row Limiting Clause
Example Fetch with Offset Clause
SELECT d.driver_name,t.team_name,SUM(c.driver_points)
FROM car c,driver d,team t
WHERE c.season_key = 2012
AND c.driver_key = d.driver_key
AND c.team_key = t.team_key
GROUP BY d.driver_name,t.team_name
ORDER BY SUM(c.driver_points) DESC
OFFSET 5 ROWS
FETCH FIRST 5 ROWS ONLY;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)|
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 480 | 44640 | 41 (0)|
| 1 | SORT ORDER BY | | 480 | 44640 | 41 (0)|
|* 2 | VIEW | | 480 | 44640 | 41 (0)|
|* 3 | WINDOW SORT PUSHED RANK| | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
| 4 | HASH GROUP BY | | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
|* 5 | HASH JOIN | | 480 | 23520 | 41 (0)|
| 6 | TABLE ACCESS FULL | TEAM | 104 | 1248 | 2 (0)|
|* 7 | HASH JOIN | | 480 | 17760 | 39 (0)|
|* 8 | TABLE ACCESS FULL | CAR | 480 | 8160 | 36 (0)|
| 9 | TABLE ACCESS FULL | DRIVER | 493 | 9860 | 3 (0)|
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Driver Name Points
Mark Webber 179
Felipe Massa 122
Romain Grosjean 96
Nico Rosberg 93
Sergio Perez 66
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Histograms
There are several enhancements to histograms in Oracle 12c. This
section concentrates on the increase in maximum number of buckets
from 254 to 2048. Increasing the number of buckets allows better
cardinalities to be estimated by the optimization, potentially generating
more efficient execution plans
The increased bucket sizes work for both single column and multi column
statistics
This is particular useful with my Formula 1 database which (for the period
1961 to 2012) contains 492 drivers and 1289 driver/team combinations.
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Histograms
Maximum bucket size increased to 2048

Default bucket size is still 256

For example, an inefficient execution plan has been generated for a query
We determine that the root cause is poor cardinality estimates for the
DRIVER_KEY column in the CAR table

The DRIVER_KEY column has 492 distinct values

SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT (driver_key)) AS driver_key FROM car;
DRIVER_KEY
492
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Histograms
Default statistics collection only gathers minimum and maximum values:



dbms_stats.gather_table_stats
(
ownname => 'GP',
tabname => 'CAR',
estimate_percent => NULL
);
SELECT COUNT (*) FROM dba_histograms
WHERE owner = GP
AND table_name = CAR
AND column_name = DRIVER_KEY;
COUNT (*)
2
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Histograms
Collect histograms on the DRIVER_KEY column



dbms_stats.gather_table_stats
(
ownname => 'GP',
tabname => 'CAR',
estimate_percent => NULL
method_opt => 'FOR COLUMNS driver_key'
);
SELECT COUNT (*) FROM dba_histograms
WHERE owner = GP
AND table_name = CAR
AND column_name = DRIVER_KEY;
COUNT (*)
75
Default behaviour is to create a maximum of 256 buckets



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Histograms
If more than 256 buckets are required, this must be specified explicitly:



dbms_stats.gather_table_stats
(
ownname => 'GP',
tabname => 'CAR',
estimate_percent => NULL
method_opt => 'FOR COLUMNS driver_key SIZE 2048'
);
SELECT COUNT (*) FROM dba_histograms
WHERE owner = GP
AND table_name = CAR
AND column_name = DRIVER_KEY;
COUNT (*)
492
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Histograms
Multi-Column Statistics



DECLARE
l_extension_name VARCHAR2(30);
BEGIN
l_extension_name := dbms_stats.create_extended_stats
(
ownname => 'GP',
tabname => 'CAR6',
extension => '(driver_key,team_key)
);
END;
BEGIN
dbms_stats.gather_table_stats
(
ownname => 'GP',
tabname => 'CAR6',
estimate_percent => NULL,
method_opt => 'FOR COLUMNS (DRIVER_KEY,TEAM_KEY) SIZE 2048
);
END;
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Histograms
Multi-Column Statistics



DECLARE
l_extension_name VARCHAR2(30);
BEGIN
l_extension_name := dbms_stats.create_extended_stats
(
ownname => 'GP',
tabname => 'CAR6',
extension => '(driver_key,team_key)
);
END;
BEGIN
dbms_stats.gather_table_stats
(
ownname => 'GP',
tabname => 'CAR6',
estimate_percent => NULL,
method_opt => 'FOR COLUMNS (DRIVER_KEY,TEAM_KEY) SIZE 2048
);
END;
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Histograms
Multi-Column Statistics
7
6
Id Operation Name Rows Bytes Cost (%CPU) Time
0 SELECT STATEMENT 1 9 39 (0) 00:00:01
1 SORT AGGREGATE 1 9
2 TABLE ACCESS FULL CAR 181 1629 39 (0) 00:00:01
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM gp.car
WHERE driver_key = MSCH'
AND team_key = 'FER';
COUNT(*)
181
Correct
Cardinality
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Histograms
Multi-Column Statistics

7
7
Id Operation Name Rows Bytes Cost (%CPU) Time
0 SELECT STATEMENT 1 9 39 (0) 00:00:01
1 SORT AGGREGATE 1 9
2 TABLE ACCESS FULL CAR 1 1629 39 (0) 00:00:01
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM gp.car
WHERE driver_key = MSCH'
AND team_key = JOR';
COUNT(*)
1
Correct
Cardinality
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Application Continuity
This is potentially a very important new feature which allows
uncommitted transactions to be replayed in another instance following a
RAC or Data Guard failover or session relocation
I anticipate many sites will wish to take advantage of this new
functionality.
Initially I have attempted to create a simple test example of this
functionality using a JDBC thin client application, but have so far been
unsuccessful.
I know that Trivadis have successful created a demonstration of
Application Continuity using the Universal Connection Pool (UCP) so it
does work.
Further investigation is required for the JDBC Thin example. In the
meantime this session contains the configuration that I have completed
so far.
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Application Continuity
Failed transactions are replayed on another instance / database
Similar goals to TAF and FCF
Better implementation

Can be configured for:
RAC
Data Guard
Single Instance

Must use one of:
Weblogic pool
Universal Connection Pool (UCP)
JDBC Thin

OCI not currently supported

Limitations may drive future development decisions e.g. connections pools

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Application Continuity
JDBC calls should handle events for the current session such as:
Service shutdown
Instance failure
Network failure
Node failure

Session will attempt to reconnect again (same or different instance)
Failed transactions will be rolled back and re-executed

Similar (but not the same) as Database Replay
Calls replayed with bind variables etc.
Fewer synchronization issues replay only includes last uncommitted
transaction






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Application Continuity
Must connect to a user-defined service
Not the database service
E.g. for single instance database
DECLARE
l_arr DBMS_SERVICE.SVC_PARAMETER_ARRAY;
BEGIN
l_arr ('FAILOVER_TYPE') := 'TRANSACTION';
l_arr ('REPLAY_INITIATION_TIMEOUT') := 600;
l_arr ('FAILOVER_DELAY') := 3;
l_arr ('FAILOVER_RETRIES') := 20;
l_arr ('SESSION_STATE_CONSISTENCY') := 'DYNAMIC';
l_arr ('COMMIT_OUTCOME') := 'TRUE';
l_arr ('AQ_HA_NOTIFICATIONS') := 'TRUE';
DBMS_SERVICE.CREATE_SERVICE
(
service_name => 'SERVICE1',
network_name => 'SERVICE1,
parameter_array => l_arr
);
END;
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Application Continuity
E.g. for a RAC database
srvctl add service -db TEST \
-service SERVICE1 \
-preferred TEST1 \
-available TEST2 \
-failovertype TRANSACTION \
-notification TRUE \
-commit_outcome TRUE \
-replay_init_time 600 \
-failoverretry 30 \
-failoverdelay 10
srvctl start service d TEST s SERVICE1 i TEST1
Remember to start the service...
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Application Continuity
Client connection string should include values for:
TRANSPORT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
CONNECT_TIMEOUT
RETRY_COUNT

For example:


jdbc:oracle:thin:gp/gp@(DESCRIPTION=(TRANSPORT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=3)
(CONNECT_TIMEOUT=60)(RETRY_COUNT=10)(FAILOVER=ON)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(PORT=1521)(HOST=vmcluster1-scan.juliandyke.com))
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=SERVICE1)))
REMOTE_LISTENER database parameter must include
SCAN name if clients specify SCAN names
Node names if clients specify address list


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Application Continuity
Configure the Oracle JDBC 12c Replay Data Source in the property file or in
the thin JDBC application e.g.


import oracle.jdbc.replay.OracleDataSourceImpl;
import oracle.jdbc.replay.ReplayableConnection;
OracleDataSourceImpl ods = new OracleDataSourceImpl();
ods.setURL(url);

connection = ods.getConnection();
connection.setAutoCommit (false);
...
((ReplayableConnection)connection).beginRequest();
# Application processing
((ReplayableConnection)connection).endRequest();
Requires $ORACLE_HOME/jdbc/lib/ojdbc6.jar on CLASSPATH


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Application Continuity
Debugging replayable connections

Add $ORACLE_HOME/jdbc/lib/ojdbc6_g.jar to the CLASSPATH


java -Djava.util.logging.config.file=/home/oracle/appcon/properties J7
Execute using:


Writes trace to replay_0.trc.0



Add the following to the properties file


oracle.jdbc.internal.replay.level = FINEST
handlers = java.util.logging.FileHandler
java.util.logging.FileHandler.pattern = /home/oracle/12c/appcon2/replay_%U.trc
java.util.logging.FileHandler.limit = 500000000
java.util.logging.FileHandler.count = 1000
java.util.logging.FileHandler.formatter = java.util.logging.XMLFormatter
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Application Continuity
Potentially a very powerful feature
Easier to implement, test and support than TAF
Builds on FCF

Applications need to be designed specifically for application continuity
Very difficult to retrofit existing applications
Special attention required for pseudo columns such as SYSDATE
Sequences should use the new KEEP clause

If you plan to use this feature in the future, I recommend
DBAs become familiar with it in Oracle 12.1 so they can support
developments
New applications follow the development guidelines for this feature
Expect to deploy the new applications in Oracle 12.2

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Thank You For Your Interest
info@juliandyke.com