LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT

CHAMARA DE ZOYSA
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What is Leadership ?
Leadership - the process of guiding & directing the
behavior of people in the work environment

Definition of leadership there is still considerable
controversy.

According to leadership guru Warren Bennis
“The End of Leadership” – Leadership cannot exist
without the full inclusion, initiatives, and the
cooperation of employees.
(one cannot be a great leader without great followers)

.

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What is Leadership ?
According to another leadership guru Barry Posner,
makes the following observations about the needed
change in how business leadership is viewed:

In the past business believed that a leader was like a
captain of a ship: cool, calm, collected. Now, we see
that leaders need to be human. They need to be in
touch, they need to be empathetic, and they need to be
with people. Leaders need to be a part of what’s going
on, not apart from what’s going on.

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Two types of businesses ( Cool and calm business
environment vs. Highly volatile environment)
Captain of a Ship vs. Rafting on white water
Captain of a ship vs. Rafting on white water
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Two types of businesses ( Cool and calm business
environment vs. Highly volatile environment)
Captain of a Ship vs. Rafting on white water
Captain of a ship vs. Rafting on white water
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Things that lead to leadership
• Individual Factors
– Cognitions
– Emotions
– Behaviors
• Group/Team Factors
– Idiosyncratic (Personal) Credit
– Follower behaviors predict leadership
• Contextual Factors
– Crises
– Incompetent/ Untrusted leader

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Leadership & Followership
Leadership - the process of guiding & directing the behavior of
people in the work environment

Formal leadership - the officially sanctioned leadership based on
the authority of a formal position

Informal leadership - the unofficial leadership accorded to a
person by other members of the organization

Followership - the process of being guided & directed by a leader
in the work environment
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Leaders and Managers
Personality
Dimension
Manager Leader
Attitudes toward
goals
Impersonal, passive,
functional; goals arise out
of necessity, reality
Personal, active, goals arise
from desire, imagination
Conceptions of
work
Combines people, ideas,
things; seeks moderate
risk
Looks for fresh approaches to
old problems; seeks high risk
Relationships
with others
Prefers to work with
others; avoids close
relationships and conflicts
Comfortable in solitary work;
encourages close
relationships, not averse to
conflict
Sense of self Accepts life as it is;
unquestioning
Questions life; struggles for
sense of order
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What is Leadership?
CHANGE
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Leadership Perspectives
Leadership
Perspectives
1- Trait
Perspective
2-Behavior
Perspective
3-Contingency
Perspective
4-Transformational
Perspective
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Leadership Perspectives
1- Trait
Perspective
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Traditional Theories of Leadership
• Trait Theories of Leadership
– The role of intelligence
– Physical attributes
– Associated with charismatic
leadership?
• Group and Exchange
Theories of Leadership
– Followers’ Impact on Leaders
– The Leader-Member
Exchange (LMX) Model
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Traditional Theories of Leadership
Trait Theory
Trait Theory
• Early on, it was thought that leaders were
born with
inherent physiological and personality traits
– Age
– Height
– Intelligence
– Academic achievements

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Leadership Perspectives
2-Behavior
Perspective
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The Historically Important
Studies on Leadership
• The Iowa Leadership Studies (1930 by Lippitt
and Ralph White)
– Autocratic vs. Democratic vs. Laissez-Faire
• The Ohio State Leadership Studies
– Initiating Structure vs. Consideration
• The Early Michigan Leadership Studies- human
relations approach (1950s by university of
Michigan)
– Production Oriented vs. Employee Oriented

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Leadership Perspectives
3-Contingency
Perspective
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Traditional Theories of Leadership
Contingency Theory of Leadership
– Fielder’s Contingency
Model of Leadership
Effectiveness
– Research Support for
the Contingency
Model
– Fielder’s Contingency
Theory in Perspective
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Traditional Theories of Leadership
Contingency Theory of Leadership
Contingency Theory
• Assumptions:
– No one best way of leading
– Ability to lead contingent upon various situational factors:
• Leader’s preferred style
• Capabilities and behaviors of followers
• Various other situational factors

• Effect:
– Leaders who are successful in one situation may become
unsuccessful if the factors around them change
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Traditional Theories of Leadership
Contingency Theory of Leadership
Fiedler’s contingency model of Leadership Effectiveness

This model contained the relationship between leadership style
and the favorableness of the situation.
Situational favorableness was described by Fiedler in terms of
three dimensions.

1. The leader–member relationship
2. The degree of task structure
3. The leader’s position power

Situations are favorable to the leader if all three of these
dimensions are high.

(Continued)
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Leadership Perspectives
4-Transformational
Perspective
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Transformational vs. Transactional
• This perspective
– Dominates leadership
research
– Is easy to see in action
– Is intuitive
– Is most helpful for
leadership development
– Assumes a range of
leadership behaviors from
non-leadership to
charismatic leadership

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The Full Range Model
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Leadership Traits

• Emotional stability. Good leaders must be able
to tolerate frustration and stress.
• Dominance. Leaders are often times
competitive and decisive and usually enjoy
overcoming obstacles.
• Enthusiasm. Leaders are usually seen as
active, expressive, and energetic. They are
often very optimistic and open to change
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• Conscientiousness. Leaders are often
dominated by a sense of duty and tend to be
very exacting in character.
• Social boldness. Leaders tend to be
spontaneous risk-takers. They are usually
socially aggressive and generally thick-
skinned.
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• Tough-mindedness. Good leaders are
practical, logical, and to-the-point.
• Self-assurance. Self-confidence and resiliency
are common traits among leaders.
• Compulsiveness. Leaders were found to be
controlled and very precise in their social
interactions.
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Personality Traits of Leaders
• High energy. Long hours and some travel are
usually a prerequisite for leadership positions,
especially as your company grows.
• Intuitiveness. Rapid changes in the world
today combined with information overload
result in an inability to "know" everything.
• Maturity. To be a good leader, personal power
and recognition must be secondary to the
development of your employees.
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• Team orientation. Business leaders today put a
strong emphasis on team work.
• Empathy. Being able to put yourself in the
other person's shoes is a key trait of leaders.
• Charisma. People usually perceive leaders as
larger than life. Charisma plays a large part in
this perception.
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Leadership Styles
• Autocratic
• Democratic
• Participative
• Laissez Faire
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Autocratic Style
• In Autocratic management style give
instruction to your staff to perform certain
task without getting opinion or making
consultation.
• If you are someone who like to control an
office situation, then you tend to use this
autocratic style.
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• Although decisions made are fast and prompt
without involving others, work is usually
completed on time.
• However this type of style may create a work
environment where staffs are less motivated
and build up a “wait for boss instruction”
syndrome
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• When to apply: Autocratic Management style
is most effective in situation when
immediate decision must be made such as in
the event of crisis, fire, or emergency.

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Democratic style
• encourages a manager to delegate work task
to his staffs.
• This style involves other people to get things
done.
• A democratic style of management must come
along with responsibility and it work more
effectively when authority to perform the task
is granted at the same time.
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• One important characteristic of this style of
management is the staff who are been delegated
the task must be given authority and must be
competent enough to perform the task.
• Otherwise, delegation may be seen us “pushing
away responsibility” For some reason, a
democratic management style is mistakenly taken
as those in politics where majoring make the
decision.
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• When to apply: Democratic management
style is most suitable if you want to train up
your staff to make certain decision.

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Participative style:
• Sound a little like democratic though this
style is a way to get things done or make a
decision with involvement of getting opinion
from staffs.
• What is normally done is that you take the
inputs from your staffs and modify them into
your decision.
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• A Participative management style requires
more time but since a decision is required to
make which affective others, getting feedback
from the affective parties can cushion some
negative impact during implementation
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• When to apply: Participative management
style is used when you want to make certain
changes of policy which affect one or more
people benefits or morale. By doing so, the
staff tends accept the decision more willingly.

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Laissez Faire style:
• A laissez faire management style involves
getting things done through people. However
the way you get the job done is you set the
tasks and give it to your staff a total freedom
to finish the task entirely on their own.
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• When to apply: It is most appropriate to apply
this management style when dealing with
confrontation or conflicts because you do not
want to be seen as siding anyone.
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• THANK YOU………………
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