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integrates various services in a facility
with a computerized control system.
User benefits by
Better information systems
Automatic controls help in
Optimization of man power
Accuracy & precision
Easy maintenance and trouble shooting
Longer plant life
Hygiene & cleanliness
Sensor - A Sensor is a device that converts a physical
property such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity,
flow etc. into an electrically or mechanically measurable
Transducer - A transducer is a device that converts one
form of energy to another form of energy such as
pneumatic to electric or vice versa.
Transmitter - Output from a sensor or a transducer may
not be strong enough to be transmitted over long distances.
Transmitter is a device used to amplify the signal.
Controller - It is a device that compares the signal from a
Sensor, Transducer or Transmitter with the desired value
and generates a signal based on error.
Actuator - It is an electric, pneumatic or a mechanical
device which generally converts a low value signal to a
signal with sufficient force to overcome the forces acting on
control device and to actuate it.
Controlled Device - It receives signal from controller and
varies the flow of control agent like water, air. It may be a
damper or a valve connected to an actuator.
Stat - Combination of sensor and controller functioning in
one device is often called a ‗stat‘ like thermostat,
Set-Point - It is desired value of the controlled variable.
Process & Controlled Variable - In an air-conditioning
system, parameter being controlled such as temperature,
RH, pressure etc. is controlled variable and the changes in
these parameters is due to influencing factors in process.
Control Medium - It is the air, steam or water the flow
regulation of which influences the process to get the
desired value of controlled variable
TYPES OF INPUT DEVICES
Analog Input- Any input that varies with time
for e.g. Temperature, humidity , Pressure
Digital Input- Any input that works on a two
state mode ( 0 or 1)like on or off ,
Pulse input- Any input incremental in nature
and totalizes over a period of time , KWH
meter, water meter
• The process of controlling an HVAC
system involves three steps. These steps
include first measuring data, then
processing the data with other information
and finally causing a control action. These
three functions make up what is known as
a control loop
Feed Back Control Loop
BASIC CONTROL LOOP
DDC CONTROL LOOP
The controller processes data that is input from
the sensor, applies the logic of control and
causes an output action to be generated. This
signal may be sent directly to the controlled
device or to other logical control functions and
ultimately to the controlled device. The
controller‘s function is to compare it‘s input (from
the sensor) with a set of instructions such as
setpoint, throttling range and action, then
produce an appropriate output signal. This is the
logic of control.
Control responses are typically one the
• Proportional (P only)
• Proportional plus Integral (PI)
• Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative
Two Position Control
• Two-Position Control
Two-position control compares the value of an analog or
variable input with instructions and generates a digital (two-
position) output. The instructions involve the definition of an
upper and lower limit. The output changes its value as the
input crosses these limit values. There are no standards for
defining these limits. The most common terminology used is
setpoint and differential. The setpoint indicates the point where
the output “pulls-in,” “energizes” or is “true.” The output
changes back or “drops-out” after the input value crosses
through the value equal to the difference between the setpoint
and the differential.
Figure shows an example of two-position control where the thermostat is set
to energize the Cooling system when the space temperature rises above 72°
F and turn off when the temperature drops to 70° F in the space. This is an
example of a setpoint of 70° F with a two-degree differential.
Two Position Control-- Contd
• Two-position control can be used for simple
control loops (temperature control) or limit
control (e.g. Antifreeze thermostat). The analog
value can be any measured variable including
temperature, relative humidity, pressure, current
and liquid levels.
• Time can also be the input to a two-position
control response. This control response
functions like a time clock with pins. The output
―pulls-in‖ when the time is in the defined ―on‖
time and drops out during the defined ―off‖ time.
Floating control is a control response that
produces two possible digital outputs based on a
change in a variable input. One output increases
the signal to the controlled device, while the
other output decreases the signal to the
controlled device. This control response also
involves an upper and lower limit with the output
changing as the variable input crosses these
limits. Again, there are no standards for defining
these limits, but the terms setpoint and
deadband are common. The setpoint sets a
midpoint and the deadband sets the difference
between the upper and lower limits
A proportional control response produces an analog or variable output
change in proportion to a varying input. In this control response, there is a
linear relationship between the input and the output.
A setpoint, throttling range and action typically define this relationship. In a
proportional control response, there is a unique value of the measured
variable that corresponds to full travel of the controlled device and a unique
value that corresponds to zero travel on the controlled device.
The change in the measured variable that causes the controlled device to
move from fully closed to fully open is called the throttling range. It is
within this range that the control loop will control, assuming that the
system has the capacity to meet the requirements.
The action dictates the slope of the control response.
• In a direct acting proportional control response, the output will rise with an
increase in the measured variable.
• In a reverse acting response, the output will decrease as the measured
Proportional plus Integral (PI)
PI control involves the measurement of the
offset or ―error‖ over time. This error is integrated
and a final adjustment is made to the output
signal from the proportional part of this model.
This type of control response will use the control
loop to reduce the offset to zero. A well set-up PI
control loop will operate in a narrow band close
to the setpoint. It will not operate over the entire
Proportional plus Integral
plus Derivative (PID) Control
PID control adds a predictive element to the
control response. In addition to the proportional
and integral calculation, the derivative or slope
of the control response will be computed. This
calculation will have the effect of dampening a
control response that is returning to setpoint so
quickly that it will ―overshoot‖ the setpoint.
PID is a precision process control response and
is not always required for HVAC applications.
The routine application of PID control to every
control loop is labor intensive and its application
should be selective.
Direct Digital Control (DDC
DDC control consists of microprocessor-
based controllers with the control logic
performed by software. Analog-to-Digital
(A/D) converters transform analog values
into digital signals that a microprocessor
can use. Analog sensors can be
resistance, voltage or current generators
Air Handling Unit and
1. RA temp sensor 3- way valve
2. RA humidity sensor Heater
3. Pressure switch across filter Fire dampers
4. Smoke sensor VFD for fan motor
5. ADP sensor Dampers at RA
6. Temp Dampers at fresh air
7. Flow meter/sensor
8. Fan status Dampers at exhaust
1. Pressure sensors across the
VFD of pump motor
2. Pressure sensors across the
Cooling tower fans
3. Inlet and outlet temperature of
Makeup water tank
4. Inlet and outlet temperature of
5. Outlet temperature of cooling
6. Flow switch at
Dampers at fresh air
7. Flow meter/sensor
8. Current transformer
9. Voltmeter ,PF, Frequency
1. The DDC units require UPS 24v ac
Generally the VA ratings are very low and of the order of 4-
2. The Analog sensors also require UPS Power of 24v ac.
Output of sensors is 0 to 10v DC or 4 to 20 ma
3. VAV boxes may also have Controllers and they will need
UPS power and this will be 24v ac.
4. The ups vendor may agree to provide 230v ac UPS
power and we need to step down this voltage to 24v
5. Chillers and Precision units will also have Cards that
demand 24 v ac UPS power.
Some Chillers will have inbuilt CVT‘s and UPS power may
not be required for the cards in such Chillers
At the lowest level, bits are encoded in electrical, light or radio signals
by the Physical layer. Some examples include RS-232,RS 485
A somewhat higher Data link layer such as the point-to-point protocol
(PPP) may detect errors and configure the transmission system.
An even higher protocol may perform network functions. One very
common protocol is the Internet protocol (IP), which implements
addressing for large set of protocols.
A common associated protocol is the Transmission control protocol
(TCP) which implements error detection and correction (by
retransmission). TCP and IP are often paired, giving rise to the familiar
Twisted-pair cable is a type of cabling that is used for
telephone communications and most modern Ethernet
networks. A pair of wires forms a circuit that can transmit
data. The pairs are twisted to provide protection against
crosstalk, the noise generated by adjacent pairs. When
electrical current flows through a wire, it creates a small,
circular magnetic field around the wire. When two wires in
an electrical circuit are placed close together, their
magnetic fields are the exact opposite of each other. Thus,
the two magnetic fields cancel each other out. They also
cancel out any outside magnetic fields. Twisting the wires
can enhance this cancellation effect. Using cancellation
together with twisting the wires, cable designers can
effectively provide self-shielding for wire pairs within the
Two basic types of twisted-pair cable exist: unshielded
twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted pair (STP).
When used as a networking medium, UTP cable has four pairs of either
22- or 24-gauge copper wire. UTP used as a networking medium has
an impedance of 100 ohms Commonly used types of UTP cabling are
Category 1—Used for telephone communications. Not suitable
for transmitting data.
Category 2—Capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 4
megabits per second (Mbps).
Category 3— Can transmit data at speeds up to 10 Mbps.
Category 4— Can transmit data at speeds up to 16 Mbps.
Category 5—Can transmit data at speeds up to 100 Mbps.
Category 5e —Used in networks running at speeds up to 1000
Mbps (1 gigabit per second [Gbps]).Bandwidth 100mhz
Category 6– More stringent standards on noise and
crosstalk.Bandwidth 250 mhz
UTP cable often is installed using a Registered Jack 45 (RJ-45)
connector . The RJ-45 is an eight-wire connector used commonly to
connect computers onto a local-area network (LAN).
ATC 2C Twisted shielded cable is generally used
The comm. Route connecting Comm ports is also called
a. C BUS
b. J BUS
c. N2 BUS
d. Field BUS
Comm Cable Limitations
a. RS 232 :- 50 FT – 15M
b. RS 485 :- 1200 M
c. TCP/IP :- NO LIMIT
Building Automation Control Networks – BacNETBACnet is a
network communications protocol for building automation and
control systems. BACnet, the ASHRAE building automation and
control networking protocol, has been designed specifically to meet
the communication needs of building automation and control
systems for applications such as heating, ventilating, and air-
conditioning control, lighting control, access control, and fire
detection systems and their associated equiptment. The BACnet
protocol provides mechanisms by which computerized equipment of
arbitrary function may exchange information, regardless of the
particular building service it performs
Modbus is a serial communications protocol published by Modicon in
1979 for use with its programmable logic controllers (PLCs). It had
become a de facto standard communications protocol in industry, and
was the most commonly available means of connecting industrial
electronic devices. The main reasons for the extensive use of Modbus
over other communications protocols are:
1. it is openly published and royalty-free
2. it can be implemented in days, not months
3. it moves raw bits or words without placing many restrictions on
Modbus allows for communication between many devices connected to
the same network, for example a system that measures temperature
and humidity and communicates the results to a computer. Modbus is
often used to connect a supervisory computer with a remote terminal
unit (RTU) in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)
LON WORKS and Zigbee
LonTalk is a protocol created by Echelon
Corporation for networking devices.Also
called Lon Works
ZigBee is a short range, low-powered
wireless communication standard targeted
at Building Automation.
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