## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

4/11/2009 1 SPRING 09

CULVERTS

4/11/2009 2 SPRING 09

CULVERT

• Culvert is a structure which provides

passage facility over an obstacle without

closing the way underneath.

• Its span is less than 20 feet.

• Passage may be for a railway track, road or

pedestrians etc.

• Obstacle to be crossed may be a canal, a

drain etc.

4/11/2009 3 SPRING 09

TYPES OF CULVERT

Depending on Material of construction

culverts has the following types

1. Concrete Culverts

2. Brick Culverts

3. Stone Culverts

4. Metal Culverts

5. High Density Polyethylene Plastic Pipes

4/11/2009 4 SPRING 09

TYPES OF CULVERT

1- CONCRETE CULVERT

Box Culvert

Rigid Frames Culvert

Pipe Culvert

Arch Culvert

4/11/2009 5 SPRING 09

TYPES OF CULVERT

2- BRICK CULVERT

3- STONE CULVERT

4/11/2009 6 SPRING 09

TYPES OF CULVERT

4- METAL CULVERT

5- HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC

PIPES

4/11/2009 7 SPRING 09

CULVERTS

4/11/2009 8 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Economy: The design of a culvert always include

an economic evaluation.

Site Data:

Survey should be conducted to identify information

on all features affected by installation of the culvert,

such as elevations and locations of

Houses

Commercial buildings

Croplands

Roadways

4/11/2009 9 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Permitting and Regulations:

Designers of stream crossings must be aware of

relevant local and Federal laws and permit

requirements.

Aesthetics:

Structure geometry, materials, and the texture,

patterning, and color of structure surfaces shall

be selected to blend with the adjacent landscape

and provide an attractive appearance.

4/11/2009 10 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Culvert Location: Culvert location involves

the horizontal and vertical alignment of the

culvert with respect to both the stream and

the highway. It affects

stream and embankment stability,

construction and maintenance costs,

Safety and integrity of the highway.

4/11/2009 11 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Waterway Data: The installation of a culvert

through a highway embankment may

significantly constrict the floodplain. Therefore,

collect pre-construction data to predict the

consequences of this alteration.

Roadway Data: The proposed or existing

roadway affects culvert cost, hydraulic

efficiency, and alignment.

Check the culvert design after the roadway

plans are completed.

4/11/2009 12 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Allowable Headwater:

Base the design headwater on

Damage to adjacent property

Damage to the culvert and the roadway

Traffic interruption

Hazard to human life

4/11/2009 13 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Outlet Velocity:

Higher outlet velocity can cause

streambed scour

bank erosion in the vicinity of the culvert outlet.

4/11/2009 14 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

End Treatments:

It act as a retaining wall to keep

the roadway embankment material

out of the culvert opening.

Traffic safety

Flood protection

Piping prevention.

4/11/2009 15 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Traffic Safety: Cross-drainage work is

necessary in any highway project to keep

water away from the highway. In absence of

cross drainage work, water can pose a safety

threat to vehicles and associated drivers and

passengers.

4/11/2009 16 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Culvert Type Selection:

Primary factors affecting culvert type

selection are

Economics

Hydraulic properties

Durability

Strength.

4/11/2009 17 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Culvert Shapes:

Culvert can have any of the following

shapes

Circular

Pipe-arch and elliptical

Box (or rectangular)

Arch

4/11/2009 18 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Flood frequencies. The 25-year frequency

storm shall be routed through all culverts

and the 100-year storm shall be used as a

check

Velocity limitations

a. Minimum cleaning velocity: 3.0 fps

b.Maximum velocity: Should be less than

scouring velocity.

4/11/2009 19 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Length and slope: Culvert length and slope

should be chosen to approximate existing

topography.

Siltation Control: When streams or overland

drain flow through culverts and carry

siltation, it is important to design the culvert

such that the culvert barrel will not be

clogged with silt and reduce its capacity.

4/11/2009 20 SPRING 09

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Barrel bends: A straight culvert alignment is

desirable to avoid clogging, increased

construction costs, and reduced hydraulic

efficiency.

4/11/2009 21 SPRING 09

CULVERTS

4/11/2009 22 SPRING 09

HYDRAULIC DESIGN

DEFINITIONS

DESIGN PROCESS

DESIGN EXAMPLE

4/11/2009 23 SPRING 09

DEFINITIONS

Backwater: Constriction of flow causes a

rise in the normal water surface elevation

upstream of the constriction. The magnitude

of the rise, in feet, is called backwater.

Critical Velocity: Non silting and non

scouring velocity is called as critical

velocity.

Critical depth: Depth corresponding to

Critical velocity is called as Critical Depth.

4/11/2009 24 SPRING 09

DEFINITIONS

Free outlets: Free outlets are outlets with a

tail-water equal to or lower than critical

depth.

Headwater: The vertical distance from the

culvert invert (flow line) at the culvert

entrance to the water surface elevation of the

upstream channel.

4/11/2009 25 SPRING 09

DEFINITIONS

Hydraulic grade line: The hydraulic grade

line is the depth to which water would rise

in vertical tubes connected to the sides of a

culvert barrel.

Invert: Invert refers to the inside bottom of

the culvert.

4/11/2009 26 SPRING 09

DEFINITIONS

Normal flow: Normal flow occurs in the channel

reach when the discharge, velocity, and depth of

flow do not change throughout the reach. The

water surface profile and channel bottom slope

will be parallel.

Inlet Coefficient (Ke):

The inlet coefficient Ke, is a measure of the

hydraulic efficiency of the inlet, with lower

values indicating greater efficiency.

Recommended inlet coefficients are given in Table

4/11/2009 27 SPRING 09

NOMOGRAPHS

Nomograph is the graphical relation

between

1. Discharge, Q (cfs)

2. Diameter, D (in)

3. Head, H (ft)

Knowing any two of the given three

quantities, we can find the third quantity

using a Nomograph.

4/11/2009 29 SPRING 09

4/11/2009 30 SPRING 09

4/11/2009 31 SPRING 09

DESIGN PROCESS

Step 1: Design data:

Q = discharge (cfs)

L = culvert length (ft)

S = culvert slope (ft/ft)

TW= tail-water depth (ft)

V = velocity for trial diameter (ft/s)

Ke = inlet loss coefficient

HW= allowable headwater depth for the

design storm (ft)

D = pipe diameter (in)

4/11/2009 32 SPRING 09

DESIGN PROCESS

Step 2:

Determine trial culvert size

Assume a trial velocity 5 to 8 ft/s

Computing the culvert area, A = Q/V

Determine the culvert diameter.

4/11/2009 33 SPRING 09

DESIGN PROCESS

Step 3:

Calculate HW for both inlet and outlet

control.

Inlet control: Enter inlet control

Nomograph with D,Q and Compute HW

If it is too large or too small, try another

culvert size.

4/11/2009 34 SPRING 09

DESIGN PROCESS

Outlet control:

Compute the headwater elevation HW from

Equation (A)

HW = H + ho - LS ------------- (Equation A)

where: H =head loss, ft

ho = ½(critical depth + D) or tail-water depth,

whichever is greater

L = culvert length

S = culvert slope

4/11/2009 35 SPRING 09

DESIGN PROCESS

Step 4:

Compare the computed headwaters and use the

higher HW Nomograph to determine if the

culvert is under inlet or outlet control.

If inlet control governs, then the design is

complete and no further analysis is required.

If outlet control governs and the HW is

unacceptable, select a larger trial size and find

another HW

Since the smaller size of culvert had been

selected for allowable HW by the inlet control

Nomographs, the inlet control for the larger

pipe need not be checked.

4/11/2009 36 SPRING 09

DESIGN PROCESS

Step 5:

Calculate exit velocity and if erosion

problems might be expected, appropriate

energy dissipation design is required.

4/11/2009 37 SPRING 09

Design Problem

Input Data

Discharge for 25-yr flood = 35 cfs

Discharge for 100-yr flood = 70 cfs

Allowable Hw for 100-yr discharge = 7.0 ft

Length of culvert = 100 ft

Natural channel invert elevations

- inlet = 15.50 ft,

-outlet = 15.35 ft

Culvert slope = 0.0015 ft/ft

Design Problem

Tail-water depth for 100-yr discharge = 4.0

ft

Tail-water depth is the normal depth in

downstream channel

Entrance type = Groove end with headwall

Solution:

Assume a culvert velocity of 5 ft/s.

Required flow area = 70 cfs/5 ft/s = 14 sq, ft

(for the 100-yr recurrence flood).

Design Problem

The corresponding culvert diameter can

be calculated by using the formula for

area of a circle:

Area = (3.14D

2

)/4 or D = (Area times

4/3.14)^0.5.

Therefore: D = ((14 sq ft x 4)/3.14)0.5 x

12 in./ft) = 50.7 in. (Say 48”, taking

nearest size of commercially available

pipe)

Design Problem

Using the inlet control Nomograph, with a

pipe diameter of 48 in. and a discharge of

70 cfs; read a HW/D value of 0.93.

The depth of headwater (HW) is (0.93) x

(4) = 3.72 ft which is less than the

allowable headwater.

Design Problem

The culvert is checked for outlet control.

With an entrance loss coefficient Ke of

0.20, a culvert length of 100 ft, and a pipe

diameter of 48 in., an H value of 0.77 ft is

determined.

The headwater for outlet control is

computed by the equation:

HW = H + hO – LS

Design Problem

For the tail-water depth lower than the

top of culvert,

hO = Tw or ½ (critical dept in culvert + D)

which ever is greater.

hO = 3.0 ft or hO = ½ (2.55 + 4.0) = 3.28 ft

The headwater depth for outlet control is:

HW = H + hO –LS = 0.77 + 3.28 – (100) x

(0.0015) = 3.90 ft

Design Problem

Since HW for outlet control (3.90 ft) is

greater than the HW for inlet control

(3.72 ft), outlet control governs the

culvert design.

Thus, the maximum headwater expected

for a 100-yr recurrence flood is 3.90 ft,

which is less than the allowable

headwater.

Design Problem

Estimate outlet exit velocity. Since this

culvert is on outlet control and discharges

into an open channel downstream, the

culvert will be flowing full at the flow

depth in the channel.

Using the 100-year design peak discharge

of 70 cfs and the area of a 48 inch or 4.0 ft

diameter culvert. The exit velocity will be:

Q = VA

Design Problem

Therefore: V = 70 / (3.14(4.0)

2

)/4 = 5.6

ft/s

Check for minimum velocity using the 25-

year flow of 35 cfs.

Therefore: V = 35 / (3.14(4.0)

2

)/4 = 2.8

ft/s

- Site-Box-culvert.pdf
- Final Draft Introduction to Soil and Dam Engg. 12-3-2009
- Access Road Conservation
- Handbook No 1 - Drainage
- New Text Document (2)
- Fluvial Design Guide - Chapter 11[1]
- SPS16-Polders-0
- DO_032_S2011
- R3
- The Impact of Hydropower Plant on Downstream River Reach
- Training of Culverts
- IDD Lan Manual IV Year
- i Eee 2012 Iowa Flood
- wg_flood management GOI.pdf
- Complex-Pier.pdf
- Hazard
- Water resources syllabus_svnit.pdf
- flooding - bangladesh case study 2
- GPangare-Fpaper
- 496043446137AN ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD COPING RESPONSE OF THE VULNERABLE POPULATION OF FLOOD AFFECTED AREAS OF KOT ADDU, DISTRICT MUZAFFARGARH3-1380-aa Ghous
- our powerpoint need hunters
- USBR 13 Design Embankment Dam Design Standards
- HPC-diaster management.pdf
- 1MIKE11 Benchmark Box Tutorial
- Disaster Management
- Spsseg Winter 09
- Legazpi City
- Wseas Fluids09 Info
- Ch 4 Hihgway Drinage
- Risk assessment

- Introduction to Bridge Engineering
- Levelling
- Ingredients of Bituminous Mixes & Introduction to Modifiers
- Pre-cast Girder Construction
- Mix Design
- Leveling Methods
- Hot Mix Plant Calibration, Laying & Testing
- Surveying
- Traversing
- Sewage Treatment Plant
- Traverse Computations
- Levelling Procedures
- Grillage Method of Superstructure Analysis
- Management Accounting
- Multiview Sketches
- Building Management System - BMS 1
- Organizational Structure
- Bearings for Bridges
- Bituminous Mix Design & Superpave Mixes
- Concrete Making Materials
- Expansion Joints
- Chain Survey
- Fusion Welding
- Basics of Surveying
- Bituminous Mixes
- Engineering Product Specification
- Building Management System - BMS 2
- Earthing Handout
- The Evolution of Management Theory

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading