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Fusion Welding
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Definition
• Fusion welding is a group of processes
that bond metal together by heating a
portion of each piece above the
melting point and causing them to flow
together.
• Usually uses a filler material to insure
the joint is filled.
• All fusion welding processes have three requirements.
 Heat
 Shielding
 Filler material
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Fusion Welding Process
1. “Welding and cutting
requires good eye-mind-
hand coordination.”
2. Must be able to concentrate.
3. Must see and understand
the activity in the molten
metal as the process is
occurring.
4. Thorough understanding of the
operation of the equipment.
5. Must have good depth
perception.
6. Must be able to determine the
time and place to apply heat
and/or filler metal.
7. Maintain a good body position
so it is possible to look left and
right, and ahead and behind
the puddle.
8. Must know the quality
standards.
9. Must understand the
procedures for inspecting
work.
10.Must learn safe work habits.
Learning the basics
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Fusion Welding--Heat
 Sufficient heat must be applied to the weld zone to raise the
temperature above the melting point.
 Melting point is different for each material.
Material Melting Point (
o
F)
Tin 450
Lead 620
Zinc 786
Aluminum 1,220
Silver 1,760
Copper 1,980
Cast Iron 2,300
Material Melting Point (
o
F)
Steel (HC) 2,500
Stainless Steel 2,550
Steel (MC) 2,600
Steel (LC) 2,700
Iron 2,800
Chromium 3,000
Titanium 3,260
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Fusion Welding--Heat
cont.
The source of the heat is one of the primary differences between
the welding processes.
 SMAW Electric arc
 GMAW Electric arc
 GTAW Electric arc
 OFW Gas Flame
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Fusion Welding--Shielding
 Steel is produced in an environment devoid of atmospheric air.
 If atmospheric air is allowed to mix with the molten metal during
the fusion welding process the quality of the weld is reduced.
 The method used for shielding is another difference in the
common welding processes.
 SMAW Inert gas from flux
 GMAW Inert gas from cylinder
 GTAW Inert gas from cylinder
 OFW Gas Flame
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Fusion Welding--Filler Material
 When a filler material is not provided during a fusion welding
process the joint will not be filled = starved joint.
 Starved joints have reduced strength.
 For this reason, joints are
usually slightly over filled
(reinforced) to insure the
strength is not reduced.
 Reinforcement does not
increase the strength of
the weld, just insures the
joint is not starved.
 Excessive reinforcement costs extra to produce.
 Excessive reinforcement may need to be removed = additional
cost..
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Fusion Welding--Filler Material
cont.
 The source of the filler material is also one of the differences
between the different welding processes.
 SMAW Consumable electrode
 GMAW Welding wire
 GTAW Manual rod
 OFW Manual rod
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Fusion Welding’s Five (5) Factors Which
Determine The Quality Of The Weld
Angle
Heat
Manipulation
Distance
Speed
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Heat
It is important to remember
heat and temperature are
not the same.
Heat is measured in BTU’s
Temperature is measured in degrees Fahrenheit.
Temperature is a measure of the intensity of the heat.
The amount of heat (BTU’s)
required for a fusion weld is
determined by the type of metal,
metal thickness and welding
position.
In fusion welding processes, the amount of heat must be
sufficient to raise the temperature of the metal above the
melting point.
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Controlling Welding Heat
Six (6) ways of controlling welding heat
1. Equipment size
6. The travel speed
4. The Manipulation of the heat source
2. Equipment settings
3. Distance from heat source to work
5. Heat source angle
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Distance
The critical distance varies with each welding process.
OFW--inner cone to work
SMAW--electrode end to work
GMAW--Contact tube to work
GTAW--Cup to work
Proper jointing and cutting will not occur if the critical distance is
varied beyond the recommended limits.
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Angle
Two angles are important in welding.
The best angle to use is different for each type of weld,
welding position and welding process.
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Speed
 The ideal travel speed is different for each
weld, weld position and welding process.
 Operator must watch the welding process
and adjust speed as needed.
Speed indicators are:
A. Size of bead
B. Shape of ripples
C. Penetration
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Manipulation
 You must insure manipulation is
necessary to produce the desired
weld.
 Manipulation (movement) is used to:
1. Control puddle in vertical,
horizontal and overhead welds.
2. Fill joint
3. Produce desired appearance
Two points to remember
1. Make sure there is a sound reason for the manipulation.
2. Select a manipulation pattern that will produce the desired results.
Some outcomes of improper
manipulation
1. Reduced depth of fusion.
2. Undercutting
3. Porosity
4. Slag inclusions
5. Unnecessary wear on
joins of fingers and wrist.
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Types of Welds
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Five Types of Welds
 Surface
 Groove
 Fillet
 Plug
 Slot

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Surface Welds
Surface welds are welds were material has been
applied too and/or blended with the surface of the
work piece.
Two common applications are for hard
surfacing
and padding.
Surface weld nomenclature A: Electrode wire
B: Electrode flux
C: Arc
D: Weld puddle
E: Bead
F: Slag
G: Gas shield
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Groove Welds
Groove welds are used to fuse the sides or
ends of two pieces of metal.
The primary use of groove welds is to complete
butt joints.
Groove weld nomenclature
A: Toe
B: Width
C: Face reinforcement
D: Toe
E: Joint preparation
F: Joint gap
G: Root reinforcement
H: Joint face
I: Base metal
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Fillet Welds
 Fillet welds have a triangular
cross section and are used to
fuse two faces of metal that
are at a 90 degree angle to
each other.
 Three common types are:
T
Lap
Corner
Fillet weld nomenclature
A: Reinforcement
B: Toe
C: Face
D: Throat
E: Toe
F: Leg
G: Root
H: Base metal
I: Leg
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Plug Welds
Plug welds are used to attach
two surfaces together when a
complete joint is not required
and the design does not allow
for any weld bead outside the
dimensions of the metal.
The holes can be made with a drill bit.
The weld is completed by establishing the arc on the bottom plate and
then continuing to weld until the hole is full.
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Slot Welds
Slot welds are identical to plug welds except for the shape of the
holes.
For slot welds, slots are machined or stamped in the upper plate.
They are completed the same as
plug welds.
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Five Types of Joints
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Five Types of Joints
Butt
Lap
T
Corner
Edge
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Butt Joints
 Used to attach two metal faces together.
 Joint can be completed with the faces square or beveled.
 The need for beveled is determined by the thickness of the
metal and available size of the electrode and power supply.
 No joint preparation is required if the electrode and power
supply can supply sufficient heat for full penetration.
 Completed with groove weld.
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Three examples for 1/8 inch SMAW electrode:
1/4 inch and less; single pass,
single side.
3/8’s inch to 3/4 inch; joint prep
and multiple pass.
1/4 inch to 3/8’s inch; single pass, two
sides or joint prep and one side.
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Corner Joints
 Three common types:
Joint Weld
 Closed Groove weld
 Partially open Fillet weld
 Fully open Fillet weld
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Lap Joints
 Lap joints are use to attach
metal that overlaps.
 Lab joints are completed with a
fillet weld.
 A lap of three times metal
thickness provides maximum
strength.
 Welding both sides increases
strength in both directions.
 Multiple pass welds are used
when electrode diameter or the
power supply is a limiting factor.
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Edge Joints
 Used to weld two surfaces
at 180 degrees.
 Completed with groove
joint.
 Multiple pass is used when
the electrode or power
supply is the limiting factor.
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Five Welding Positions
Flat
Vertical up
Vertical down
Horizontal
Overhead
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Questions