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Inside of a computer

What happens when you turn your computer on?

What loads?
Where are applications stored? How are do they run?
In what form is information stored in a computer?
What is the location in memory where they are
stored called? How much information is stored in
one location?
How does the RAM communicate with the Hard
Drive? How do they get power?
Internet Basics
This lesson includes the following sections:
The Internet: Then and Now
How the Internet Works
Major Features of the Internet
Online Services
Internet Features in Application Programs

The Internet was created by the Advanced Research
Projects Agency (ARPA) and the U.S. Department of
Defense for scientific and military communications.
The Internet is a network of interconnected networks.
Even if part of its infrastructure was destroyed, data
could flow through the remaining networks.
The Internet uses high-speed data lines, called
backbones, to carry data. Smaller networks connect to
the backbone, enabling any user on any network to
exchange data with any other user.
ARPANET, NSFnet, Internet
Internetworking: the process of connecting separate

The Internet: Then and Now

Routing Traffic Across the Internet

Addressing Schemes

Domains and Subdomains

How the Internet Works
Every computer and network on the Internet uses
the same protocols (rules and procedures) to control
timing and data format.

The protocol used by the Internet is the
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or

No matter what type of computer system you
connect to the Internet, if it uses TCP/IP, it can
exchange data with any other type of computer.
How the Internet Works - TCP/IP
Most computers don't connect directly to the Internet.
Instead, they connect to a smaller network that is
connected to the Internet backbone.

The Internet includes thousands of host computers
(servers), which provide data and services as
requested by client systems.

When you use the Internet, your PC (a client)
requests data from a host system. The request and
data are broken into packets and travel across
multiple networks before being reassembled at their

How the Internet Works -
Routing Traffic Across the Internet
The Operation of the Internet
Packets of information flow between machines governed by
common rules (protocols):
Internet protocol (IP)
Transport control protocol (TCP)
Internet is a packet-switching network
Messages are decomposed into packets, containing part of the
message, plus information on the sending and receiving machines
and how the packet relates to the other packets
Packets travel independently and possibly on different routes
through the Internet
Packets are reassembled into the message at the receiving machine.
In order to communicate across the Internet, a
computer must have a unique address.

Every computer on the Internet has a unique
numeric identifier, called an Internet Protocol (IP)

Each IP address has four parts each part a number
between 0 and 255. An IP address might look like

How the Internet Works -
Addressing Schemes
Where to Begin? Internet

Because the Internet is a global network of computers each
computer connected to the Internet must have a unique
address. Internet addresses are in the
form nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where nnn must be a number from
0 - 255. This address is known as an IP address. (IP stands
for Internet Protocol; more on this later.)
The picture below illustrates two computers connected to
the Internet; your computer with IP address and
another computer with IP address The Internet is
represented as an abstract object in-between.
If you connect to the Internet through an Internet Service
Provider (ISP), you are usually assigned a temporary IP
address for the duration of your dial-in session. If you
connect to the Internet from a local area network (LAN)
your computer might have a permanent IP address or it
might obtain a temporary one from a DHCP (Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol) server. In any case, if you
are connected to the Internet, your computer has a unique
IP address.
Check It Out - The Ping Program
IF you're using Microsoft Windows or a flavor of Unix and have a
connection to the Internet, there is a handy program to see if a
computer on the Internet is alive. It's called ping, probably after
the sound made by older submarine sonar systems.1 If you are
using Windows, start a command prompt window. If you're using
a flavor of Unix, get to a command prompt. Type ping The ping program will send a 'ping' (actually an
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) echo request message)
to the named computer. The pinged computer will respond with a
reply. The ping program will count the time expired until the reply
comes back (if it does). Also, if you enter a domain name (i.e. instead of an IP address, ping will resolve the
domain name and display the computer's IP address. More on
domain names and address resolution later.
Protocol Stacks and Packets

So your computer is connected to the Internet and has a unique address.
How does it 'talk' to other computers connected to the Internet? An
example should serve here: Let's say your IP address is and
you want to send a message to the computer The message you
want to send is "Hello computer!". Obviously, the message
must be transmitted over whatever kind of wire connects your
computer to the Internet. Let's say you've dialed into your ISP from
home and the message must be transmitted over the phone line.
Therefore the message must be translated from alphabetic text into
electronic signals, transmitted over the Internet, then translated back
into alphabetic text. How is this accomplished? Through the use of
a protocol stack. Every computer needs one to communicate on the
Internet and it is usually built into the computer's operating system
(i.e. Windows, Unix, etc.). The protocol stack used on the Internet is
referred to as the TCP/IP protocol stack because of the two major
communication protocols used. The TCP/IP stack looks like this:
Protocol LayerComments
Application Protocols
LayerProtocols specific to applications such as WWW, e-mail,
FTP, etc.
Transmission Control
Protocol Layer
TCP directs packets to a specific application on a computer
using a port number.

Internet Protocol Layer
IP directs packets to a specific computer using an IP address.
Hardware Layer
Converts binary packet data to network signals and back.
(E.g. ethernet network card, modem for phone lines, etc.)

In addition to an IP address, most Internet hosts or
servers have a Domain Name System (DNS) address,
which uses words.

A domain name identifies the type of institution that
owns the computer. An Internet server owned by IBM
might have the domain name

Some enterprises have multiple servers, and identify
them with subdomains, such as
How the Internet Works -
Domains and Subdomains
The World Wide Web




File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

Major Features of the Internet
The World Wide Web is a part of the Internet, which
supports hypertext documents, allowing users to view
and navigate different types of data.

A Web page is a document encoded with hypertext
markup language (HTML) tags.

HTML allows designers to link content together via

Every Web page has an address, a Uniform Resource
Locator (URL).

Major Features of the Internet -
The World Wide Web
This address is for an
Internet server that uses
The hypertext transfer protocol.
This site belongs to a
company named Glencoe.
This site is on the part
of the Internet known
as the World Wide Web.
To find the specific Web pages
that accompany this book, your
browser follows the URLs path
to a folder named norton, then
to a subfolder named online.
Electronic mail (e-mail) is the most popular reason
people use the Internet.

To create, send, and receive e-mail messages, you need
an e-mail program and an account on an Internet mail
server with a domain name.

To use e-mail, a user must have an e-mail address,
which you create by adding your user name to the
e-mail server's domain name, as in

Major Features of the Internet - E-Mail