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LECTURE PRESENTATIONS

For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION
Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lectures by
Erin Barley
Kathleen Fitzpatrick
Nervous Systems

Chapter 49
Overview: Command and Control Center
• The human brain contains about 100 billion
neurons, organized into circuits more complex
than the most powerful supercomputers
• A recent advance in brain exploration involves a
method for expressing combinations of colored
proteins in brain cells, a technique called
“brainbow”
• This may allow researchers to develop detailed
maps of information transfer between regions of
the brain
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Figure 49.1
• Each single-celled organism can respond to
stimuli in its environment
• Animals are multicellular and most groups
respond to stimuli using systems of neurons
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Concept 49.1: Nervous systems consist of
circuits of neurons and supporting cells
• The simplest animals with nervous systems, the
cnidarians, have neurons arranged in nerve nets
• A nerve net is a series of interconnected nerve
cells
• More complex animals have nerves
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• Nerves are bundles that consist of the axons of
multiple nerve cells
• Sea stars have a nerve net in each arm
connected by radial nerves to a central nerve
ring
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Figure 49.2
Nerve net
(a) Hydra (cnidarian)
Radial
nerve
Nerve
ring
(b) Sea star
(echinoderm)
Eyespot
Brain
Nerve
cords
Transverse
nerve
Brain
Ventral
nerve cord
Segmental
ganglia
(c) Planarian
(flatworm)
(d) Leech (annelid)
(h) Salamander
(vertebrate)
(e) Insect (arthropod) (f) Chiton (mollusc) (g) Squid (mollusc)
Brain
Brain
Brain
Ventral
nerve cord
Segmental
ganglia
Anterior
nerve ring
Longitudinal
nerve cords
Ganglia
Ganglia
Spinal
cord
(dorsal
nerve
cord)
Sensory
ganglia
Figure 49.2a
Nerve net
(a) Hydra (cnidarian)
Radial
nerve
Nerve
ring
(b) Sea star (echinoderm)
• Bilaterally symmetrical animals exhibit
cephalization, the clustering of sensory organs
at the front end of the body
• Relatively simple cephalized animals, such as
flatworms, have a central nervous system (CNS)
• The CNS consists of a brain and longitudinal
nerve cords

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Figure 49.2b
Eyespot
Brain
Nerve
cords
Transverse
nerve
Brain
Ventral
nerve cord
Segmental
ganglia
(c) Planarian (flatworm) (d) Leech (annelid)
• Annelids and arthropods have segmentally
arranged clusters of neurons called ganglia

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Figure 49.2c
(e) Insect (arthropod) (f) Chiton (mollusc)
Brain
Ventral
nerve cord
Segmental
ganglia
Anterior
nerve ring
Longitudinal
nerve cords
Ganglia
• Nervous system organization usually correlates
with lifestyle
• Sessile molluscs (for example, clams and
chitons) have simple systems, whereas more
complex molluscs (for example, octopuses and
squids) have more sophisticated systems

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.2d
(h) Salamander (vertebrate) (g) Squid (mollusc)
Brain
Brain
Ganglia
Spinal
cord
(dorsal
nerve
cord)
Sensory
ganglia
• In vertebrates
– The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal
cord
– The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is
composed of nerves and ganglia
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Organization of the Vertebrate Nervous
System
• The spinal cord conveys information from and
to the brain
• The spinal cord also produces reflexes
independently of the brain
• A reflex is the body’s automatic response to a
stimulus
– For example, a doctor uses a mallet to trigger
a knee-jerk reflex
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Quadriceps
muscle
Cell body of
sensory neuron in
dorsal root
ganglion
Gray
matter
White
matter
Hamstring
muscle
Spinal cord
(cross section)
Sensory neuron
Motor neuron
Interneuron
Figure 49.3
• Invertebrates usually have a ventral nerve cord
while vertebrates have a dorsal spinal cord
• The spinal cord and brain develop from the
embryonic nerve cord
• The nerve cord gives rise to the central canal
and ventricles of the brain
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Figure 49.4
Central nervous
system (CNS)
Brain
Spinal cord
Peripheral nervous
system (PNS)
Cranial nerves
Ganglia outside
CNS
Spinal nerves
Figure 49.5
Gray matter
White
matter
Ventricles
• The central canal of the spinal cord and the
ventricles of the brain are hollow and filled with
cerebrospinal fluid
• The cerebrospinal fluid is filtered from blood and
functions to cushion the brain and spinal cord as
well as to provide nutrients and remove wastes

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• The brain and spinal cord contain
– Gray matter, which consists of neuron cell
bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons
– White matter, which consists of bundles of
myelinated axons

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Glia
• Glia have numerous functions to nourish,
support, and regulate neurons
– Embryonic radial glia form tracks along which
newly formed neurons migrate
– Astrocytes induce cells lining capillaries in the
CNS to form tight junctions, resulting in a
blood-brain barrier and restricting the entry of
most substances into the brain
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Figure 49.6
CNS PNS
VENTRICLE
Cilia
Neuron
Astrocyte
Oligodendrocyte
Capillary Ependymal cell
LM
5
0


m

Schwann cell
Microglial cell
Figure 49.6a
CNS PNS
VENTRICLE
Cilia
Neuron
Astrocyte
Oligodendrocyte
Capillary Ependymal cell
Schwann cell
Microglial cell
Figure 49.6b
LM 5
0


m

The Peripheral Nervous System
• The PNS transmits information to and from the
CNS and regulates movement and the internal
environment
• In the PNS, afferent neurons transmit information
to the CNS and efferent neurons transmit
information away from the CNS
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• The PNS has two efferent components: the
motor system and the autonomic nervous system
• The motor system carries signals to skeletal
muscles and is voluntary
• The autonomic nervous system regulates
smooth and cardiac muscles and is generally
involuntary
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Efferent neurons
Afferent neurons
Central Nervous
System
(information processing)
Peripheral Nervous
System
Sensory
receptors
Internal
and external
stimuli
Autonomic
nervous system
Motor
system
Control of
skeletal muscle
Sympathetic
division
Parasympathetic
division
Enteric
division
Control of smooth muscles,
cardiac muscles, glands
Figure 49.7
• The autonomic nervous system has
sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric
divisions
• The sympathetic division regulates arousal
and energy generation (“fight-or-flight”
response)
• The parasympathetic division has
antagonistic effects on target organs and
promotes calming and a return to “rest and
digest” functions
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• The enteric division controls activity of the
digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Parasympathetic division
Action on target organs:
Constricts pupil
of eye
Stimulates salivary
gland secretion
Constricts
bronchi in lungs
Slows heart
Stimulates activity
of stomach and
intestines
Stimulates activity
of pancreas
Stimulates
gallbladder
Promotes emptying
of bladder
Promotes erection
of genitalia
Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Synapse
Sacral
Sympathetic
ganglia
Sympathetic division
Action on target organs:
Dilates pupil of eye
Accelerates heart
Inhibits salivary
gland secretion
Relaxes bronchi
in lungs
Inhibits activity of
stomach and intestines
Inhibits activity
of pancreas
Stimulates glucose
release from liver;
inhibits gallbladder
Stimulates
adrenal medulla
Inhibits emptying
of bladder
Promotes ejaculation
and vaginal contractions
Figure 49.8
Figure 49.8a
Parasympathetic division
Action on target organs:
Constricts pupil
of eye
Stimulates salivary
gland secretion
Constricts
bronchi in lungs
Slows heart
Stimulates activity
of stomach and
intestines
Stimulates activity
of pancreas
Stimulates
gallbladder
Cervical
Sympathetic
ganglia
Sympathetic division
Action on target organs:
Dilates pupil of eye
Inhibits salivary
gland secretion
Parasympathetic division
Promotes emptying
of bladder
Promotes erection
of genitalia
Thoracic
Lumbar
Synapse
Sacral
Sympathetic division
Accelerates heart
Relaxes bronchi
in lungs
Inhibits activity of
stomach and intestines
Inhibits activity
of pancreas
Stimulates glucose
release from liver;
inhibits gallbladder
Stimulates
adrenal medulla
Inhibits emptying
of bladder
Promotes ejaculation
and vaginal contractions
Figure 49.8b
Concept 49.2: The vertebrate brain is
regionally specialized
• Specific brain structures are particularly
specialized for diverse functions
• These structures arise during embryonic
development


© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.9a
Embryonic brain regions Brain structures in child and adult
Forebrain
Midbrain
Hindbrain
Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metencephalon
Myelencephalon
Cerebrum (includes cerebral cortex, white
matter, basal nuclei)
Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus,
epithalamus)
Midbrain (part of brainstem)
Pons (part of brainstem), cerebellum
Medulla oblongata (part of brainstem)
Midbrain
Forebrain
Hindbrain
Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metencephalon
Myelencephalon
Spinal
cord
Cerebrum
Diencephalon
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla
oblongata
Cerebellum
Spinal cord
Child Embryo at 5 weeks Embryo at 1 month
Figure 49.9b
Figure 49.9ba
Midbrain
Forebrain
Hindbrain
Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metencephalon
Myelencephalon
Spinal
cord
Embryo at 5 weeks Embryo at 1 month
Figure 49.9bb
Cerebrum
Diencephalon
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla
oblongata
Cerebellum
Spinal cord
Child
Figure 49.9c
Adult brain viewed from the rear
Cerebellum
Basal nuclei
Cerebrum
Left cerebral
hemisphere
Right cerebral
hemisphere
Cerebral cortex
Corpus callosum
Figure 49.9d
Diencephalon
Thalamus
Pineal gland
Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland
Spinal cord
Brainstem
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla
oblongata
Arousal and Sleep
• The brainstem and cerebrum control arousal
and sleep
• The core of the brainstem has a diffuse network
of neurons called the reticular formation
• This regulates the amount and type of
information that reaches the cerebral cortex
and affects alertness
• The hormone melatonin is released by the
pineal gland and plays a role in bird and
mammal sleep cycles
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Figure 49.10
Eye
Reticular formation
Input from touch,
pain, and temperature
receptors
Input from nerves
of ears
• Sleep is essential and may play a role in the
consolidation of learning and memory
• Dolphins sleep with one brain hemisphere at a
time and are therefore able to swim while
“asleep”
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.11
Low-frequency waves characteristic of sleep
High-frequency waves characteristic of wakefulness
Key
Location Time: 0 hours Time: 1 hour
Left
hemisphere
Right
hemisphere
Biological Clock Regulation
• Cycles of sleep and wakefulness are examples
of circadian rhythms, daily cycles of biological
activity
• Mammalian circadian rhythms rely on a
biological clock, molecular mechanism that
directs periodic gene expression
• Biological clocks are typically synchronized to
light and dark cycles
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• In mammals, circadian rhythms are coordinated
by a group of neurons in the hypothalamus
called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
• The SCN acts as a pacemaker, synchronizing
the biological clock
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.12
Wild-type hamster
Wild-type hamster with
SCN from  hamster
 hamster
 hamster with SCN
from wild-type hamster
RESULTS
Before
procedures
After surgery
and transplant
C
i
r
c
a
d
i
a
n

c
y
c
l
e

p
e
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d

(
h
o
u
r
s
)

24
23
22
21
20
19
Emotions
• Generation and experience of emotions involve
many brain structures including the amygdala,
hippocampus, and parts of the thalamus
• These structures are grouped as the limbic
system
• The limbic system also functions in motivation,
olfaction, behavior, and memory
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.13
Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Olfactory
bulb
Amygdala Hippocampus
• Generation and experience of emotion also
require interaction between the limbic system
and sensory areas of the cerebrum
• The structure most important to the storage of
emotion in the memory is the amygdala, a mass
of nuclei near the base of the cerebrum
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.14
Nucleus accumbens Amygdala
Happy music Sad music
Figure 49.14a
Nucleus accumbens
Happy music
Figure 49.14b
Amygdala
Sad music
Concept 49.3: The cerebral cortex controls
voluntary movement and cognitive functions
• The cerebrum, the largest structure in the
human brain, is essential for awareness,
language, cognition, memory, and
consciousness
• Four regions, or lobes (frontal, temporal,
occipital, and parietal), are landmarks for
particular functions
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.15
Motor cortex
(control of
skeletal muscles)
Frontal lobe
Prefrontal cortex
(decision making,
planning)
Broca’s area
(forming speech)
Temporal lobe
Auditory cortex (hearing)
Wernicke’s area
(comprehending language)
Somatosensory cortex
(sense of touch)
Parietal lobe
Sensory association
cortex (integration of
sensory information)
Visual association
cortex (combining
images and object
recognition)
Occipital lobe
Cerebellum
Visual cortex
(processing visual
stimuli and pattern
recognition)
Language and Speech
• Studies of brain activity have mapped areas
responsible for language and speech
• Broca’s area in the frontal lobe is active when
speech is generated
• Wernicke’s area in the temporal lobe is active
when speech is heard
• These areas belong to a larger network of
regions involved in language
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.16
Hearing
words
Speaking
words
Seeing
words
Generating
words
Max
Min
Lateralization of Cortical Function
• The two hemispheres make distinct contributions
to brain function
• The left hemisphere is more adept at language,
math, logic, and processing of serial sequences
• The right hemisphere is stronger at pattern
recognition, nonverbal thinking, and emotional
processing
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• The differences in hemisphere function are
called lateralization
• Lateralization is partly linked to handedness
• The two hemispheres work together by
communicating through the fibers of the corpus
callosum
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Information Processing
• The cerebral cortex receives input from sensory
organs and somatosensory receptors
• Somatosensory receptors provide information
about touch, pain, pressure, temperature, and
the position of muscles and limbs
• The thalamus directs different types of input to
distinct locations

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Adjacent areas process features in the sensory
input and integrate information from different
sensory areas
• Integrated sensory information passes to the
prefrontal cortex, which helps plan actions and
movements
• In the somatosensory cortex and motor cortex,
neurons are arranged according to the part of
the body that generates input or receives
commands
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.17
Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Primary
motor cortex
Primary
somatosensory
cortex
Genitalia
Toes
Abdominal
organs
Tongue
Jaw
H
i
p

K
n
e
e

Tongue
Pharynx
H
e
a
d

N
e
c
k

T
r
u
n
k

H
i
p

L
e
g

Figure 49.17a
Primary
motor cortex
Toes
Tongue
Jaw
H
i
p

K
n
e
e

Figure 49.17b
Primary
somatosensory
cortex
Genitalia
Abdominal
organs
Tongue
Pharynx
H
e
a
d

N
e
c
k

T
r
u
n
k

H
i
p

L
e
g

Frontal Lobe Function
• Frontal lobe damage may impair decision
making and emotional responses but leave
intellect and memory intact
• The frontal lobes have a substantial effect on
“executive functions”
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.UN01
Evolution of Cognition in Vertebrates
• Previous ideas that a highly convoluted
neocortex is required for advanced cognition
may be incorrect
• The anatomical basis for sophisticated
information processing in birds (without a highly
convoluted neocortex) appears to be the
clustering of nuclei in the top or outer portion of
the brain (pallium)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Human brain
Avian brain
Thalamus
Midbrain
Hindbrain Cerebellum
Avian brain
to scale
Thalamus
Midbrain
Hindbrain
Cerebellum
Cerebrum (including
cerebral cortex)
Cerebrum
(including pallium)
Figure 49.18
Concept 49.4 Changes in synaptic
connections underlie memory and learning
• Two processes dominate embryonic
development of the nervous system
– Neurons compete for growth-supporting factors
in order to survive
– Only half the synapses that form during embryo
development survive into adulthood
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Neural Plasticity
• Neural plasticity describes the ability of the
nervous system to be modified after birth
• Changes can strengthen or weaken signaling at
a synapse
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.19
N
2

N
1

N
2

N
1

(a) Synapses are strengthened or weakened in response to
activity.
(b) If two synapses are often active at the same time, the
strength of the postsynaptic response may increase at
both synapses.
Memory and Learning
• The formation of memories is an example of
neural plasticity
• Short-term memory is accessed via the
hippocampus
• The hippocampus also plays a role in forming
long-term memory, which is stored in the
cerebral cortex
• Some consolidation of memory is thought to
occur during sleep
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Long-Term Potentiation
• In the vertebrate brain, a form of learning called
long-term potentiation (LTP) involves an
increase in the strength of synaptic transmission
• LTP involves glutamate receptors
• If the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons are
stimulated at the same time, the set of receptors
present on the postsynaptic membranes
changes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.20
PRESYNAPTIC
NEURON
Glutamate
Mg
2

Ca
2

Na


NMDA
receptor
(closed)
Stored
AMPA
receptor
NMDA receptor (open)
POSTSYNAPTIC
NEURON
(a) Synapse prior to long-term potentiation (LTP)
(b) Establishing LTP
(c) Synapse exhibiting LTP
Depolarization
Action
potential
2
1
3
1
2
3
4
Figure 49.20a
PRESYNAPTIC
NEURON
Glutamate
Mg
2

Ca
2

Na


NMDA
receptor
(closed)
Stored
AMPA
receptor
NMDA receptor (open)
POSTSYNAPTIC
NEURON
(a) Synapse prior to long-term potentiation (LTP)
Figure 49.20b
(b) Establishing LTP
1
2
3
AMPA
receptor
NMDA receptor
Mg
2

Ca
2

Na


Figure 49.20c
(c) Synapse exhibiting LTP
Depolarization
Action
potential
AMPA
receptor
NMDA receptor
1
3
4
2
Stem Cells in the Brain
• The adult human brain contains neural stem
cells
• In mice, stem cells in the brain can give rise to
neurons that mature and become incorporated
into the adult nervous system
• Such neurons play an essential role in learning
and memory
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.21
Concept 49.5: Nervous system disorders can
be explained in molecular terms
• Disorders of the nervous system include
schizophrenia, depression, drug addiction,
Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease
• Genetic and environmental factors contribute to
diseases of the nervous system
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.22
Genes shared with relatives of
person with schizophrenia
12.5% (3rd-degree relative)
25% (2nd-degree relative)
50% (1st-degree relative)
100%
50
40
30
20
10
0
Relationship to person with schizophrenia
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Schizophrenia
• About 1% of the world’s population suffers from
schizophrenia
• Schizophrenia is characterized by hallucinations,
delusions, and other symptoms
• Available treatments focus on brain pathways
that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Depression
• Two broad forms of depressive illness are
known: major depressive disorder and bipolar
disorder
• In major depressive disorder, patients have a
persistent lack of interest or pleasure in most
activities
• Bipolar disorder is characterized by manic
(high-mood) and depressive (low-mood) phases
• Treatments for these types of depression include
drugs such as Prozac
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Drug Addiction and the Brain’s Reward
System
• The brain’s reward system rewards motivation
with pleasure
• Some drugs are addictive because they
increase activity of the brain’s reward system
• These drugs include cocaine, amphetamine,
heroin, alcohol, and tobacco
• Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive
consumption and an inability to control intake
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Addictive drugs enhance the activity of the
dopamine pathway
• Drug addiction leads to long-lasting changes in
the reward circuitry that cause craving for the
drug
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.23
Nicotine
stimulates
dopamine-
releasing
VTA neuron.
Inhibitory neuron
Dopamine-
releasing
VTA neuron
Cerebral
neuron of
reward
pathway
Opium and heroin
decrease activity
of inhibitory
neuron.
Cocaine and
amphetamines
block removal
of dopamine
from synaptic
cleft.
Reward
system
response
Alzheimer’s Disease
• Alzheimer’s disease is a mental deterioration
characterized by confusion and memory loss
• Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the formation
of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques in
the brain
• There is no cure for this disease though some
drugs are effective at relieving symptoms
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.24
Amyloid plaque Neurofibrillary tangle
20 m
Parkinson’s Disease
• Parkinson’s disease is a motor disorder
caused by death of dopamine-secreting
neurons in the midbrain
• It is characterized by muscle tremors, flexed
posture, and a shuffling gait
• There is no cure, although drugs and various
other approaches are used to manage
symptoms
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 49.UN02
Nerve net
Hydra (cnidarian)
Salamander (vertebrate)
Sensory
ganglia
Spinal
cord
(dorsal
nerve
cord)
Brain
Figure 49.UN03
Capillary Neuron Microglial cell
Schwann
cells
Oligodendrocyte
Astrocyte
PNS CNS
Cilia
VENTRICLE
Ependy-
mal
cell
Figure 49.UN04
Spinal
cord
Cerebral
cortex
Cerebellum
Medulla
oblongata
Pons
Hindbrain
Midbrain
Forebrain
Cerebrum
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland
Figure 49.UN05