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# Differential Equation

ASLAM U ALIKUM
Application of linear
Differential Equation

By
Shahid bashir 08105012
Umair munir 08105037
Umar maqsood 08105002
CH.Usman ali 08105022
Nouman dilawar
08105035
After presentation Should
Be Clear
 Linear differential equation
 General form of linear equation
 Application of linear differential equation
 Growth and decay
 Half life
 Mixture problem
 Series circuit
 Cooling
 Carbon dating
 Falling Object
What is linear differential
equation?

## An equation involving derivatives in which the dependent

variable an all derivatives appearing in the equation are
raised to the first power.
A linear differential equation of the form
dy/dx +p(x)y=f(x)
Is said to be linear differential equation
OR
Linear Differential
Equations
 A first-order differential equation is said to be linear if, in it,
the unknown function y and its derivative y' appear with
non-negative integral index not greater than one and not as
product yy' either.
Hence,
The most general first order linear differential equation
is given by:-

## where p and q are given real-valued function in 1.

General form of linear
equation

## An(x)dny/dxn+ an-1(x)dn-1 /dxn-1+………+a1(x)dy/dx+a0(x)y= g(x)

Applications of linear
Differential Equations
Growth And Decay

## The initial value problem

dx/dt=kx, x(to)=xo,
There k is a constant of proportionality occur in many
physical theories involving either growth and decay.

For example:

## In biology it is often observed that the rate at

which certain bacteria grow is proportional to the
number of bacteria present in any time.
Find Exponential Growth-
Population
Let P(t) be a quantity that increases with time t and the rate of
increase is proportional to the same quantity P as follows
dP/dt=kP
where d p/d t is the first derivative of P, k>0 and t is the time.
The solution to the above first order differential equation is
given by
P(t) = A ekt
where A is a constant not equal to 0.
If P = P0 at t = 0, then
P 0 = A e0
which gives A = P0
The final form of the solution is given by
P(t) = P0 ekt
Half life
 In physics the half life is a measure of stability of a radio
activate substance.

The half life is simply the time it takes for one half of
the atoms in initial amount A0 is disintegrate or
transmute into the atoms of another element, the longer
the half life of a substance the more stable it is,

For example:-

## The half life is highly radioactive radium Ra

266 is about 1700 years.
Half life

## The most commonly occurring uranium isotopes U-238

has a half life of approximately 4,500,000,000 years. in
about 4.5billion years one half of a quantity of U -238 is
transmuted in to lead, pb-206..
Find Exponential Decay -
Radioactive Material
 Let M(t) be the amount of a product that decreases with
time t and the rate of decrease is proportional to the
amount M as follows
dM/dt=-kM
where d M / d t is the first derivative of M, k > 0 and t is
the time.
Solve the above first order differential equation to obtain
M(t) = Ae -kt
where A is non zero constant.
It we assume that M = M0 at t = 0, then
M0 = A e0
which gives A = M0
The solution may be written as follows
M(t) = M0 e- kt
Find Exponential Decay -
Radioactive Material

## Assuming M0 is positive and since k is positive, M(t) is an

decreasing exponential. d M / d t = - k M is also called
an exponential decay model.
Carbon dating

## The theory of carbon is based on the fact that the

isotopes carbon 14 is produced in the atmosphere by the
actions of cosmic radiations on nitrogen.
The ratio of the amount of C-14 to ordinary carbon in the
atmosphere appears to be a constant, and as a
consequence the proportionate amount of isotope present
in a all living organisms is the same as that in the
atmosphere.
when an organism dies, the absorption of C- 14 , by
either breathing or eating ceases. Thus by comparing the
proportionate amount of C-14 present, say, in a fossil
with a constant ratio found In the atmosphere, it is
possible to obtain a reasonable estimation of it’s age.
Carbon dating

## The method is based on the knowledge that the half life of

the radioactive C- 14 is approximately 5600 years.
COOLING

##  Newton’s law of cooling states that the rate at which the

temperature T (t) changes in a cooling body is proportional to
the difference between the temperature in the body and the
constant temperature Tm of the surrounding medium that is

dT/dt=k(T-Tm)

## Where k is constant of proportionality.

Newton's Law of Cooling

## It is a model that describes, mathematically, the change in

temperature of an object in a given environment.
The law states that the rate of change (in time) of the
temperature is proportional to the difference between the
temperature T of the object and the temperature Te of the
environment surrounding the object.
d T / d t = - k (T - Te)
Let x = T - Te so that dx / dt = dT / dt
Using the above change of variable, the above differential
equation becomes
dx/dt=-kx
The solution to the above differential equation is given by
x=Ae-kt
Newton's Law of Cooling
substitute x by T - Te

T - Te = A e - k t

## Assume that at t = 0 the temperature T = To

T0 - Te = A e 0

which gives A = To - Te
The final expression for T(t) i given by
T(t) = Te + (T0 - Te)e - k t
This last expression shows how the temperature T of the
object changes with time.
SERIES CIRCUITS
 In a series circuit containing only a resister and an
inductor, Kirchof’s second law states that the sum of the
voltage drop across the inductor (L(di/dt)) and the
voltage drop across the resister (iR) is the same as the
impressed voltage (E(t)) on the circuit.
Thus we obtain the linear equation for the current i(t)

L di/dt + Ri = E (t)

## Where L and R are constants known as the inductance and the

resistance respectively, the current i(t) is sometimes
called the response of the system.
RL Circuit
RL circuit
Let us consider the RL (resistor R and inductor L) circuit
shown above.
At t = 0 the switch is closed and current passes through the
circuit.
Electricty laws state that the voltage across a resistor of
resistance R is equal to R i and the voltage across an inductor
L is given by L di/dt (i is the current). Another law gives an
equation relating all voltages in the above circuit as follows:
L di/dt + Ri = E , where E is a constant voltage.
Let us solve the above differential equation which may be
written as follows
L [ di / dt ] / [E - R i] = 1
RL Circuit
Which may be written as
- (L / R) [ - R d i ] / [E - Ri] = dt
Integrate both sides
- (L / R) ln(E - R i) = t + c , c constant of integration.

## Find constant c by setting i = 0 at t = 0 (when switch is

closed) which gives
c = (-L / R) ln(E)

## Substitute c in the solution

- (L / R) ln(E - R i) = t + (-L/R) ln (E)
which may be written

RL circuit

## Solve for i to obtain

i = (E/R) (1-e-Rt/L)

## The starting model for the circuit is a differential

equation which when solved, gives an expression of the
current in the circuit as a function of time.
Mixture problem
 In these problems we will start with a substance that is dissolved
in a liquid.
Liquid will be entering and leaving a holding tank.
The liquid entering the tank may or may not contain more of the
substance dissolved in it.
Liquid leaving the tank will of course contain the substance
dissolved in it.
If Q(t) gives the amount of the substance dissolved in the liquid
in the tank at any time t we want to develop a differential
equation that, when solved, will give us an expression for Q(t).
Note as well that in many situations we can think of air as a liquid
for the purposes of these kinds of discussions and so we don’t
actually need to have an actual liquid, but could instead use air
as the “liquid”.
Mixture problem
 The main assumption that we’ll be using here is that the
concentration of the substance in the liquid is uniform
throughout the tank.
The main “equation” that we’ll be using to model this
situation is
Mixture problem

## Rate of Rate at Rate at

= which Q(t)
change of - which Q(t)
Q(t) enters the exits the
tank tank

## Rate at which Q(t) enters the tank = (flow rate of liquid

entering) x
(concentration of
substance in liquid entering)
Rate at which Q(t) exits the tank = (flow rate of liquid
exiting) x
(concentration of
substance in liquid exiting)
Mixture problem
Consider a tank which initially holds V0 gal of brine that
contains a lb of salt. Another solution, containing b lb of salt
per gallon, is poured into the tank at the rate of e gal/min
while simultaneously, the well-stirred solution leaves the tank
at the rate of f gal/min (Figure 3-2).
The problem is to find the amount of salt in the tank at any
time t.
Let Q denote the amount (in pounds) of salt in the tank at
any time. The time rate of change of Q, dQ/ dt,
equals the rate at which salt enters the tank minus the rate
at which salt leaves the tank. Salt enters the tank at the rate
of be lb/min. To determine the rate at which salt leaves the
tank, we first calculate the volume of brine in the tank at any
time t, which is the initial volume V0
Mixture problem
 plus the volume of brine added et minus the volume of
brine removed ft.
Thus, the volume of brine at any time is
Mixture problem

e gal/min

f gal/min
Mixture problem
V0+et−ft
 The concentration of salt in the tank at any time is Q /
(V0+et−ft), from
which it follows that salt leaves the tank at the rate of
F(Q/V0+et−ft) 1b/min
Thus,
dQ/dt=be-F(Q/V0+et−ft)
OR
dQ/dt+F(Q/(V0+(e−f)t)=be
Falling Object
 An object is dropped from a height at time t = 0. If h(t) is the
height of the object at time t, a(t) the acceleration and v(t)
the velocity. The relationships between a, v and h are as
follows:

m/s.

## Combining the above differential equations, we can easily

deduce the following equation

d 2h / dt 2 = g
Falling Object
Integrate both sides of the above equation to obtain
dh / dt = g t + v0
Falling Object
 Integrate one more time to obtain

h(t) = (1/2) g t + v0 t + h0

## The above equation describes the height of a falling

object, from an initial height h0 at an initial velocity v0,
as a function of time.
Find Falling Object
An object is dropped from a height at time t = 0. If h(t) is the
height of the object at time t, a(t) the acceleration and v(t)
the velocity. The relationships between a, v and h are as
follows:
a(t) = dv / dt , v(t) = dh / dt.
For a falling object, a(t) is constant and is equal to g = -9.8
m/s.
Combining the above differential equations, we can easily
deduce the following equation
d 2h / dt 2 = g

## Integrate both sides of the above equation to obtain

dh / dt = g t + v0
Find Falling Object
Integrate one more time to obtain
h(t) = (1/2) g t + v0 t + h0
The above equation describes the height of a falling
object, from an initial height h0 at an initial velocity v0,
as a function of time.