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ASLAM U ALIKUM

Application of linear

Differential Equation

By

Shahid bashir 08105012

Umair munir 08105037

Umar maqsood 08105002

CH.Usman ali 08105022

Nouman dilawar

08105035

After presentation Should

Be Clear

Linear differential equation

General form of linear equation

Application of linear differential equation

Growth and decay

Half life

Mixture problem

Series circuit

Cooling

Carbon dating

Falling Object

What is linear differential

equation?

variable an all derivatives appearing in the equation are

raised to the first power.

A linear differential equation of the form

dy/dx +p(x)y=f(x)

Is said to be linear differential equation

OR

Linear Differential

Equations

A first-order differential equation is said to be linear if, in it,

the unknown function y and its derivative y' appear with

non-negative integral index not greater than one and not as

product yy' either.

Hence,

The most general first order linear differential equation

is given by:-

General form of linear

equation

Applications of linear

Differential Equations

Growth And Decay

dx/dt=kx, x(to)=xo,

There k is a constant of proportionality occur in many

physical theories involving either growth and decay.

For example:

which certain bacteria grow is proportional to the

number of bacteria present in any time.

Find Exponential Growth-

Population

Let P(t) be a quantity that increases with time t and the rate of

increase is proportional to the same quantity P as follows

dP/dt=kP

where d p/d t is the first derivative of P, k>0 and t is the time.

The solution to the above first order differential equation is

given by

P(t) = A ekt

where A is a constant not equal to 0.

If P = P0 at t = 0, then

P 0 = A e0

which gives A = P0

The final form of the solution is given by

P(t) = P0 ekt

Half life

In physics the half life is a measure of stability of a radio

activate substance.

The half life is simply the time it takes for one half of

the atoms in initial amount A0 is disintegrate or

transmute into the atoms of another element, the longer

the half life of a substance the more stable it is,

For example:-

266 is about 1700 years.

Half life

has a half life of approximately 4,500,000,000 years. in

about 4.5billion years one half of a quantity of U -238 is

transmuted in to lead, pb-206..

Find Exponential Decay -

Radioactive Material

Let M(t) be the amount of a product that decreases with

time t and the rate of decrease is proportional to the

amount M as follows

dM/dt=-kM

where d M / d t is the first derivative of M, k > 0 and t is

the time.

Solve the above first order differential equation to obtain

M(t) = Ae -kt

where A is non zero constant.

It we assume that M = M0 at t = 0, then

M0 = A e0

which gives A = M0

The solution may be written as follows

M(t) = M0 e- kt

Find Exponential Decay -

Radioactive Material

decreasing exponential. d M / d t = - k M is also called

an exponential decay model.

Carbon dating

isotopes carbon 14 is produced in the atmosphere by the

actions of cosmic radiations on nitrogen.

The ratio of the amount of C-14 to ordinary carbon in the

atmosphere appears to be a constant, and as a

consequence the proportionate amount of isotope present

in a all living organisms is the same as that in the

atmosphere.

when an organism dies, the absorption of C- 14 , by

either breathing or eating ceases. Thus by comparing the

proportionate amount of C-14 present, say, in a fossil

with a constant ratio found In the atmosphere, it is

possible to obtain a reasonable estimation of it’s age.

Carbon dating

the radioactive C- 14 is approximately 5600 years.

COOLING

temperature T (t) changes in a cooling body is proportional to

the difference between the temperature in the body and the

constant temperature Tm of the surrounding medium that is

dT/dt=k(T-Tm)

Newton's Law of Cooling

temperature of an object in a given environment.

The law states that the rate of change (in time) of the

temperature is proportional to the difference between the

temperature T of the object and the temperature Te of the

environment surrounding the object.

d T / d t = - k (T - Te)

Let x = T - Te so that dx / dt = dT / dt

Using the above change of variable, the above differential

equation becomes

dx/dt=-kx

The solution to the above differential equation is given by

x=Ae-kt

Newton's Law of Cooling

substitute x by T - Te

T - Te = A e - k t

T0 - Te = A e 0

which gives A = To - Te

The final expression for T(t) i given by

T(t) = Te + (T0 - Te)e - k t

This last expression shows how the temperature T of the

object changes with time.

SERIES CIRCUITS

In a series circuit containing only a resister and an

inductor, Kirchof’s second law states that the sum of the

voltage drop across the inductor (L(di/dt)) and the

voltage drop across the resister (iR) is the same as the

impressed voltage (E(t)) on the circuit.

Thus we obtain the linear equation for the current i(t)

L di/dt + Ri = E (t)

resistance respectively, the current i(t) is sometimes

called the response of the system.

RL Circuit

RL circuit

Let us consider the RL (resistor R and inductor L) circuit

shown above.

At t = 0 the switch is closed and current passes through the

circuit.

Electricty laws state that the voltage across a resistor of

resistance R is equal to R i and the voltage across an inductor

L is given by L di/dt (i is the current). Another law gives an

equation relating all voltages in the above circuit as follows:

L di/dt + Ri = E , where E is a constant voltage.

Let us solve the above differential equation which may be

written as follows

L [ di / dt ] / [E - R i] = 1

RL Circuit

Which may be written as

- (L / R) [ - R d i ] / [E - Ri] = dt

Integrate both sides

- (L / R) ln(E - R i) = t + c , c constant of integration.

closed) which gives

c = (-L / R) ln(E)

- (L / R) ln(E - R i) = t + (-L/R) ln (E)

which may be written

RL circuit

i = (E/R) (1-e-Rt/L)

equation which when solved, gives an expression of the

current in the circuit as a function of time.

Mixture problem

In these problems we will start with a substance that is dissolved

in a liquid.

Liquid will be entering and leaving a holding tank.

The liquid entering the tank may or may not contain more of the

substance dissolved in it.

Liquid leaving the tank will of course contain the substance

dissolved in it.

If Q(t) gives the amount of the substance dissolved in the liquid

in the tank at any time t we want to develop a differential

equation that, when solved, will give us an expression for Q(t).

Note as well that in many situations we can think of air as a liquid

for the purposes of these kinds of discussions and so we don’t

actually need to have an actual liquid, but could instead use air

as the “liquid”.

Mixture problem

The main assumption that we’ll be using here is that the

concentration of the substance in the liquid is uniform

throughout the tank.

The main “equation” that we’ll be using to model this

situation is

Mixture problem

= which Q(t)

change of - which Q(t)

Q(t) enters the exits the

tank tank

entering) x

(concentration of

substance in liquid entering)

Rate at which Q(t) exits the tank = (flow rate of liquid

exiting) x

(concentration of

substance in liquid exiting)

Mixture problem

Consider a tank which initially holds V0 gal of brine that

contains a lb of salt. Another solution, containing b lb of salt

per gallon, is poured into the tank at the rate of e gal/min

while simultaneously, the well-stirred solution leaves the tank

at the rate of f gal/min (Figure 3-2).

The problem is to find the amount of salt in the tank at any

time t.

Let Q denote the amount (in pounds) of salt in the tank at

any time. The time rate of change of Q, dQ/ dt,

equals the rate at which salt enters the tank minus the rate

at which salt leaves the tank. Salt enters the tank at the rate

of be lb/min. To determine the rate at which salt leaves the

tank, we first calculate the volume of brine in the tank at any

time t, which is the initial volume V0

Mixture problem

plus the volume of brine added et minus the volume of

brine removed ft.

Thus, the volume of brine at any time is

Mixture problem

e gal/min

f gal/min

Mixture problem

V0+et−ft

The concentration of salt in the tank at any time is Q /

(V0+et−ft), from

which it follows that salt leaves the tank at the rate of

F(Q/V0+et−ft) 1b/min

Thus,

dQ/dt=be-F(Q/V0+et−ft)

OR

dQ/dt+F(Q/(V0+(e−f)t)=be

Falling Object

An object is dropped from a height at time t = 0. If h(t) is the

height of the object at time t, a(t) the acceleration and v(t)

the velocity. The relationships between a, v and h are as

follows:

m/s.

deduce the following equation

d 2h / dt 2 = g

Falling Object

Integrate both sides of the above equation to obtain

dh / dt = g t + v0

Falling Object

Integrate one more time to obtain

h(t) = (1/2) g t + v0 t + h0

object, from an initial height h0 at an initial velocity v0,

as a function of time.

Find Falling Object

An object is dropped from a height at time t = 0. If h(t) is the

height of the object at time t, a(t) the acceleration and v(t)

the velocity. The relationships between a, v and h are as

follows:

a(t) = dv / dt , v(t) = dh / dt.

For a falling object, a(t) is constant and is equal to g = -9.8

m/s.

Combining the above differential equations, we can easily

deduce the following equation

d 2h / dt 2 = g

dh / dt = g t + v0

Find Falling Object

Integrate one more time to obtain

h(t) = (1/2) g t + v0 t + h0

The above equation describes the height of a falling

object, from an initial height h0 at an initial velocity v0,

as a function of time.

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