Industrial Safety means freedom from
accidents happening in an industry. Accident means an unplanned, unexpected event, which may or may not result into an injury.


PRINCIPLE - ONE An unsafe act, an unsafe condition, an accident; all these are symptoms of something wrong in management system.

BASIC PRINCIPLES PRINCIPLE - TWO Certain sets of circumstances can be predicted to produce severe injuries. These circumstances can be identified and controlled.

BASIC PRINCIPLES PRINCIPLE - THREE Safety should be managed like any other company function. Management should direct the safety effort by setting achievable goals, by planning, organizing, and controlling to achieve them.


PRINCIPLE - FOUR The key to effective line safety performance is management procedures that fix accountability.

BASIC PRINCIPLES PRINCIPLE - FIVE The function of safety is to locate and define the operational errors that allow accident to occur


view the entire system in detail to define likely modes of failure, including human error and their effects on the safety of the system.

Identification and appraisal of The accident problems

Development of accident Prevention and loss – Control procedures

Communicating on of accident information

Measurement of Effectiveness of control

Feedback to be used for modification


There are two fundamental truths in accident prevention. TRUTH – ONE The accident –causes and injury –causes are different. TRUTH - TWO There are more than one cause for any accident


A) Injury to any Person B) Damage to Property C) Damage to Equipment D) Damage to Material

1.No accident even though accident potential is there 2.Near miss accident –called as incident 3.Accident –No damage or injury 4.Accident –Damage or injury 5.Accident-injury to person and damage to equipment, material or property

Injury Accident
Unsafe acts Unsafe condition


Relation of Major Accidents, Minor Accidents and Near-Miss Accidents

Serious Accidents
1 29 300

Minor Accidents No Damage / Injury cases


Unsafe conditions
The major unsafe conditions are as below  Improper guarding ,un-guarded  Defective tools  Slippery floors, work places  Improper house keeping

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Operating without authority Failure to secure or warn Operating or working at unsafe speed Making safety devices inoperative Using unsafe equipment ,hands instead of equipment or equipments unsafely Taking unsafe position or posture Failure to use personal protective equipment

Cost of an accident
Every accident happening on shop floor, at home or in – between, costs something to
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The injured person The family members of the injured The factory where he works The society in which he is living The nation

The accident costs are of mainly two types
Direct Cost (costs which can be seen and measured Indirect Cost ( Hidden cost)

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Direct cost  Compensation  Medical expenses  Direct expenses made by injured

The accident costs are of mainly two types

Indirect cost
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Loss of production by the injured Loss of production by other workers who comes for help Cost of training a new worker Low production by the worker Low production by the victim for some time

The three basic steps in accident prevention

Discovering causes Eliminating unsafe acts Eliminating unsafe conditions

Discovering Causes
There are five techniques to deal with discovering potential causes of accident a. Job safety analysis b. Plant /site inspection c. Accident investigation d. Recording and tabulation of data e. Analysis of data.

Unsafe act can be eliminated by
a. Personnel adjustment b. Education and training c. Supervision d. Discipline Unsafe condition can be eliminated by keeping a watch of it and remove it as early as possible

Safety in P&M Operations
Most accidents ,whether they occur in project sites, on the farm, at home or on the highway are caused by the carelessness of some individual or failure of plant and machinery. Some basic and common safety rules and regulations are: 1.Know your machine in details 2.No operator should be assigned to a job until he completes the following minimum requirement:a. He has been properly trained to operate the machine assigned to him. b. He has read and understood the operator’s manual for the machine.

Safety in P&M Operations

c .He has essential personal protective equipment and know how to use it. d. He has the knowledge about the job requirements, any dangerous condition which may arise and other emergency procedures 3.Maintain safe job condition and working procedure 4.Examine the work site for restricted traffic patterns, obstructive views, congestion etc 5.Never attempt to clear oil or adjust a machine while it is in motion. 6.Attend to all fuel and oil leakage immediately and use only approved grades of lubricating and fuel oils 7.Keep the battery terminals covered with petroleum jelly.

Concrete Mixer
1. All gears ,chains and rollers of concrete Mixer should be adequately guarded to prevent damage /danger 2. Concrete Mixer hopper shall be protected by side railing to prevent workers from passing under them and operator shall make sure before lowering the skip that all workers are safe. 3. Hopper hoisting wire rope has to be checked for its condition periodically.

Concrete Mixer
4. Hopper hoist and anchoring brake should be checked and adjust while slipping occurs. 5. Nothing should be kept inside the motor enclosure. 6. Keep hoist clutch to be checked and adjusted while slipping occurs 7.Be sure that motor fan guard is secured timely 8.Be sure that wiring is properly connected and insulated 9.Ensure double earthling is done to electric mixers

Welding Generators

1.Install the machine in a well ventilated environment with a proper Earthing. 2.Operator/welder should be well aware of sequence of operations 3.Direction of rotation is to be ensured thoroughly. 4.Adoption of correct size of supply &welding cables with lugs (sockets) 5.Insulation of machine should not fall below 2MΏ 6.Fuse rating should not exceed 50 Amps 7.Only genuine parts should be used 8.Avoid grinding work, near generator.

Dumpers & Trucks
1.Only experienced operators with valid license should be permitted to work 2.Allm parts and accessories should be kept in safe condition 3. All lights ,reflectors and brakes should function otherwise truck should be removed from services until repairs are made 4.All vehicle plying on the road should abide by the provision of the motor vehicle Act

Dumpers & Trucks
5.No person should be permitted to remain on the truck while being loaded by excavating equipment or crane. 6.Materila loaded should be within safe weight limit. 7. While reversing the truck /dumper ,Reverse Horn should be used. If reverse horn is not available signalman should be provided. 8. Never keep the PTO lever engaged while the tipper is running on the road .PTO level should be engaged only during the tipping operation

Water Pump-Safety Precaution
1.Ensure proper foundation is provided for placing water pumps to prevent possible toppling and avoid vibration 2.Ensure mounting bolts of both pump and motor /engine is secured well 3.The coupling used should be of correct size with proper keyway and keys and the alignment should be perfect. 4.Ensure the power supply is switched off before attending any type of repairs on the water pump. 5.Ensure all the bolts are tightened properly and keys are placed well before starting the pump 6. Before starting the pump ensure that there is no unwanted tools left near the pump

Water Pump-Safety Precaution

7.No cloth or cotton waste or paper shall be allowed to come in contact with the shaft when the pump is in running condition. 8.Proper cover should be provided for the motor to prevent it from rain or any unexpected water spillage 9.No loose connection is to be allowed in the water line, especially near the pump. The water may spill on the motor and pump causing damage 10.Proper earthling is a must for electrically operated pumps

Safety in Electricity
Hazards associated with electricity 1.Electric shock 2.Electric fire &explosion 3.Electric flash &burns -Joules burns -Flash burns These are the other types of hazards ,which are not directly related to electricity, but may occur .These may be termed as Secondary Hazards. These are 1.Person falling from height 2.Dropping of tools &objects

Safety in Electricity
3.Health hazards due to release of toxic gas and production of UV rays 4. Psychological effect  Emotionally anxious  Distracted And hence more prone to accidents. Electric shock It is a sudden & accidental stimulation of body’s nervous system by the passage of electric current .Shock is felt when person becomes part of electric circuit

Severity of shock depends on
1.Amount of current passing through body 2. Duration of flow 3.Path of flow of current 4.Type of energy Body resistance: A person’s main resistance to current flow is skin’s surface. Callous or dry skin has a fairly high resistance .A sharp decrease in resistance takes place ,however ,when the skin is moist .Once the skin’s resistance is broken down ,the current flows readily through the blood and the body’s tissues.

Effect of electric shock on human
The effects are as follows Human voluntary and involuntary nervous system which control and coordinates thought signals ,biological functions & muscles has data transmission through neuro-humoral (chemical) transmission. This gets disturbed due to flow of external electric current through human body cells, muscles ,nerves, tissues etc. The interface between biological tissues and electrical current manifest in the form of electric shock

How shock occurs

1. By simultaneously touching the phase and neutral conductor thus completing the circuit through his body. 2. By touching the phase conductor and standing on the ground 3. By touching the metallic part that has become live by itself being in contact with energized wire and standing on the ground

Shock Protection Method
All electrical equipment should be isolated from accidental contact & approach by unauthorized men, providing barrier .Panel boards, generators, large motors, batteries should be enclosed. Low & medium voltage OH lines should be kept 19”above the ground.

Isolation Switches:
The switches should be connected in phase only. The switches should be easy and free to operate .Body of the metallic switches should be earthed. Every DB should be provided with a switch. It is advisable to keep switch as near as possible to the work-place. If switch is connected in neutral, person who repairs the equipment, could get shock though the supply is cut using the switch

Shock Protection Method
Isolation transformer: Power can be tapped from isolation transformer for the power tools and for testing electric equipment (in working condition). Avoids shock between earth and phase. Double Insulation: In addition to the normal insulation required for functioning the equipment, a second layer of insulation known as protective insulation is interposed between functional insulation and any accessible metal parts of appliances



Earthing is of two types Neutral Earthing (System Grounding): Intentional connection of neutral point to earth is called neutral or system earthing.If neutral point is earthed ,the phase to ground voltages under earth fault conditions do no arise to high value. Earth fault protection becomes easy. Hence it is universal practice to have a neutral earthling at each voltage level. Equipment Earthing: If is quite different from neutral earthing.Connecting to earth the non-current carrying metal parts of equipment is equipment earthing.The potential of earthed body does not reach to dangerously high value since it is connected to earth.

The equipment Earthing is the essential safety measure
Fuses: Fuses are proven Safety devices for overloads conditions.  Current Limitation Safety is assured by purposely limiting the shock intensity from a device (ELCB) to a value known to be reasonable safe. Cable routing: All electrical cables should run either overhead (7 feet) or underground .Cable routing layout map to be prepared so that it does not cause tripping hazards. Welding and power cables not to be overlapped. Protect cables against mechanical damages, heat.

The equipment Earthing is the essential safety measure
Cable joints: Staggered joints: Joints are not to be overlapped. One primary insulation and an overall secondary insulation are to be done. Proper insulation tapes are to be used. For high voltage cables use jointing kits. Manpower: Employ qualified electrician, preferably ‘B’ licence holders. Identification of the electrician –red helmets. Hand Lamps: Only 24 V hand lamps are to be used. Totally enclosed and protected Hand lamps are to be used. Hand lamps used for confined space work should be of all insulated type with no joints.

The equipment Earthing is the essential safety measure
Electric burns: 1. Burns from electric Flash 2. Burns from electric heat Working near overhead lines: Minimum height of overhead cable:

400 KV 275 KV 132 KV 33-66 KV 11-33 KV

7.3 M(24 ft) 7.0 M(23 ft) 6.7 M(22 ft) 6.0 M(19 ft 9 in) 5.2 M(17 ft)

Fire Prevention
Fire: Fire is a chemical reaction ,in which substance (fuel) combines with oxygen. The reaction is exothermic and usually associated with emission of light and heat. Elements of fire: Fuel Heat Oxygen Explosion

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Chain reaction
Fire Triangle Fire tetrahedron (Pyramid)



Chain Reaction


Fuel Oxygen


Fire Tetrahedron (Pyramid)

Fuel Oxygen Heat

Chain Reaction

Classification of fire (based on material burning)
Class “A” fire Ordinary combustible fire Solid combustible material normally organic in nature (compounds of carbon) cooling effect of water is essential for extinguishing the fire E.g. wood ,Cloth ,Paper etc which leave carbon after combustion. Class “B” fire Flammable liquid fire Flammable liquids or liquifiable solids where blanketing effect is essential for extinguishing the fire e.g. Petroleum products , solvent, paints etc

Classification of fire (based on material burning)
Class “C” fire Flammable gas fire: These are the fires involving gases or liquefied gases under pressure where it is necessary to isolate the burning gas at a fast rate with an inert gas ,powder or vaporizing liquid for extinguishment e.g. fuel gas, hydrogen, liquefied petroleum gas etc. Class “D” fire Metal fires: Metals generally called Alkali Metals such as Magnesium, Sodium, Titanium etc. Specialized techniques ,extinguishing agents &equipments are required to control such fire.

Classification of fire (based on material burning) Electrical fires According to latest concepts ,the electrical fires do not constitute a particular class. Any fire involving an electrical equipment is in fact be a fire of class A,B or C. The normal procedure in such fires is to cut off the electricity and use an extinguishing method appropriate to the burning material. Special extinguishing agents which are nonconductor of electricity and non –damaging to the electrical equipment such as dry chemical powders and carbon dioxide should be used.

Principle of extinguishing fire

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Starvation Smothering Cooling Chain inhibition

-Elimination of fuel - Limiting oxygen supply - Limiting rise of temperature

Principle of extinguishing fire

Type of Fire Extinguisher Water

Not suitable ,but will control small fires

Not suitable, but will control small fires

Not suitable, but will control surface fires in textile fibers



Unsuitable Unsuitable Unsuitable

Suitable for non-polar flammable liquids only Unsuitable Unsuitable

Suitable Suitable Unsuitable

Suitable Suitable Suitable for some cases if special type dry chemical used Suitable





Fire Extinguisher-Do’s

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Keep it at its designated place Always use suitable extinguisher In case of abnormality, inform fire control room For electrical fires, use DCP & CO2 extinguishers only Avoid physical damage

Fire Extinguisher-Don’ts

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Do not misuse fire extinguisher Do not use water type extinguisher on electrical fires Do not attempt to open fire extinguisher Do not relocate extinguisher on your own Do not remove operating instruction sticker Do not obstruct the visibility & access.

Safety in welding
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Body of the welding machine should be earthed. Terminal of the welding cables should be provided with lugs and kept tight. Joint in the cables should be made with terminals, kept tight and well insulated with heat resistance tape. Cable should be free from joints at least for a length of three meters from electrode holder to avoid shock hazard. Other electrical cables should not be kept laid with welding cables , to avoid insulation damage. For the return lead only proper cable should be used. Using rods ,angles ,channels etc should be avoided Never change electrode with bare hands or wet gloves ,when standing on wet floor

Safety while working at height
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Falls Falling objects Falls from collapsing structure

Risk Assessment
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First, as a part of the planning of the work, carry out a risk assessment. Plan to do as much of the work as possible at low level. Do not work at height unless it is absolutely unavoidable If this is not possible, consider the following The activity Equipment to be used Location, e.g. near or over water, roads, under power lines ,etc Environment, e.g. weather, temperature, lighting Duration of the work. Condition and stability of the work surface

Precautionary Measures

1.Falls There are four ways of preventing falls of people. They are i) Edge protection, e.g. Guard rails ,toe boards. ii) Maintaining a safe distance from an edge. iii) Safety nets. iv) Safety harnesses

2.Falling objects To prevent objects falling onto people you need a proper management system which:  Provides barriers, e.g. a toe boards or mesh guards to prevent items from slipping or being knocked off the edge of a structure  Secures object to the structure, e.g. lashing of scaffold boards  Ensures that there are no loose objects and that any loose tools are properly secured  Creates an exclusion zone ,where necessary ,beneath areas where work is taking place. In addition, when people are working at a heights above other work areas ,it is mandatory to provide safety helmets to protect the workers below against falling objects.

3.Falls from collapsing structures A competent person should inspect and attach a notice to a structure after completion and before it is put into use. LADDERS Ladders are frequent cause of accidents. They should not be used as a working platform-ONLY FOR ACCESS. Ladders use is only permitted when the ladder is used for short duration and the ladder is:  Fixed to prevent slipping  Placed on firm level surface with the top part of the ladder resting against a solid surface

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The ladder is correctly angled ( at 75 degree to the horizontal/one out for every four up) Positioned such that working on it does not require stretching out Positioned so that a good handhold is available if used for access or must protrude sufficiently above a working platform that is to be accessed All ladders including steps must be thoroughly inspected on a regular basis, by a person who is qualified to judge the suitability/safe condition of the equipment. A record of such inspections must be recorded

When extension ladder are used the overlap of any adjacent sections should be as follows: Closed length  Less than 5 metres-11/2 rungs overlap  5-6 metre – 21/2 rungs overlap  Over 6 metres- 31/2 rungs

Working platform
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Be securely footed on stable ground Support the weight of the personnel and equipment to be used Provide a stable access and will not overturn Be secured to an existing structure ,where necessary and wherever possible Take account of the gradient of the ground, especially where mobile platforms are used. Provide guard rails to the platform Provide barriers on open edges ,holes and openings in the platform floor, the edges of roofs and working areas. Ensure that only standard /approved Personal Protection Equipment is used for working at height

Working on roof
Precautions for all roof work  Is the work necessary?  Risk assessment and method statements  Getting on and off the roof  Edge protection  Work platforms  Falls arrest equipment  Falling material  Prevent unauthorized access  Avoid working on/ near fragile materials  Training  Weather conditions  Short duration work

Safety nets

Safety nets are the least problematic and hence the preferred option. Make sure that either safety net is used to protect against falls through the gaps created as the leading edge moves forward .If safety nets are used make sure that they:
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Are installed as close as possible beneath the roof surface. Are securely attached and will withstand a person falling onto them. Are installed and maintained by competent personnel.