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Adapting Verbally

Adapting

Verbally

And Visually

And

Visually

Presented Presented byby

Mohammad Hussain

&

Komal Zehra

Audience

Audience

Adaptation

Adaptation

Audience Adaptation is the Active process of verbally and

visually relating material directly to the specific audience. You will recall that an affective speech plan is a product of five action Steps:

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Developing Common ground Building and maintaining audience interest Relating to the audience’s level of understanding Reinforcing or changing audience’s attitudes towards you and your topic Relating information visually

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Developing Common Ground

Common Ground - Awareness that the speaker and

the audience share the same or similar information,feelings,

and experiences.

Use Personal

Use

Personal Pronouns

Pronouns -

-------

Pronouns referring directly to the one speaking, spoken to, or spoken about

Ask Rhetorical

Ask

Rhetorical Questions

Questions -

Questions phrased to simulate a mental response rather than a spoken response

Share

Share Common

Common Experience

Experience -

Share your common Experience by selecting and presenting personal experiences

Personalize Information

Personalize

Information -

Relating information to specific audience references

Creating and Maintaining Audience Interest

L istener’s interest depends on whether they believe the information has personal impact

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Below are four Principle you can use to build and maintain Audience interest

Timeliness

Listeners are more likely to be interested in information they perceive as timely they want to know how they can use that information now

Proximity

Information with a relationship to personal space

Seriousness

Information having Physical, economic or Physiological impact

Vividness

Information that arouses our sense

Adapting to the audience’s level of Understanding

Adapting to the audience’s level of Understanding IfIf you Predict that your listeners dodo not the

IfIf you

you Predict

Predict that

that your

your listeners

listeners dodo not

not

have the

have

the necessary

necessary background

background toto

understand the

understand

the information

information that

that you

you will

will

present inin your

present

your speech,

speech, you

you will

will need

need toto

orient them.

orient

them. If,

If, however,

however, you

you predict

predict that

that

your audience

your

audience has

has sufficient

sufficient background,

background,

you will

you

will need

need toto present

present information

information inin aa

way that

way

that will

will ensure

ensure continuous

continuous

Orienting Listeners

understanding

understanding

e likely to stop paying attention if they are lost at the start of t

Presenting New Information

Even

when

we

predict

that

our

audience has the

necessary background information, we still need to work on ways of presenting new information that ensures continued understanding.

Adapting to the audience’s level of Understanding IfIf you Predict that your listeners dodo not the

Building a Positive Attitude toward you as the Speaker

Credibility

Credibility -

The level of trust an audience has or will have

in the speaker There are three steps that are defined to build a positive attitude towards
in the speaker
There are three steps that are defined to build a positive attitude
towards you as the speaker
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Building Audience Perception of Your Knowledge and
Expertise
Building Audience Perception of Your Trustworthiness
Building Audience Perception of Your Personality
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Building Audience Perception of your Knowledge and Expertise

Your Audience will expect you to have a wealth of high- quality examples, illustrations, and personal experiences in your speech

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Building Audience Perception of your Knowledge and Expertise Your Audience will expect you to have a

The first step in building a perception of knowledge and expertise is to go into the speaking situation fully prepared

Next step is to show your audience that you have a wealth of high-quality examples, illustrations, and personal experiences.

Third step is to show any direct involvement you have had with the topic area. In addition to increasing the audience’s perception of your depth of knowledge, your personal involvement increase the audience perception of your practical understanding of the issue and your personal concern for the subject

Building Audience Perception of your Knowledge and Expertise Your Audience will expect you to have a

Building Audience Perception of Your Trustworthiness

Trustworthiness -

Speaker’s character and apparent motivates

for speaking

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Early in your speech, it is important to show why listeners need to know your information

Throughout the speech, you can emphasize your sincere interest in their well-being.

The more listeners see you as one of them, the easier it will be for you to establish your trust worthiness

Building Audience Perception of your Personality

Audience perception of your

personality are likely to be

based on

their first impression of you

Try to dress appropriately, groom

yourself carefully, and

carry yourself in an

attractive manner.

Audience react favorably to a speaker

who acts friendly.

A smile and a pleasant tone of voice go

a long way in

showing warmth that will

increase listeners’ comfort with

and your ideas.

you

Adapting to the Audience s attitude towards your speech goal

Attitude-

A predisposition for or against people, places or things that usually expressed as an

opinion

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Adapting to listeners, attitudes towards your speech goal is especially important for persuasive speeches, but it can be important for informative speeches as well.

At the outset, try to predict whether listeners will view your topic positively, negatively, or have no opinions.

Adapting to Audiences

Visually

Visual Aids -

A form of speech development that enables the audience to see as well as to hear information

__Visual (i)

Aids you can carry

Many times your speech can be helped by using a visual aid

Yourself

Objects

Models

Photographs

Films

Slides

you can carry to class

Yourself

On Occasion, you can be your own best visual aid. For instance, through descriptive gestures you can show the height of tennis net; through your postures and movement you can show the motions involved in the butterfly swimming stroke; and through your own attire you can illustrate the native dress of foreign country

Objects

A cell phone, a basketball, or a braided rug

are the kind of objects you can bring that

can be seen by the audience. Objects make

good visual aids if

1- They are large enough to be seen (consider

how far away people will be sitting)

2- Small enough to carry around with you.

Models

When an object is too large to bring to the

speech site or too small to be seen, a three-

dimensional model may prove a worth while

substitute. If you were to talk about turbine

engine, a suspension bridge, an Egyptian

Pyramid, or the structure of an atom, a

model might well be the best visual aid.

Working models can be especially eye-

cracking.

Photographs

Photos are useful visual aids when you

need an exact reproduction. To be

effective, they need to be large

enough to be seen from the back of

the room and effective enough to

make your point at glance

Films

Although Films can be brought to class, they are seldom appropriate for speeches-mostly because films so dominate that the speaker loses control. Occasionally during a longer speeches you may want to use short clips of a minute or two each. Still, because projecting film requires darkening the room for that portion of time, using a film in a speeches is often disruptive. Moreover, to use films you must bring a projector to class with you.

Slides

The advantage of slides over films is that you can control when each image will be shown. The remote-control device enables you to pace your slides and talk about each one as long as necessary. As with films, slides requires darkening the room when they are projected, and novice speakers may lose control of their audience. And as with films, you must bring a projector to class with you

(ii) __Visual

Aids you can create

The next group of visual aids require more work for you

because you have to create them

Drawings

Maps

Charts

-

Word Charts

-

Organizational Charts

Graphs

-

Bar graph

-

Line graph

-

Pie graphs

Drawing

Simple drawings are easy to prepare. If you can use a compass, a straightedge, and a measure, you can draw well enough for most speech purposes.

Stick figures may not be aesthetically pleasing as professional drawings, but they work just as well. In fact, elaborate, detailed drawings are not worth the time and effort they actually may obscure the point you wish to make.

Maps

Like drawings, maps are relatively easy to

prepare. Simple maps enables you to

focus on landmarks (mountains, rivers,

and lakes), states, cities, land routes,

or weather system

Charts

A chart is a graphic representation that distills a lot of information and present it to an audience is easily interpreted format. Word charts and Organizational charts are most common examples and used commonly

Word Charts

Word charts are often used to preview materials that will be covered in a speech, to summarize materials, and to remind an audience of speech content.

Organizational Charts

diagram of a complicated system or procedure using symbol and connecting lines

Graph

A graph is a diagram that compares information

Below are three common types of Graphs

Bar graphs

Diagram that compares information with vertical or horizontal bars to show relationship between two or more variables at the same time or at various times on one or more dimension

Line graphs

A diagram that indicates changes in one or more variable over time

Pie graphs

A diagram that shows relationship among parts of a single unit

A Plan of Adaptation

Writing a Speech Plan

It is a written strategy for

establishing common ground,

maintaining interest, ensuring

understanding, and copying with

potential negative reactions to you

as a speaker or to your topic or

goal. Even though your classroom

audience may be similar to you in

age, race, religion, academic

background, and so forth, you must

still think through your strategies

carefully.

Summary

Speakers adapt to their audiences by speaking directly to them by planning strategies that create or build audience interest, adapt to audience level of understanding, and adapt to the audience’s attitude towards the speaker and towards the goal

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For your first few Speeches, it may help to write out

a speech plan that specifies how you will adapt your

speeches to the specific audience