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INTRODUCTION

The term regression was originally introduced in statistics by Sir Francis Galton in 1877 in his research paper ‘Regression towards Mediocrity in Hereditiary stucture’. He reached at the conclusion that ü Tall fathers had tall sons and short fathers had short statured sons. ü The mean height of the sons of a group of tall fathers was found to be less than that of the fathers and the mean height of the sons of a group of short statured fathers was found to be greater than that of the fathers.

Definition :

Regression is the measure of the average relationship between two or more variables in terms of original units of data.

Utility :

Regression analysis is a statistical method which is used in those fields where we find the tendency of going back towards the general average in two of more correlated series. In the field of economics and business , regression analysis has more utility. Regression analysis is used as control tools by management in their business. This helps in taking decisions in business. Regression analysis can be used in other fields also like natural , physical and social sciences. The best estimate can only be had if the series are correlated. The analysis can also be extended in more than two series also.

**Some functional highlights
**

It help us to estimate the dependent variables with the help the independent variables. It helps us to measure the error involved in using the regression lines as the basis for estimations.

We can obtain a measure of degree associations or correlation that exist between the two variables i.e. dependant variables and independent variables.

Types of Regression

Regression

Simple Regression

Simple Regression

Dependant variable

Independent variable

Regression lines

The lines of best fit drawn to show the mutual relationship between X and Y variables are known as Regression Lines. For two variables we have two regression lines, one representing regression of X on Y and other Y on X. The line representing regression of X on Y presumes Y as an independent variable and X as a dependent variable. The lines gives the best estimated value of X for the given value of Y In the same way, the second line . represents the regression of Y on X.

**Functions Of Regression Lines
**

I. Best Estimate

**I. Extent and Direction of Correlation
**

Positive

Correlation Negative Correlation Perfect Correlation Absence of Correlation Limited Correlation

Regression Equations

Regression Equations are algebraic form of regression lines. They are also known as estimating equations. As there are two regression lines, we have two regression equations. Regression Equation of X on Y : This is used to describe variation in the value of X for the given changes in Y . Regression Equation of Y on X : This is used to describe variation in the value of Y for the given changes in X.

Regression Equation Of X on Y

The regression equation X on Y is written in the form of X= a+bY . From this equation we can have the best estimate of X for the given value of Y In this . way from the estimated values of X and known values of Y, we draw a line which is known as regression line X on Y . To determine the values of a and b the following two normal equations are to be solved simultaneously.

X Y ∑ = Na +b∑ X Y Y ∑ Y =a ∑ +b∑

2

Regression Equation of Y on X

The regression equation of Y on X is written in the form of Y= a+bX. From this equation we can have the best estimate of Y for the given value of X. In this way from the estimated values of Y and known values of X, we draw a line which is known as regression line Y on X To determine the values of a and b the following two normal equations are to be solved simultaneously.

Y a X ∑ =N +b∑ X X X ∑ Y =a ∑ +b∑

2

**Calculate the regression equations of X on Y and Y on X from the following data :
**

X

Example

Y

X

2 3

Y

3 4

4 5

Y2

5 6

XY

6 7

X Y

2 3 4 5 6

∑ X = 20

3 4 5 6 7

∑ Y = 25

4 9 16 25 36

∑X

2

9 16 25 36 49

= 86

6 12 20 30 42

2

∑Y

= 135

∑ XY = 135

**Calculations Based Of Arithmetic Mean
**

Regression Equation of Yon X :

(Y − ) = Y r

gression equation of X on Y :

( X − X ) =r

σX (Y −Y ) σy

denotes the actual mean of X = Its value is in the same Xseries and ∑ xy = denotes the actual mean of Y manner as proved in case of the regression equation X ∑ x2 Yseries and coefficient of correlation between X and Y series. = standard deviation of X series σx = standard deviation of Y series

r X = is called Regression coefficient of Y

σ σy

σ y σ x

(X − ) X

σy

bX Y = r

σ x σ y

X Y x y σ ∑ ∑ = × x = 2 nσ × σ n y σ nσ x y y

x y x y ∑ ∑ = = y2 y2 ∑ ∑ n× n

X Y

3 6

5 7

Example

7

9 8

11 10

9

Solution : X 3 5 7 9 11

∑ X = 35

Mean=7

(X − X ) ( x)

Y

2

Y 6 7 9 8 10

(Y − Y ) ( y)

Y2

Xy +8 +2 0 0 +8

-4 -2 0 +2 +4

16 4 0 4 16

2

-2 -1 +1 0 +2

4 1 1 0 4

2

∑ x = 0 ∑x

= 40

Y ∑ =40 Mean=8

∑y=0 ∑y

= 10

∑ xy= 18

Regression equation of X on Y :

Regression equation of Y on X :

σx ( X − X ) = r (Y − Y ) σy

∑ xy (Y − Y ) or, ( X − X ) = ∑y

2

σy (Y − Y ) = r (X − X ) σx

2

18 X − 6 = (Y − 8) 10 ⇒ X − 6 = 1.8(Y − 8) ⇒ X = 1.8Y − 8.4

∑ xy ( X − X ) or , (Y − Y ) = ∑x

18 Y −8 = ( X − 6) 40 ⇒ Y − 8 = 0.45( X − 6) ⇒ Y − 8 = 0.45 X − 2.70 Y = 0.45 X + 2.70

**Calcualtions Based of Assumed Mean
**

Regression equation of Y on X :

b yx

N∑ − x y x y ∑∑ ( X −X ) = N ∑2 − ∑2 ) y ( x

Regression equation of X on Y :

bxy

N∑ − x y x y ∑∑ (Y − ) = Y 2 2 N ∑ − ∑) y ( y

Example

Height of the fathers in inches Height of the sons in inches 62 63 64 62 66 65 67 67 68 67 68 70 69 70 71 67 72 68 73 71

Solution :

X 62 64 66 67 68 68 69 71 72 73 ( X - 65 )= x -3 -1 1 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 30 Column1 9 1 1 4 9 9 16 36 49 64 198 Y 63 62 65 67 67 70 70 67 68 71 ( Y - 65 )= y -2 -3 0 2 2 5 5 2 3 6 20 Column6 4 9 0 4 4 25 25 4 9 36 120 xy 6 3 0 4 6 15 20 12 21 48 135

=5 + =8 6 3 6 N y ∑ =5 + =7 Y = + A 6 2 6 N

X = + A

x ∑=5 6

3 0 + 1 0

Regression equation of X on Y:

(X −X ) =r

Regression equation of Y on X:

(Y − ) = Y r

bxy =

N ∑ xy −∑ x ∑ y N ∑ y − (∑ y )

2 2

σx (Y −Y ) σy

(Y − Y )

σ y (X σ x

2

− ) X

byx =

N ∑ − x ∑y xy ∑ N ∑ −(∑ ) y x

2

( X −X )

30 * 20 ) 10 (Y − 67) ( X − 68) = (20) 2 120 − 10 75 ( X − 68) = (Y − 67) 80 X = 68 − 62.8 + 0.94Y ∴ X = 5.2 + .94Y 135 − (

30 * 20 ) 10 (Y − 67) = ( X − 68) (30) 2 198 − 10 75 (Y − 67) = ( X − 68) 108 Y = 67 − 47.6 + 0.7 X 135 − ( ∴Y = 19.4 + 0.7 X

**Regression Equations in Grouped Frequency Distribution
**

Regression Equations of X on Y:

(Y − ) = y ( X − ) Y bx X fy x ∑ (Y − ) = Y f * x f ) y −∑ ∑ ( i N * y (X − ) X (∑ 2 ) f x ix f x ∑2 − N

Regression Equations of Y on X :

(Y − ) =b yx ( X −X ) Y (Y − ) = Y fx ∑y fx fy ∑ *∑ ) − (

2

fx ∑

N (∑ 2 ) fx − N

*

iy ix

( X −X )

Example

Height in inches Weight in lbs. 80-90 50-55 55-60 60-65 65-70 Total 2 4 2 2 10 90-100 10 15 10 5 40 100-110 8 5 15 2 30 110-120 1 8 11 11 Total 20 25 35 20 100

X

N −4 * 5 5 X =6 .5 + 2 10 0 X =6 .2 0 5

Regression Equation of X on Y:

fx ∑ =A +

*i

Y

N 6 0 Y =5 + 9 *1 0 10 0 Y =0 11

fy ∑ =A +

*i

Regression Equation of Y on X:

X − X = bxy (Y − Y ) ( X − 60.25) = 0.202(Y − 101) ( X − 60.25) = 0.202Y − 0.202 *101 X = 60.25 − 20.402 + 0.202Y ∴ X = 39.848 + 0.202Y

Y = a + bX (Y − Y ) = byx ( X − X ) (Y −101) = 0.649 ( X − 60 .25 ) (Y −101) = 0.649 X − 0.649 * 60 .25 Y = 101 − 39 .102 + 0.649 X ∴Y = 61 .898 + 0.649 X

Regression Coefficients

Regression Coefficients of X on Y :

bxy

σ =r x σy

by x

x y ∑ = y ∑

2

∑ xy * N − (∑ xy) N bxy = or (∑ y ) 2 ∑ y 2 * N − (∑ y ) 2 ∑ y2 − N ∑ x*∑ y) ∑ xy − ( N i bxy = * x (∑ y ) 2 iy 2 y − ∑ N

∑ x*∑ y) ∑ xy − (

Regression Coefficients of Y on X :

bxy

σy =r σ x

by x

x y ∑ = x ∑

2

∑ xy * N − (∑ xy ) N byx = or (∑ x ) 2 ∑ x 2 * N − (∑ y ) 2 ∑ x2 − N ∑ x*∑ y) ∑ xy − ( N i bxy = * y (∑ x ) 2 ix 2 x − ∑ N

∑ x*∑ y) ∑ xy − (

Example : Find the regression coefficients :

X Y 1 2 2 5 3 3 4 8 5 7

Solution :

X 1 2 3 4 5

x=(X-2) -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +5 1 0 1 4 9 15

x

2

Y 2 5 3 8 7

y=(Y-4) -2 +1 -1 +4 +3 +5 4 1 1 16 9 31

y2

xy 2 0 -1 8 9 18

Means of X and Y :

∑ x = 2+ 5 = 2+1= 3 X = A+

N 5

Regression Coefficients of X on Y :

byx = ∴ xy b N (∑y ) 2 2 ∑y − N = + .5 0

∑ y = 4 + 5 = 4 +1 = 5 Y = A+

N 5

5*5 ) 13 5 = = = 0 .5 (5) 2 26 31 − 5 18 −(

∑xy −(

∑x * ∑y )

Regression Coefficients of Y on X :

x* y 5*5 xy −( ∑ ∑ ) 18 −( ) ∑ 13 N 5 byx = = = =1.3 2 2 (∑x ) (5) 10 15 − x2 − ∑ 5 N ∴ xy = + .3 b 1

h T

k n a

u o Y

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