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Mal i k Zai gham Sul t an Awan
Muhammad Sami ul l ah
Waqar Akr am
Load Flow Solution & Control Analysis
A Power Flow study (load-flow study) is a steady-state
analysis whose target is to determine the voltages,
currents, Real and Reactive power flows in a system
under a given load conditions.
The purpose of power flow studies is to plan ahead and
account for various hypothetical situations. For example, if
a transmission line is taken offline for maintenance, can
the remaining lines in the system handle the required loads
without exceeding their rated values?
Load Flow Analysis Equations:
The basic equation for power-flow analysis is derived from the nodal analysis
Yij are the elements of the bus admittance matrix.
Vi are the bus voltages.
i are the currents injected at each node.
Relationship b/w Per-Unit Real & Reactive Power:
Vi is the per-unit voltage at the bus;
Ii* - complex conjugate of the per-unit current injected at the bus.
Pi and Qi are per-unit real and reactive powers.
Load Flow Solution:
The solution of the simultaneous nonlinear power flow equations
requires the use of iterative techniques for even the simplest power
There are many methods for solving nonlinear equations, such as:
The Gauss–Seidel method, is an iterative method used to solve a linear
system of equations. Though it can be applied to any matrix with non-
zero elements on the diagonals.
In the operations of a power system, it is important for personnel to
have a high level of contingent information. The reason is that
personnel need to know what power-flow changes will occur due to
Solution Method for Linear Equation
Cramer’s (Determinant) Method,
Gauss Elimination Method (only for smaller systems),
LU Factorization (more preferred method)
Solution Method for Non-Linear Equation
Iterative methods only:
Gauss-Siedel Method (for smaller systems)
Newton-Raphson Method (used to solve a system of non- linear
algebraic equations of the form f(x) =0)
In this presentation….
The load flow solution gives the complex voltages at all the
buses and the complex power flows in the lines.
In smaller systems, the ease of programming and the
memory requirements, make GS method attractive.