SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION/LEARNING

English Methodology II Mg Roxanna Correa P. 2009

SLA depends on many factors some pertaining to :  The learner  Learning situation

Learner/ Learning situation
 Different

learners in different situations learn a L2 in different ways.(Ellis, 2008, p 4)

SLA versus FLA
 SLA

research has tended to follow in the footsteps of L1 acquisition research.  SLA is not intended to contrast with foreign language acquisition

Acquisition / Learning
 Acquisition

refers to “picking up” a SL through exposure whereas the term Learning is used to refer to the consciuos study of a SL.

Acquisition / Learning
 SLA

refers to the subconcious or concious processes by which a language other than the mother tongue is learnt in a natural way or tutored setting (Ellis, 2008, p 6)

 Krashen

(1981) formulated the following hypothesis . He argued the there are two mental processes operating in SLA: Conscious Learning (CL) and Subconscious Acquisition (SA).

 CL

focuses on grammatical rules, enabling the learner to memorize rules and to identify instances of rule violation.  SA faclitates the acquistion of rules at a subconscious level.

 What

was new and radical was Krashen’s assertion that these processes were totally separate; that is ; learning could not become acquisition

A very important point that also needs to be stated is that learning does not “run into” acquisition ( Krashen, 1982:p 83)

Key concepts/factors in SLA
 1.Situational  2.  3.

factors

Linguistic enviroment in which the learning takes place: Naturalistic or classroom SLA enviroment

Input

The extent to which the input determines the process of SLA. Can we adapt the input to the learners?

Learner differences
Age, aptitude, intelligence, motivation, needs personality, cognitive style, attitude…

 4.

Learner processes

They maybe metacognitive, cognitive, affective or linguistic

 5.

Linguistic output
The learners use their knowledge of the L2 in predictable ways, but not in the same way in every context.

Differences between L1 and L2 acquisition Ellis 94 (based on Bley-Vroman 1988)

 Vivian

Cook

References

Cook, V.J., Long, J., & McDonough, S. (1979), ‘First and second language learning’, in G.E. Perren (ed.) The Mother Tongue and Other Languages in Education, CILTR, 7-22 Ellis, R. ( 2008) Understanding Second Language Acquisiton, Oxford University Press. Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.

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