STRATEGIES AND TEACHING A SECOND LANGUAGE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE METHODOLOGY II Prof. R. Correa II Semester 2007

WHAT ARE LEARNING STYLES?

LEARNING STYLE/ LEARNING STRATEGY
Learning style  The way learners perceive , interact with and respond to the enviroment.  How individuals process information in different ways.  Individual’s natural habitual and preferred ways of absorbing ,and retaining new information and skills  Related to personality and cognition. Trends that differentiate you from others  The way a person learns or gets knowledge best: auditory, kinethic,visual…

LEARNING STYLE/ LEARNING STRATEGY
Learning strategy Cognitive &Metacognitive steps that learners use to achieve a goal. Specific actions to make learning easier , faster and more enjoyable to new situations. Activities that help people to use their own learning style, to best approach new learning Methods used for a long period of time to achieve learning aims. Specific methods of approaching a task. Planned designs for manipulating certain information

LEARNING STYLE/ LEARNING STRATEGY
Learning style
Oxford (1989: 2), states that this concept includes four dimensions a) every day and favourite patterns of mental work, b) attitude and interest patterns which influence the attention of a person in a learning situation, c) tendency to look for compatible learning situations with our own patterns of learning and d) selective use of learning strategies.

LEARNING STYLE/ LEARNING STRATEGY

“The strategies used by one individual may vary enormously , but learning styles are more constant and predictable but not always fixed”( Brown 2001: 210).

LEARNING STYLE/ LEARNING STRATEGY

Research has shown that successful students are those who know and can modify their learning strategies (Brown, 2000)

LEARNING STYLE/ LEARNING STRATEGY
Learning Strategy  Specific actions, behaviours, steps, or techniques that students (often intentionally) use to improve their progress in developing L2 skills. These strategies can facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval, or use of the new language. Strategies are tools for the selfdirected involvement necessary for developing communicative ability. (Oxford, 1992/1993, p. 18)

LEARNING STYLE/ LEARNING STRATEGY

Learning Strategies do not operate by themselves, but rather directly tied to learner’s underlying learning style and other personality- related variables in the learner. (Brown,1991& Cohen, 2000)

Learning Strategies

Workshop 1 Work in groups of four. Read the different definitions about Learning Strategies Select from all the definitions the aspects they have in common. Select those aspects you think are relevant to your English classes. Be ready to support your ideas.

Learning Strategies Features
1. 2.

3. 4.

Contribute to the main goal, communicative competence. Allow learners to become more selfdirected. Expand the role of teachers. Are problem oriented.

Learning Strategies Features
5. 6.

7. 8.

They are specific actions taken by the learner. Involve many aspects of the learner, not just the cognitive. Support learning both directly and indirectly They are not always observable.

Learning Strategies Features
9. 10. 11. 12.

Are often conscious Can be taught Are flexible Are influenced by a variety of factors

Learning Strategies Features
13. 14. 15.

16.

They are task oriented. They imply decision- making for the student. Its selection involves cognitive and metacognitive processes. They allow autonomy.

Learning Strategy Instruction

LLS have an explicit goal of assisting learners in improving their knowledge in the target language. Language Use of Strategies (LUS) focus primarily on employing the language that learners have in their current interlanguage.

CLASSIFICATION OR TAXONOMIES OF LLS.
     

Naiman et al. (1978). Rubin (1981) Oxford (1990 ) Wenden (1991) Stern (1991) Brown ( 2000)

Diagram of the Strategy System

DIRECT STRATEGIES

INDIRECT STRATEGIES

Memory

Cognitive

Compensation

Social

Affective

Metacognitive

•Creating mental Linkage •Practicing

•Guessing intelligently •Asking questions. •Lowering your anxiety. Encouraging yourself. •Centering your learning.

•Applying images and sound and sending messages.•Cooperating with Taking your emotional temperature. •Receiving •Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing • others •Arranging and planning your liste . •Reviewing well •Analyzing and reasoning •. •Empathizing with others. Evaluating your learning •Employing action •Creating structure for input and output

.

Diagram of the Strategy System DIRECT STRATEGIES Oxford (1990 ) INDIRECT STRATEGIES

Memory Strategies Cognitive Strategies Compensation Strategies

Social Strategies Affective Strategies Metacognitive Strategies

Diagram of the Strategy System ( two classes) Direct  Memory Strategies  A. Creating mental Strategies
Linkage

B. Applying images and sound C.Reviewing well D.Employing action

Diagram of the Strategy System ( two classes)

Cognitive Strategies

A. Practicing B. Receiving and sending messages. C. Analyzing and reasoning D. Creating structure for input and output

Diagram of the Strategy System ( two classes)

Compensation Strategies

A. Guessing intelligently

B. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing

Diagram of the Strategy System ( two classes)  Metacognitive  A. Centering your Indirect Strategies
Strategies learning.

B. Arranging and planning your listening. C.Evaluating your learning.

Diagram of the Strategy System ( two classes)  Affective Strategies  A. Lowering your Indirect Strategies
anxiety.

B. Encouraging yourself. C.Taking your emotional temperature.

Diagram of the Strategy System ( two classes)  Social Strategies  A. Asking questions. Indirect Strategies

B. Cooperating with others. C. Empathizing with others.

WORKSHOP 2
Check your attitude towards Memory Strategies  List at least 4 new ideas about Memory strategies you gained from this ppt.  Brainstorm the way MS might be used in 2 different settings: lg classroom, naturalistic setting outside the classroom

Direct Strategies and Language Skills 1.Memory
1.1Creating Mental Linkages Strategies
  

Grouping (L/R) Associating /Elaborating (L/R) Placing new words in context (A) Using imagery (L/R) Semantic mapping (L/R) Using key words (L/R) Representing sound in memory(L/R/S)

1.2 Applying Images and Sounds

  

1.Memory Strategies and Language Skills
1.3 Reviewing well

Structured reviewing (A)

1.4 Employing action
 

Using physical response (L/R) Using mechanical techniques (A)

2.Cognitive Strategies and Language Skills
2.1 Practicing
 

 

Repeating(A) Formally practicing with sounds and writing system (L/S/W) Recognizing and using formulas and patterns (A) Recombining(S/W) Practising naturalistically(A)

2.Cognitive Strategies and Language Skills
2.2 Receiving and Sending messages
 

Getting the idea quickly.(L/R) Using resources for receiving and sending information.(A) Reasoning deductively(A) Analyzing expressions(L/R) Analyzing contrastively(L/R) Translating(A) Transferring(A)

2.3 Analyzing and Reasoning
    

2.Cognitive Strategies and Language Skills
2.4 Creating Structure for input and output
  

Taking notes (L/R/W) Summarizing(L/R/W) Highlighting(L/R/W)

3.Compensation Strategies and Language Skills
3.1 Guessing intelligently  Using linguistic clues (L/R)  Using other clues (L/R) 3.2 Overcoming limitations in Speaking and Writing (S/W)  Switching to the mother tongue  Getting help  Using mime or gesture  Avoiding communication partially or totally

3.Compensation Strategies and Language Skills
3.2 Overcoming limitations in Speaking and Writing (S/W)
   

Selecting the topic Adjust or appoximating the message Coining words Using circumlocution or Synonym

WORKSHOP 3
Consider a difficult subject
1.

2.

3.

4.

Write down 3 examples of times when a new subject seemed overwhelming . Choose the single most interesting example and discuss what made it difficult for you. List your affective (emotional and attitudinal) responses to that subject and explain what strategies you used to cope with those responses. Consider your metacognitive control over the subject.

1.Metacognitive Strategies and Language Skills
1.1 Centering your learning

 

Overviewing and linking with already known material.(A) Paying attention(A) Delaying speech production to focus on listening.(L/S)

1.Metacognitive Strategies and Language Skills
1.2 Arranging and planning your learning (A)
     

Finding out about Lg. Learning Organizing Setting goals and objectives Identifying the purpose of a lg. Task Planning for a lg. Task Seeking practice oppotunities

1.Metacognitive Strategies and Language Skills
1.3 Evaluating your Learning (A)
 

Self-monitoring Self evaluating

2.Affective Strategies and Language Skills
2.1 Lowering your anxiety (A)

 

Using progressive relaxation, deep breathing, or meditation. Using music Using laughter Making positive statements Taking risks wisely Rewarding yourself

2.2 Encouraging yourself

 

2.Affective Strategies and Language Skills
2.3 Taking your emotional temperature (A)
   

Listening to your body Using checklists Writing a Language Learning Diary Discussing your feelings with someone else.

3. Social Strategies and Language Skills
3.1 Asking Questions
 

Asking for clarification or verification(L/R) Asking for correction (S/W)

3.2 Cooperating with others (A)
 

Cooperating with peers Cooperating with proficient users of the new language.

3. Social Strategies and Language Skills
3.3 Emphatizing with others (A)
 

Developing cultural understanding Becoming aware of others’ thoughts and feelings.