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What is a
The term community means:
a group of interacting people, possibly living in
close proximity,
and often refers to a group that shares some
common values,
and is attributed with social cohesion within a
shared geographical location,
generally in social units larger than a household.
The word can also refer to the national community
or international community.
The word "community" is derived from the Old
French communit which is derived from the Latin
communitas (cum, "with/together" + munus, "gift"),
a broad term for fellowship or organized society

a place where people:
Three types of
communities are:
Urban- a large community with many
people and large buildings, a city
Suburb- a medium-sized community near
a large city, houses are close together,
you may see parks and malls
Rural-a community where houses are far
apart, there are a smaller number of
people, and you may see farms and
We live in communities.
All communities have places where people live.
Homes are different in different communities.

Urban communities may have high rise apartments and town
Suburbs may have houses with lawns but with close
neighbors. There may also be apartment buildings.
Rural areas may have houses that are farther apart, on large
areas of land with trees.
What kind of community do you live in?

We work in communities.
All communities have places to work.
Different communities have different jobs.
Urban communities may have office workers, store
clerks, taxi drivers.
Suburban communities may have factory workers.
Rural communities may have farmers.
Can you add some?

We play in communities.
All communities have places to play.
Different communities have different places to play.
Urban communities may have a large central park
or an indoor gym.
Suburban communities may have neighborhood
parks with playgrounds and baseball teams.
Rural communities may have community parks and
fields or county fairs.
Where do you play?

Social Class
Birds of a feather flock together
Social class a status hierarchy by
which groups and individuals are
classified on the basis of esteem
(regard, respect) and prestige
(reputation, influence derived from
The different lifestyles of social
classes lead to different benefits
being sought
Social Class
Members of the same social class
tend to share common values,
beliefs, and behaviors that unite
them (as opposed to simple
Common factors used to place
people into different social classes:
occupation, source of income,
possessions, associations with
others, and level of influence.
What a person does for a
It is an indicator of other
signs of class membership:
income, personal
associations, and status.
Further, class assumptions
within an occupation may be
based on performance level.
Income Source
Level of income is not by itself a good
indicator of class.
Income source along with occupation may
help us determine whether two individuals
that have the same income belong in the
same class: investments, inheritance, old
wealth, etc.
Does a professional athlete making $20
million belong in the same social class with a
physician making $150,000?
Consumption patterns and interaction
networks are inherently linked.
People tend to associate with others that
share the same tastes and recreational
Class consciousness sense of
belonging to a certain class is reinforced
by our associations. The higher our class
the more class conscious we are.
A mechanic wins a $50 million in the
lotterywill his/her social class change?
Association may refer to:
Voluntary associations, groups of individuals who
voluntarily enter into an agreement to accomplish
a purpose
501(c) non-profit organization
Alumni association, an association of former
students of a college or university
Professional association
Sports association
Trade association, another name of an industry
trade group

Associations in various fields of study:
Archaeological association, in archaeology, the relationship
between objects found together
Association (astronomy), combined or co-added group of
astronomical exposures
Association (chemistry)
Association (ecology)
Association (psychology), a connection between two or
more concepts in the mind or imagination
Association (statistics)
Free association of producers, the goal of anarchists and

Level of Influence
Membership in a higher
class generally leads to
greater influence within
the workplace,
organizations, and
society as a whole.
The more responsibility
one has the greater the
influence s/he can exert
on others.
Social Class
A five-class hierarchy
Upper class (Upper Landed gentry, Lower New money)
Attend elite schools, old/new money, in/not in the register
Upper-middle class (Professional class, Cultural protectors)
Professionals, independent businesspeople, corporate
Lower-middle class (Moral compass of society)
Salespeople, clerical workers, supervisors, construction
contractors, small retail store owners, white collar
Upper-lower class (Monotonous existence)
Skilled and semi-skilled blue-collar workers, narrow existence
Lower-lower class
Lower blue-collar workers, the unemployed, families on
welfare, and unskilled workers

Values, Attitudes, and
Lifestyles across Social
Social class is an important
source of beliefs, values, and
Different social classes value
education differently.
Attitudes toward family life,
raising children, the role of
women, etc. vary from class to
People in various social
classes exhibit markedly
different lifestyles.
Influence on media use
Lower-class people are less likely to
subscribe to newspapers than are
members of the middle class.
Choice of magazine is likely tied to
education and reading ability
Lower-middle class Readers Digest,
Ladies Home Journal
Upper-middle class Time, SI, The New
Yorker, etc.
Broadcast media choice also varies
by social class
Lower-middle class more responsive to
audiovisual forms of communication
Influence on Shopping
and Choice Behavior
Lower-class women are the most
impulsive about shopping.
Outlet choice varies by social class
(class match very important)
Upper-lower class women are likely to
respond to promotions offering coupons
or other special inducements
Bowling, TV, and bingo are favorite
lower-class leisure pursuits
Most activities enjoyed by middle- and
upper-class people are less time
consuming than lower-class choices.
Social Norms and
Social norm any rule or behavior
for meeting societal expectations
normative system
Conformity pressures actions
taken to encourage or force
members to act, think and/or
express themselves in certain
The more important a group is in
our lives, the greater our desire to
accept and conform to its norms
The Family as Human
The family is biologically based
and is the primary social unit.
Family is constant; the form of the
family is variable.
The development of culture exists
because culture is transmitted from
one generation to the next through
education not through the genes.