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Metacognitive Model of Strategic Learning, Chamot 1999
etacognitive Model of Strategic Learning Chamot 1999
The MMSL organizes learning strategies in such a way that they become manageable and helpful to students and teachers.
describes ways to transfer strategy use to other sub as, as well as to real life situations. Students can use these strategies for all the modalities- reading, listening, writing and speaking-as well as the relation of vocabulary and content information.
e model consists of four metacognitive processes: Planning
It is similar to how people plan, organize and schedule events in their lives. It helps people develop and use forethought. It encourages thinking and reflection. It helps people to set goals. Students focus their attention on the task and ignore distractions.
) Set Goals
) Directed Attention
) Activate Background Knowledge
) Organizational Planning
They are used to measure their effectiveness while working on the task. Students monitor how they are doing as they work. Students monitor by making adjustments to how they are working as necessary. Students monitor their comprehension and production
1) Ask If It Makes Sense
2) Selectively Attend
5) Take Notes
6) Use Imagery
7) Manipulate /Act Out
8) Talk Yourself Through It
They are used when the students have difficulty at any time during the task. Students use any resource available to them to solve the problem. Students that use them appropriately are more successful at learning tasks.
) Ask Questions to Clarify
) Use Resources
Evaluating Strategies allow the students to see if they carried out their plans And to check how well strategies helped. The students evaluate the appropriateness of their predictions and guesses. Students can verify if they met their goals or not.
1) Verify Predictions and Guesses 2) Summarize 3) Check Goals 4) Evaluate Yourself 5) Evaluate Your Strategies
k in pairs. Read about the Metacognitive Model of ic Learning. (from page 11 to page 33)
are an activity based on any of the strategies bed in the Model. Think about the type of students yo nd the level of their English.
w the activity to the class.
Framework for Strategy Instruction
Framework for Strategies Instruction
Activate background knowledge
Explain Attend Model Participate Practice Prompt strategies Apply -----------------------------------------------------------strategies ---------Give feedback with guidance Evaluation Assess strategies Assess strategies -----------------------------------------------------------------Expansion ---Support Use strategies independently Transfer new tasks
Transfer strategies to
amework for Strategies Instruction Features
Strategies instruction starts out as more teacher-directed. Students take more responsibility over time. The teacher presents the idea that good learners plan, monitor, problem-solve and evaluate during language tasks. Instruction that makes the strategies explicit helps students think about their strategies so they can develop conscious control of their
Independent learning happens when students practice strategies and try strategic thinking themselves. Students need the support of remainders to use the strategies they have learnt. Teachers can ask students to explain how they figured out they responses they gave in class.
Teachers can provide feedback by praising effective thinking and by pointing out the strategies that students are using. The teacher should ask students to evaluate how well the strategy is working and which strategies might be best for a given task or problem. After students have internalized the use of the strategies, the teacher can encourage them to expand their use by transferring it to other situations.
Phase 1: Preparation
eating the Learner-Centered Classroom
t learning responsibilities, that is the teacher and th nts share responsibility in the learning process. model, facilitator active participants
ate a Classroom Contract, that is an arrangement en teacher and students about how each will contrib behave in the classroom.
Sample Student-Teacher Classroom Contract
Characteristics of a good teacher Characteristics of a good learner
Interesting Intelligent Understanding Patient Friendly Organized Good listener
Pays attention Does homework Cooperates Asks questions Independent Listens to teacher and classmates Active in class
analogies with students to explain the roles of teach dents in the learning process.
Learning a language is like playing on a soccer tea cher is the coach who presents different kinds of pla dvice and opportunities for practice, and provides ck and support when it comes time to play a game.
s are the team players who actually play and must ecisions and evaluate themselves during the game.
ning Reflections: The learner-center classroom requi ts’ awareness of their learning process.
students to think about the different types of learnin es they find useful when studying a language.
students to reflect on how learning a language is to and different from learning in other subjects.
Self-Reflections on Language Learning (page 56)
do you learn a language? w do you like to learn a language? What is successfu u?
ding with a dictionary ___Translating ding a textbook ___Studying with friends king vocabulary lists ___Watching TV eaking with native speakers ___Writing stories ening to the radio ___Speaking with classmates ening to tapes and repeating ___Learning songs dying grammar ___Studying by yourself ting letters ___Focusing on pronunciation and intonation
c) Setting Personal Language Goals Get students involved in learning by having them set language goals for themselves. ng –term goals are usually a result of students’ vation for choosing the language of study. They may nated from these areas:
ssional (I need to know the language for a career) ational (I want to be able to use the language on lege level) al (I want to participate in conversations with friends speak this language) onal (My family heritage is related to this language)
Short –term goals, which are set more often, are used as enabling steps toward long-term goals.
They are more immediately reachable than mple: long-term goals. g-term goal read detective stories in the targe language
read short detective stories focus on vocabulary to law and cr
d) Self-Assessment of Language Abilities To evaluate one’s own strengths and weaknesses is a critical step toward learning how to regulate learning. It increases students’ motivation by increasing involvement in language learning. Students think about what worked and did not work and why one learning approach was more or less successful than another.
ersonal Language Goals and Self-Assessment (page Short-term goals
Please rate your current ability in English (0=no ability, 5=
Reading: 5 Listening: 5 Speaking: 5 Writing: 5
0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4
Realistically, What are your goals for this term? Reading: 0 1 2 3 4
How do you want to be able to use English in your life?
What ability level do you need for your goal? Reading: 5 Listening: 5 Speaking: 5 Writing: 5 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4
dentifying Students’ Existing Learning Strategies
nd out what strategies students already use.
helps students to become aware of their existing tegies use.
helps the teacher decide which strategies to focus o instruction.
lass discussion about learning strategies roup discussion and structured interviews (page 18) hink-Alouds (page 19) iaries uestionnaires (pages 19-20)
Phase 2: Presentation
eral Guidelines for Presenting Learning Strategies
her Modeling: demonstrate how the strategy is used eling it on a similar task.
ing the Strategy: The strategy name should be out for students on a board, a poster, or a strip of ard that the teacher can raise every time the strateg s mentioned.
aining the Importance of the Strategy: Students may lize the value of strategic learning for themselves ey have practiced it over time.
d) Telling When to Use the Strategy: describe typical situations in which the focus strategy may be helpful. e) Asking Students to Describe Their Use of the Strategy: teachers should give students an opportunity to share ways in which they have already used the strategy.
gested Activities for Presenting Learning Strategies Learning strategies can be presented: Introduction of a new topic. When the teacher perceives students are experiencing difficulties with a task. 1) Sample Lesson for Introducing a Strategy (pages 20-21) 2) Teacher Think-Alouds to Present Strategies (page 21) 3) Follow-up Strategy Instruction Based on the Think-Aloud
• Choose one of the activities for presenting learning strategies and adapt it to one of your classes.
Phase 3: Practice
General Guidelines for Practicing Learning Strategies
ntegrate Strategies Practice into Regular Course Wo Students should practice strategies while working on authentic, meaningful language tasks that are part of the language class. Select Appropriate Challenging Tasks The task should be : Authentic Moderately challenging Based on real communicative needs
ncourage Students to Practice the Strategies Introdu Teachers need to explicitly guide students to practice strategies during language learning tasks. (page 25) Add instructions to the task that remind students to use the strategy. (page 25) Model strategies by thinking aloud.
ncourage Students to Choose Their Own Strategies a elop a Repertoire of Strategies Students need opportunities to practice choosing strategies for themselves. As students become more independent in using strategies, cues should be less frequent and less explicit.
Suggested Activities for Practicing Learning Strategie
a) Cooperative Learning and Group or pair Work b) Reciprocal Teaching (page 26) c) Role-playing Activities (page 27) d) Problem-Solving Activities
Phase 4: Evaluation
ggested Activities for Evaluating Learning Strategie
xpanding through discussions lass Discussions earning Strategies Checklists (page 28) harts and Graphic Organizers (page 29) earning Logs (pages 29-30) ournals and Diaries (page 30) Questionnaires (page 31) nterviews (page 32) ortfolio Assessment
Phase 5: Expansion
Suggested Activities for Expanding the Application of Learning Strategies Expanding through discussions (page 33) Expanding through other Language Activities (page 32-33) Expanding to Other Academic Subjects (page 34) Expanding to Nonacademic Situations (page 34) Expansion Through Positive Feedback
• Use the 5 phases of the Chamot Metacognitive Model of Strategic Learning to teach one of the units you teach in your classes.
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