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# ULTRASONIC TESTING

problems
Useful table(velocity)
Material longitudinal waves shear waves
m/s m/s
Steel 5920 3250
Perspex 2730 1320
Aluminium 6400 3130
Water 1480 -------
Plastic
Copper 4760 2330
Bismuth
Nickel 5480 2990
Glass 5660 3420

1. Calculate the ICA when inspecting 15mm steel ?
The first crical angle means ,my longitudinal waves are at 90:
i.e, at the surface of the material,

By using the snells law,

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 90
5920
Sin 90 x 2730
5920
Sin I =
Sin 90 x 2730
5920
I =
Sin
=27.46:
2. When constructing a 70 probe what is the
projected angle in the probe ?
Given data: r=70:

By using the snells law,

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 70
3250
Sin 90 x 2730
3250
Sin I =
Sin 70 x 2730
3250
I =
Sin
=52.12:
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
3. Calculate the refracted longitudinal & shear waves.
When inspecting 20mm steel with an angle of 15: ?
Given data: i=15:

By using the snells law,

For longitudinal

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin15
2730
=
Sinr
5920
Sin 15 x 5920
2730
Sin r =
Sin 15 x 5920
2730
r=
Sin
=34.14:
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only

For shear

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin15
2730
=
Sinr
3250
Sin 15 x 3250
2730
Sin r =
Sin 15 x 3250
2730
r=
Sin
=17.94:
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
4.Calculate the refracted longitudinal angle with an
incident angle in 28:?
Given data: i=28:

By using the snells law,

For longitudinal

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin28
2730
=
Sinr
5920
Sin 28 x 5920
2730
Sin r =
Sin 28 x 5920
2730
r=
Sin
=math error:
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
=Sin(1.01)
5. Calculate the II CA in aluminium ?
Given data: r=90:

By using the snells law,

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 90
3130
Sin 90 x 2730
3130
Sin I =
Sin 90 x 2730
3130
I =
Sin
=60.71:
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
6. If a contact angle beams transducers produces a 45:
shear wave in steel. The angle produced by the same transducer
in a aluminium specimen would be?
Velocity of steel is 0.323cm/sec
Velocity of aluminium is 0.310cm/sec

Given data: rst=45:
By using the snells law,
Case1 : interface of Perspex and steel
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 45
3250
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
Case2 : interface of Perspex and aluminium
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin r
3130
Since , LHS are equal
Therefore, RHS are equal
Sin 45
3250
Sin r
=
3130
r= Sin
Sin 45 x 3130
3250
= 42.84:
7. In water immersion test ultrasonic energy is transmitted into
steel at an incident angle of 14: What is the angle of refracted
Shear wave with in the material?
Given data: i=14:
By using the snells law,

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin14
1480
=
Sin r
3250
Sin 14 x 3250
1480
Sin r =
Sin 14 x 3250
1480
I =
Sin
=32.08:
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
8. If you are requested to design a plastic shoes to generate
a Raleigh wave in aluminium what would be incident angle
of ultrasonic energy or wave?
Given data: raleigh wave means ,shear waves at 90:
i.e, r=90:
By using the snells law,

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sini
2730
=
Sin 90
3130
Sin 90 x 3130
2730
Sin i=
Sin 90 x 3130
2730
I =
Sin
=math error
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
9. Compute the lambda of ultrasonic wave in lead (pb) at 1MHz

Given data: f=1MHz, vel of lead =24000000 mm/sec

= velocity/ freq

=2400000/1000000

= 2.4mm

10. When inspecting aluminium by immersion method using
water for a cup line at an incident angle 5:. Then the angle
of refracted of longitudinal wave?
Given data: incident angle=5:
longitudinal wave in aluminium
By using the snells law,

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin5
1480
=
Sin r
6400
Sin 5 x 6400
1480
Sin r =
Sin 5 x 6400
1480
I =
Sin
=22.14:
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
11. When inspecting aluminium 1.5mm defect is obtained
what is frequency of the probe?

Given data: defect size=1.5mm

/2= 1.5

=3

f=vel/

f= 6400000/3 = 2133333.33 Hz

f= 2.13 MHz

12. In immersion testing the refracted angle of aluminium 50:
obtained what will be the lead refracted angle?

Given data: ral=50:
By using the snells law,
Case1 : interface of water and aluminium
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
1480
=
Sin 50
3130
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
Case2 : interface of water and lead
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
1480
=
Sin r
790
Since , LHS are equal
Therefore, RHS are equal
Sin 50
3130
Sin r
=
790
r= Sin
Sin 50 x 790
3130
= 11.14:
13. Calculate refracted angle of longitudinal in beryllium at
incident angle is 3: copper?
Given data: i=3:
Take ,Copper beryllium interface
By using the snells law,

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin 3
4760
=
Sin r
12890
Sin 3 x 12890
4760
Sin r=
Sin 3x 12890
4760
I =
Sin
=8.14:
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
14. Calculate the ICA and IICA of aluminium, steel and copper ?
The first crical angle means ,my longitudinal waves are at 90:
Second critical angle means, shear waves at 90:
i.e, at the surface of the material,
By using the snells law,
Case 1 : al
Lonitudinal shear

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 90
6400
Sin 90 x 2730
6400
Sin I =
Sin 90 x 2730
6400
I =
Sin
=25.24:
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 90
3130
Sin 90 x 2730
3130
Sin I =
Sin 90 x 2730
3130
I =
Sin
=60.71:
Case2 : steel
Lonitudinal shear

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 90
5920
Sin 90 x 2730
5920
Sin I =
Sin 90 x 2730
5920
I =
Sin
=27.46:
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 90
3250
Sin 90 x 2730
3250
Sin I =
Sin 90 x 2730
3250
I =
Sin
=57.14:
Case3 : copper
Lonitudinal shear

Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 90
4730
Sin 90 x 2730
4730
Sin I =
Sin 90 x 2730
4730
I =
Sin
=35.25:
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 90
2330
Sin 90 x 2730
2330
Sin I =
Sin 90 x 2730
2330
I =
Sin
=math
error
15. When inspecting a steel absorbed an angle 65: what would be
the angle in copper and aluminium?

Given data: r=65:
By using the snells law,
Case1 : interface of prespex and steel
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 65
3250
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
Case2 : interface of prespex and aluminium
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin r
3130
Since , LHS are equal
Therefore, RHS are equal
Sin 65
3250
Sin r
=
3130
r= Sin
Sin 65x 3130
3250
= 60.79:
Given data: r=65:
By using the snells law,
Case1 : interface of prespex and steel
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 65
3250
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
Case2 : interface of prespex and copper
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin r
2330
Since , LHS are equal
Therefore, RHS are equal
Sin 65
3250
Sin r
=
2330
r= Sin
Sin 65x 2330
3250
= 40.52:
16. When inspecting 28mm bismuth plate absorbed at an angle 10:
what would be angle in steel nickle and glass?

Given data: r=65:
By using the snells law,
Case1 : interface of prespex and steel
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin 65
3250
The velocity of first
Medium is always
Longitudinal only
Case2 : interface of prespex and aluminium
Sin i
v1
=
Sin r
v2
Sin i
2730
=
Sin r
3130
Since , LHS are equal
Therefore, RHS are equal
Sin 65
3250
Sin r
=
3130
r= Sin
Sin 65x 3130
3250
= 60.79: