PRIMARY HEALTH CARE 1

CONCEPT OF MAN

The Human as the Biosocial
 Man as Biological being  Man as a social being

• Contemporary science considers the human being on the basis of two different dimensions of his existence: the biological and the social. Human beings appeared on earth as a result of a long process of development. As biological creatures, they still retain a close genetic connection with the animal world. Man's organism has many features in common with the higher animals

• Man got ahead of the mammals to the intensive development and differentiation of the cerebral cortex. The characteristic anatomical and physiological features of the human being are erect posture, free upper extremities, adapted for using and making tools, and advanced development of the means of communication. The need to maintain balance in the erect posture caused a certain curvature of the spinal column and a shift in the general centre of gravity

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Culture :
• The system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviours, and artifacts that the members of society use to cope with their world and with one another, and that are transmitted from generation to generation through learning.

PERSONALITY
• “PERSONALITY is a STABLE set of INTRAPSYCHIC (INTERNAL) characteristics and tendencies that determines the psychological behavior of people. The behavior determined by personality is RELATIVELY CONSISTENT over time.”

Family
• A family is a primary social group in any society, typically consisting of a man and a woman, or any two individuals who wish to share their lives together in a long-term commitment to one another, bring up offspring and usually reside in the same dwelling.

Religion
• Religion originates in an attempt to represent and order beliefs, feelings, imaginings and actions that arise in response to direct experience of the sacred and the spiritual. As this attempt expands in its formulation and elaboration, it becomes a process that creates meaning for itself on a sustaining basis, in terms of both its originating experiences and its own continuing responses.

Society
1. the aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community. 2. a particular community of people living in a country or region, and having shared customs, laws, and organizations.

3. (also high society) people who are fashionable, wealthy, and influential, regarded as a distinct social group. an organization or club formed for a particular purpose or activity. the situation of being in the company of other people. 4. an organization or club formed for a particular purpose or activity. 5. the situation of being in the company of other people.

Disease
• DISEASE [disease] impairment of the normal state or functioning of the body as a whole or of any of its parts.

• diseases are acute, producing severe symptoms that terminate after a short time, e.g., pneumonia; others are chronic disorders, e.g., arthritis, that last a long time; and still others return periodically and are termed recurrent, e.g., malaria.

• One of the most common bases for classifying disease is according to cause. External factors that produce disease are infectious agents, including both microscopic organisms ( bacteria , viruses , and protozoans ) and macroscopic ones ( fungi and various parasitic worms ). Only infectious diseases can be transmitted—by humans, certain animals and insects, and infected objects and substances (see communicable diseases ).

• Other external agents that can cause disease are chemical and physical agents (drugs, poisons, radiation), which can be encountered in specific work situations, deficiency of nutrients in the environment, and physical injury. Diseases that arise from internal (endogenous) causes include hereditary abnormalities (disorders inherited from one or both parents),

• congenital diseases (disturbances in the development of a normal embryo), allergies (hypersensitive reactions to substances in the environment), endocrine disorders (generally either overfunctioning or underfunctioning of an endocrine gland), circulatory disorders (diseases of the heart and blood vessels), and neoplasms, or tumors (masses of abnormally proliferating cells).

• Degenerative diseases occur as a result of the natural aging of the body tissues. Finally, a wide range of diseases are attributed to, or at least influenced by, emotional disturbances. Psychoses and neuroses result in disturbed behavior; the so-called psychosomatic diseases (certain kinds of colitis, many forms of headaches) are thought to be brought about by emotional stress.

WHO definition of Health
• Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs
• Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivational model

• Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50's USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development • Indeed, Maslow's ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential (self-actualization) are today more relevant than ever.

• Abraham Maslow's book Motivation and Personality, published in 1954 (second edition 1970) introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, and Maslow extended his ideas in other work, notably his later book Toward A Psychology Of Being, a significant and relevant commentary, which has been revised in recent times by Richard Lowry, who is in his own right a leading academic in the field of motivational psychology.

• Abraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 and died in 1970, although various publications appear in Maslow's name in later years. Maslow's PhD in psychology in 1934 at the University of Wisconsin formed the basis of his motivational research, initially studying rhesus monkeys. Maslow later moved to New York's Brooklyn College. Maslow's original five-stage Hierarchy of Needs model is clearly and directly attributable to Maslow; later versions with added motivational stages are not so clearly attributable. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

• has been extended through interpretation of Maslow's work by other people, and these augmented models and diagrams are shown as the adapted seven and eight-stage Hierarchy of Needs models below. There is some uncertainty as to how and when these additional three stages (six, seventh and eighth - 'Cognitive', 'Aesthetic', and 'Transcendence') came to be added, and by whom, to the Hierarchy of Needs model, and many people consider Maslow's 'original' five-stage Hierarchy Of Needs model to be the definitive (and perfectly adequate) concept.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs
• Each of us is motivated by needs. Our most basic needs are inborn, having evolved over tens of thousands of years. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all.

• Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself. • Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development

• Conversely, if the things that satisfy our lower order needs are swept away, we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of our higher order needs. • Maslow's original Hierarchy of Needs model was developed between 1943-1954, and first widely published in Motivation and Personality in 1954. At this time the Hierarchy of Needs model comprised five needs. This original version remains for most people the definitive Hierarchy of Needs.

Self-actualization personal growth and fulfilment
Esteem needs achievement, status, responsibility, reputation Belongingness and Love needs family, affection, relationships, work group, etc

Safety needs protection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc
Biological and Physiological needs basic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

1970's adapted hierarchy of needs model, including cognitive and aesthetic needs

Selfactualisation personal growth and fulfilment Aesthetic needs beauty, balance, form, etc Cognitive needs knowledge, meaning, self-awareness Esteem needs achievement, status, responsibility, reputation Belongingness and Love needs family, affection, relationships, work group, etc

Safety needs protection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc

Biological and Physiological needs basic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

Adapted 8 level Hierarchy of Needs diagram, based on Maslow's theory

1990's adapted hierarchy of needs including transcendence needs

Transcendence helping others to self-actualise Self-actualisation personal growth, self-fulfilment

Aesthetic needs beauty, balance, form, etc Cognitive needs knowledge, meaning, self-awareness Esteem needs achievement, status, responsibility, reputation

Belongingness and Love needs family, affection, relationships, work group, etc Safety needs protection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc

Biological and Physiological needs basic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

THE END