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Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 1 10/03/2002

FILTRATION
Packing density/solidity
Fiber filter
Reading: Chap 6
porosity - 1
volume total
me fiber volu
= = o
For fiber filter, o < 0.1
For woven filter, o ~ 0.3
Q: Do filters function simply as sieves (to
collect particles larger than the sieve spacing)?
Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 2 10/03/2002
Theodore &
Buonicore,
Air Pollution
Control
Equipment,
CRC Press,
1988.
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Shaker Baghouse
Theodore & Buonicore,
Air Pollution Control Equipment,
CRC Press, 1988.
Frequency Several cycles/s
Motion type Simple harmonic
or sinusoidal
Peak
acceleration
1-10 gravity
Amplitude Fraction to a few
inches
Mode Off-stream
Duration 10-100 cycles, 30
s to a few minutes
Common
bag diameter
5, 8, 12 in
Shaker Cleaning Parameters
Q: What are the common
problems encountered?
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Reverse-Air
Q: Pros and Cons?
Cleaning dust on baghouse
walls by traditional sledge-
hammering
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Frequency Clean a compartment at a time,
sequencing 1 compartment
after another; continuous or
initiated by a max.-pressure-
drop switch
Motion Gentle collapse of bag
(concave inward) upon
deflation; slowly repressurize a
compartment after completion
of a backflush
Mode Off stream
Duration 1-2 min, incl. valve opening,
closing & dust settling periods;
reverse-air flow itself normally
10-30 s
Bag diameter 8, 12 inch; length 22, 30 ft
Bag tension 50-75 lb
Reverse-Air Cleaning Parameters
Reverse-Jet
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Pulse-Jet
Frequency A row of bags at a time;
sequenced 1 row after
another; can sequence such
that no adjacent rows clean
one after another; initiation of
cleaning can be triggered by
max-pressure-drop switch or
may be continuous
Motion Shock wave passes down bag;
bag distends from cage
momentarily
Mode On-stream; in difficult-to-
clean applications such as
coal-fired boilers, off-stream
compartment cleaning being
studied
Duration Compressed air (100 psi)
pulse duration 0.1 s; bag row
effectively off-line
Bag
diameter
5-6 in


Q: How can the blown-away particles by the on-line cleaning process be collected?
Q: Felted fabric or woven fabric?
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Air/Cloth Ratio
A
Q
V =
Filtration velocity
(average velocity)
Q: If thicker fabric is needed
to sustain the high force, is
its operating cost higher?
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Filtration Mechanisms
Diffusion (Lee & Liu, 1982)
E
Ku
Pe
Pe
d U
D
Ku
D
f
=

=
= +

2 58
1
1
2
3
4 4
2 3
0
2
.
ln
/
o
o o
o
Peclet number
Kuwabara hydrodynamic factor
Lee, K.W. & Liu, B.Y.H., Aerosol Sci. Technol.,
1:47-61, 1982
Q: How does efficiency change wrt d
p
?
Q: How to increase efficiency by diffusion?
http://aerosol.ees.ufl.edu/respiratory/section04.html
Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 9 10/03/2002
Impaction (Yeh & Liu, 1974)
E
Stk J
Ku
Stk
U
d
d C U
d
J R R R
I
f
p p c
f
=
= =
= <
( )
( . ) . .
. .
2
18
29 6 28 27 5 0 4
2
0
2
0
0 62 2 2 8
t

o


for
f
p
d
d
R =
Yeh. H.C. & Liu, B.Y.H., J. Aerosol Sci.,
5:191-217, 1974
Q: How to increase impaction efficiency?
Q: How does efficiency change wrt dp?
(J = 2 for
R > 0.4)
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Interception (Krish & Stechkina, 1978)
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + +
+
=
2
2
) 1 (
2
)
2
1 (
1
1
1 ) 1 ln( 2
2
1
R
R
R
Ku
R
E
R
o o
o
Krish, A. A. & Stechkina, I. B., The theory of Aerosol Filtration with Fibrous Filters,
in Fundamentals of Aerosol Science, Ed. Shaw, D. T., Wiley, 1978.
Q: How to increase interception efficiency?
Fat Mans Misery,
Mammoth Cave NP
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Gravitational Settling



Total Single Fiber Efficiency


Total Filter Efficiency
E G R
G
V
U
d C g
U
G
TS
p p c
~ +
= =
( ) 1
18
0
2
0
for U and V in the same direction
0 TS

G R I D
G R I D
E E E E
E E E E E
+ + + ~
=
E

) 1 )( 1 )( 1 )( 1 ( 1
( )
E

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

= = E S
d
H E
P E
f
f
exp 1
) 1 (
4
exp 1 1
o t
o
S
f
: Solidarity factor
Q: How does the filter efficiency change wrt particle size?
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H = 1mm
o = 0.05
d
f
= 2m
U
0
=10 cm/s
Q: Should we increase or decrease flow velocity in order to increase
collection efficiency for (a) tobacco smoke, (b) cement dust?
Filter efficiency for individual mechanism
and combined mechanisms
dp (m)
0.01 0.1 1 10
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Interception
Impaction
Diffusion
Gravitation
Total
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Problem
Filter is made of fibers with diameter of 10 um, density of
2.35 g/m3 and solidity of 5%
Filter must collect 0.5 um particles with 90% eff.
Air velocity is 10 ft/min

Question: How thick must the filter be?
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Parallel
Flow
Operation
Q: How do you determine when to clean?
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Pressure Drop (Filter Drag Model)
( )
s p f
P P P P A + A + A = A
( )V LVt K V K
2 1
+ =
Areal Dust Density
LVt W =
Filter drag
V
P
S
A
=
W K K S
2 1
+ =
K
2

K
1

K
1
& K
2
to be determined empirically
AP
f
: fabric pressure drop
AP
f
: particle layer pressure drop
AP
s
: structure pressure drop
Time (min) AP, Pa
0 150
5 380
10 505
20 610
30 690
60 990
Q: What is the pressure drop after 100 minutes of operation?
L = 5 g/m
3
and V = 0.9 m/min.
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Time to clean
c c r f
t t t N t + = ) (
N
Q
Q
N
=
Flow rate
1
1

N
Q
Q
N
Filtering velocity
C C
N
N
NA
Q
A
Q
V = =
C C
N
N
A N
Q
A
Q
V
) 1 (
1
1

= =

Q: What are the parameters that


affect our decision on the number
of compartments to be used?
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Areal dust density
) )( 1 (
1 c N r N j
Lt V Lt V N W

+ =
Filter drag
j j
W K K S
2 1
+ =
Actual filtering velocity
1
=
N N j
V f V
Pressure drop
j j m j
V S P P = A = A
N
1
/

=
N f N
V V f
3 0.87
4 0.8
5 0.76
7 0.71
10 0.67
12 0.65
15 0.64
20 0.62
20
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Ex. Calculate the max pressure drop that must be supplied
for the following baghouse for a filtration time of 60
minutes: K
1
= 1 inch H
2
O-min/ft, K
2
= 0.003 inch H
2
O-
min-ft/grain, t
c
= 4 min, 5 compartments, L = 10
grain/ft
3
, Q = 40000 ft
3
/min, A
c
= 4000 ft
2
/compartment.
Other factors to be considered for selecting a filter?
Temperature & Humidity
Chemical nature of gas
Fire/Explosion
Bag/arrangement
Dust handling
Fan location
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Advantages:




Disadvantages:
Advantages & Disadvantages of a Baghouse