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Ethics & Safety

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What would you do?
Your company is a public listed company
employing thousands of workers across the
country. A major accident has just occurred
resulting in two deaths. The root cause of the
accident has been identified as failure of those in
charge to properly provide safety and health
training to new workers. Instead of being
transparent about the incident, upper management
has taken action to cover up the negligence. As an
insider, you know full well what has happened.
What would you do? Go along with
managements decision to hide the error? Or report
the actual facts to the relevant authorities?
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Ethics
DEFINITION
Conscience
Morality
Legality
Ethics is a study of morality within a context
established by cultural and professional values,
social norms, and accepted standards of behavior.
Values
subscribed
to and
fostered by
Ethical behaviour falls within
the limits prescribed by
morality
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Guidelines for Determining Ethical
Behavior
- Apply the morning-after test:
if you make the choice, how will you feel about it
tomorrow morning?
- Apply the front-page test:
decision made would not embarrass you if printed as
story on the front page of newspaper
- Apply the mirror test
if you make this decision, how will you feel about
yourself when you look in the mirror?
GUIDELINES
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- Apply the role-reversal test
trade places with the people affected by your
decision and view the decision through their eyes
- Apply the common-sense test
listen to what your instincts and common sense are
telling you; if it feels wrong, it probably is.
GUIDELINES
Ethical questions
typically fall into a
gray area no black
or white
Personal experience,
self-interest, point of
view and external
pressure cloud this
gray area further
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Is it legal?
If not legal,
no further
consideration
is in order
Blanchard and Peale suggest this three basic
questions:
How it make
me feel about
myself?
If a course of
action is in
keeping with
your own moral
structure, it will
make you feel
good about
yourself.
Is it
balanced?
If an action is
balanced, it is
fair to all
involved.
Responsibilitie
s beyond the
walls of unit,
organizations
and company
GUIDELINES
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Ethical Behavior In Organizations
Influenced by individual and social
factors.

BEHAVIOUR
Individual Factors:
- Ego strength
- Machiavellianism
- Locus of Control
Ability to
undertake
self-
directed
tasks and
cope with
tense
situations
Extent to
which a
person will
attempt to
deceive or
confuse
others
Concerning who or
what controls their
behaviours
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Ethical Behavior In Organizations
Influenced by individual and social
factors.

BEHAVIOUR
Social Factors:
- gender
- role differences
- religion
- age
- work experience
- nationality
- influence by others
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Deciding what is ethical is much easier
than actually doing it
Three basics approaches to handling
ethical problems:
Bestratio
approach
Full-potential
approach
Black-and-
white
approach
HANDLING ETHICS
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Best-ratio Approach
- pragmatic approach
- do every possible condition that
promote ethical behavior
- maintain best possible ratio of good
choices to bad
- situational ethics
HANDLING ETHICS
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Black-and-white Approach
- right is right, wrong is wrong, and
circumstances are irrelevant
- make fair decisions and impartial
choices regardless of the outcome
Full-potential Approach
- decision made base on the outcomes
affect the ability of their full potential
HANDLING ETHICS
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Safety and Health Professionals
Role in Ethics
Responsible to set examples of
ethical behaviour
Assist fellow employees make
the right decision
Helping employees follow
through and actually undertake
the ethical option/decision once
the appropriate choice has been
identified
HANDLING ETHICS
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Companys Role in
Ethics

Set an example of
ethics in all external
dealings
The
companys
role in
ethics
Create an ethical
environment inside the
company
HANDLING ETHICS
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How should one proceed when confronting an
ethical dilemma?
Unfortunately deciding what is ethical is much
easier than actually doing what is ethical.
In this regard, trying to practice ethics is like
trying to diet. It is not so much a matter of
knowing you should cut down eating, it is a
matter of following through and actually
doing it.
- David L. Goetsch, 2002.
HANDLING ETHICS DILLEMMA
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Education - Safety Ethics
I value safety,
I work safely,
I prevent at-risk behaviour,
I promote safety
and
I accept responsibility for safety.

Journal of Chemical Health and Safety
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Education - Safety Ethics
I value safety:
Safety not only a priority but it is a value -
never questioned & compromised.
Dr. Scott Geller.
I work safely: Stop, Look & Think
Identify & evaluate hazards
Understand potential risk
Minimise risk & control hazards
Safe procedures
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Education - Safety Ethics
I prevent at-risk behaviour: Prevent unsafe act
I promote safety : Make a safe work place!
First: Physical & Engineering Control
Next: Safe Operating Procedures & Training
Last: PPE
I accept responsibility for safety:
Responsibility, in its true sense is an entirely
voluntary act; response to the needs of
another human being
Act out of need to protect safety of all because we
care.
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THE END