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K.

Suresh Senanayake
Scientific Officer
NCNDT - AEA
Boiler is a closed vessel in which the water under
pressure is transferred into steam by the
application of heat.
The function of boiler is to transfer the
heat to the water in the efficient manner.
The chemical energy convert into heat energy by
the combustion process which is absorbed by the
boiler .
A boiler must be designed to absorb the
maximum amount of heat release in the
process of combustion.
The steam produced is used for:

I. Producing mechanical work by expanding it in steam
engine or steam turbine.

II. Heating the residential and industrial buildings.

III. Performing certain processes in the sugar mills,
chemical and textile industries.
Boiler properties:

Safety:
The boiler should be safe under operating
conditions.
Accessibility:
The various parts of the boiler should be
accessible for repair and maintenance.
Capacity:
Should be capable of supplying steam
according to the requirements.

Efficiency:
Should be able to absorb a maximum amount
of heat produced due to burning of fuel in the
furnace.

It should be simple in construction .

Its initial cost and maintenance cost should be
low.

The boiler should have no joints exposed to
flames.

Should be capable of quick starting and
loading.


FIRE
TUBE
BOILER
BOILER
OTHER
PACKAGE
BOILER
WATER
TUBE
BOILER
According to what flows in the tube
(i) Water tube (ii) Fire tube
According to position of furnace
(i) Internally fired (ii) Externally fired
According to position of principle axis
(i) Vertical (ii) Horizontal (iii) Inclined
According to application
(i) Stationary (ii) Mobile (Marine, Locomotive)
According to circulating water
(i) Natural circulation (ii) Forced circulation
According to steam pressure
(i) Low (ii) Medium (iii) High

Fire in tube or hot gas send through the tubes and boiler
feed water in shell side.
Fire tubes submerged in water.
It is used for small
steam capacities
(up to 25 T/hr and 17.5
Kg/cm
2
)
Low capital cost and
fuel efficient (82%)
Water flows through the tubes.
Water tubes surrounded by hot gas.
For steam range 5.5 to 130 T/hr
Used for power plant
Used as high capacity steam
boilers.
Efficient control system need.
Capital cost is high.
It comes as a complete
package thats why it is
called package boiler. It
is generally shell type
with fire tube design,

Large number of small
diameter tubes leading
to good heat transfer.

It has high thermal
efficiency compared to
other types boilers.
Shell
It consists of one or more steel plates made into cylindrical shape
and welded or riveted together. The ends of the shell are closed by
flat or curved plates called boiler heads. Curved or
hemispherical shaped ends are also called dished ends
Foundation and Wall
It is constructed of bricks. The wall of the boiler and combustion
chamber may also be made of bricks. This wall restricts heat to
the boiler and forms flue gas passage. Also walls provide supports
to drums and tubes.
Tubes
These are narrow pipes that connect boiler heads. Tubes act as
passages for flue gas in FT Boilers and, Water or steam in WT
Boilers where evaporation or steam generation takes place in
these tubes.

Baffle plates
These are steel plates that blocks off direct exit of flue gases to the
chimney. Baffles make flue gas path longer and zigzag around
heating surfaces and make boiler more efficient. This also support
tube banks.

Baffle plates
Grate
A grate consists of cast iron bars on which solid fuel such as coal or
wood is burnt. The air passes through the gaps between the bars and
sustains combustion process of fuel. Ashes fall down through the
grate.
Steam space
Entire upper space of boiler and tubes which is not occupied by water.
Heating surface
A surface of boiler tubes or plates, that is exposed to flue gases on one
side and water on the other side. Heat energy transfer into water takes
place through the heating surfaces
Feed pump
A pump used to pump feedwater into a steam boiler
Super heater
A super heater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet
steam into dry steam. Reduction of moisture increases internal
energy of the steam and then the thermal efficiency.
Economizer
This use waste heat pass to the chimney to pre-heat feed water. This
also increases efficiency of steam generating system of the boiler.
Super heater
Economizer
Furnace or Fire Box is a primary part of the boiler
where the chemical energy available in the fuel
converted into the thermal energy by combustion
process.
A furnace is designed for efficient and complete
combustion.
Time of fuel inside the furnace,
Temperature inside the furnace,
Mixing of coal and air,

The another important feature of the construction of
furnace is to reduce the air infiltration.
Dry bottom furnace

Slag type or wet bottom type furnace

Oil fired furnace
Boiler drum is the secondary part of the boiler where the
water absorb the heat and converted into the steam, that
steam send to the turbine after reheating by the super-
heater.
Main parts
Pressure Gauge
This indicates the pressure of the steam in the
boiler
Water Level Indicator
This indicates the water level in the boiler
Safety Valve
The function of the safety valve is to prevent the
increase of steam pressure boiler above its design
pressure
Fusible Plug
If the water level in the boiler falls below the
predetermined level, the boiler shell and tubes
will be overheated.
Blow-off Cock
The water supplied to the boiler always contains
impurities like mud, sand, and salt due to
heating, these are deposited at the bottom of the
boiler, they have to be removed using blow-off
cock.
Steam Stop Valve
It regulates the flow of steam supply outside. The
steam from the boiler first enters into an ant-
priming pipe where most of the water particles
associated with steam are removed
Feed Check Valve
The high pressure feed water is supplied to the
boiler through this valve. This valve opens
towards the boiler only and feeds the water to
the boiler
Multi-pass FT Package Boiler
1. Heat loss due to un-burnt Carbon.
This loss can be reduced by using of proper
grinded fuel
2. Heat loss due to dry flue gases.
This heat can be minimized by completely
utilize of heat of flue gases
3. Heat loss due to moisture in the fuel.
For minimizing this loss we must use of dry fuel
as possible as
4. Heat loss due to surface radiation.
This heat loss can be minimized by proper
maintenance of the furnace
Combustion is a chemical reaction between fuel and
oxygen which results is release of heat.

Oxygen is required to burn the fuel that is provided
from the atmospheric air.
The efficiency of boiler may be defined by:-

A. Combustion Efficiency
This efficiency is related to the combustion of fuel and
air inside the furnace
B. Thermal Efficiency
This efficiency is related to the heat transfer to the water
inside the boiler drum
C. Fuel and Fluid Efficiency
It indicates the overall efficiency of the boiler inclusive
thermal efficiency of the heat exchanger, Radiation and
Convection losses output divided by input
The ends of the furnace are protected by refractory materials.

The boiler is subjected to the pressures developed by the heating process
and must be protected from over-pressurization to prevent failure or
explosion. Boilers contain safety valves and relief valves as the primary
means of preventing over-pressurization.

Boiler pressure vessel design and construction is done in accordance
with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Pressure Vessel Construction Code.

Installation, repair, and alteration are specified by the National Board
Inspection Code (NBIC). The National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA) codes are also used in part for specification of
electrical and piping installation as well as combustion safety.
Boiler Controls are designed to control the activity within
a boiler while ensuring safe and efficient operation.

Waterside Controls
o Pressure determination
o Temperature control
o Water level
Fireside Controls
o Burner control
o Flame detection
o Fuel temperature
o Fuel pressure
Boiler Operator
The boiler operator is responsible for operating
and maintaining the boiler in a safe and efficient
manner.
Chief Engineer
Chief engineer of a boiler plant holds the
responsibility for directing boiler operations,
procedures and maintenance.
Log Sheets
Log sheets are a paper record of boiler operation
and maintenance, and should be used in all boiler
rooms to help ensure safe operation.
This includes;
Startup
Cold iron start up and new plant start up. Most
furnace explosions occur during start up and when
switching fuels, so always follow the manufacture's
guidelines
Operation & General Maintenance
Requires proper training, equipment familiarity and
routine maintenance procedures
Shutdown
Whether for a short time or long time, different
procedures exist. If the boiler is to be placed out of
service for an extended period of time, proper lay-up
procedures are required and must be followed.