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BY :
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Equivalence About Word
1. Equivalence above word level In order to
convey meaning words are usually combined
together and there are restrictions to these

2. Translation is concerned with words, but not
with words alone. Because Most of English
words have more than one meaning. So, The
best way to know the equivalence about word
level would be through context .

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Strategies of Equivalence
About Word Level



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Collocation :
Pitfalls and Problem in Translation

Ex : Some one ask me did I think I was
the best future for my little girl? But
I love her than more than anyone
else possibly could, she’s my chance
at something else, something better.
And there’s no way I’m letting go of
(dead race message film : 2008)

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Collocation :
Pitfalls and Problem in Translation
2. Misinterpreting the meaning of a
source-language collocation

Ex : seorang anak SD jakarta sedang
menerjemahkan kalimat ini
“kali ini saya maafkan kamu. Tapi
lain kali saya bunuh kamu”.
translated becomes :
“This river I forgive you but other
river I kill you”.
(pasangan kata yang menduduki
teritorialnya sendiri dalam sebuah
bahasa yang belum tentu sama
dalam bahasa lain.

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Collocation :
Pitfalls and Problem in Translation
3. The Tension Between Accuracy and

Ex : “rebirth after death” in Chinese
can replace to Indonesia is
Kehidupan setelah kematian
(surga atau neraka). But in
Chinese . The word means
Reincarnation (someone life again
after death in the different life
and situation to make their last
life better than before.)

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Collocation :
Pitfalls and Problem in Translation
4. Caltural-Spesific Collocation

Ex : “as long as wick immortality,
rebirth after death obsessed with
continued that’s transmigration .
(monkey king film message
:2014) have a different meaning if
we translated literal to Indonesia

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Collocation :
Pitfalls and Problem in Translation
5. Marked Collocation in Source Text

Ex : “take a bath”. in Indonesia is not
same with take a bath other
Europe. So to make it in English
language use specific description.
Veal in English will have
description in Indonesia

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Difficulties Using Idom
1. An idiom or fixed expression may have
no equivalent in the target language

Ex : Formal Correspondence like “your
sincerely”, “your faithfully”.

2. An idiom or fixed expression may have
a similar counterpart in the target
language, but its context of use may
be different; the two expressions may
have different connotations.

Ex : Panjang Tangan (Indonesia language) the
meaning in English not only long hand
language. But only can means a robber.

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Difficulties Using Idom
3. An idiom may be used in the source
text in both its literal and idiomatic
senses at the same time.

4. The very convention of using
idioms in written discourse, the
context in which they can be used,
and their frequency of use may be
different in the source and target

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Strategies in Using Idiom
1. Using an idiom of similar meaning
and form

2. Using an idiom of similar meaning
but dissimilar form

3. Translation by paraphrase

4. Translation by omission

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Example of IDIOM from film
1. Get the paddles, comrades (Stalingrad : 2013) become
bersemangatlah komandan in Indonesia language.
2. Oh my dear (Stalingrad : 2013) become the brave soldier.
3. C’est la vie (mechanic : 2009) French language translate into
English become that’s life translate into Indonesia become
Tamatlah sudah
4. At least I don’t go down looking like a pussy. Translate
into Indonesia become setidaknya aku tidak mati seperti
5. Flush the scum out (forbidden kingdom : 2008) translate
into Indonesia become usir berandalan itu keluar

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Grammatical rules may vary across
languages and this may pose some
problems in terms of finding a direct
correspondence in the TL.
Different grammatical structures in the
SL and TL may cause remarkable changes in
the way the information or message is
carried across. These changes may induce
the translator either to add or to omit
information in the TT because of the lack of
particular grammatical devices in the TL

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Strategies of Equivalence
About Gramatical
1. NUMBER (penanda singular plural in English

2. GENDER (benda mati pun bisa punya kelamin)
she in english adalah benda mati yang bisa dimuat


2. TENSE AND ASPECT (gramatikal / tenses dalam
bahasa tertentu)

3. VOICE (aktif dan pasif)
kalimat aktif dalam bahasa bisa jadi pasif dalam bahasa
ex : I broke my leg (tidak sengaja) jadi pasif
di Inggris