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**Lecture 7: Introduction to Physics
**

PHY101

Chapter 2:

Free Fall (2.6)

Graphical Analysis of Velocity and

Acceleration (2.7)

Chapter 3:

Equations of Kinematics for Constant

Acceleration in 2 Dim. (3.1, 3.2)

Projectile Motion (3.3)

Physics 101: Lecture 7, Pg 2

Summary of Lecture 6

equations with constant acceleration (t

0

=0):

x = v

0

t + 1/2 at

2

v = at

v

2

= v

0

2

+ 2a x

y = y

0

+ v

0y

t - 1/2 gt

2

v

y

= v

0y

- gt

v

y

2

= v

0y

2

- 2gy

• free fall: a

y

= -g = -9.80 m/s

2

Physics 101: Lecture 7, Pg 3

Dennis and Carmen are standing on the edge of a cliff.

Dennis throws a basketball vertically upward, and at the

same time Carmen throws a basketball vertically downward

with the same initial speed. You are standing below the

cliff observing this strange behavior. Whose ball is moving

fastest when it hits the ground?

1. Dennis' ball

2. Carmen's ball

3. Same

v

0

v

0

Dennis Carmen

H

v

A

v

B

Concept Question

Correct: v

2

= v

0

2

-2gy

Physics 101: Lecture 7, Pg 4

Free Fall - Symmetry

At a given displacement along the path of motion the

magnitude of the upward velocity is equal the

magnitude of the downward velocity and they point in

opposite directions:

v

up

= - v

down

Physics 101: Lecture 7, Pg 5

Kinematics in Two Dimensions

Constant Acceleration

Consider an object which moves in the (x,y) plane from the initial

position r

0

, at time t

0

with velocity v

0

, with constant acceleration.

position: your coordinates (just r=(x,y) in 2-D)

displacement: r = r-r

0

change of position

velocity: rate of change of position

average : r/t

instantaneous: lim

t->0

r/t

acceleration: rate of change of velocity

average: v/t

instantaneous: lim

t->0

v/t

Same concepts as in one dimension !

Equations of kinematics are derived for the x and y components

separately. Same equations as in one dimension !

Physics 101: Lecture 7, Pg 6

Equations of Kinematics in 2 Dim.

Variable x component y component

Displacement r x=x-x

0

y=y-y

0

Elapsed time t (t

0

=0) t t

Initial velocity v

0

v

0x

v

0y

Final velocity v v

x

v

y

Acceleration a a

x

a

y

v

x

= v

0x

+ a

x

t v

y

= v

0y

+ a

y

t

x = x

0

+ t (v

x

+v

x0

)/2 y = y

0

+ t (v

y

+v

y0

)/2

x = x

0

+ v

0

t + a

x

/2

t

2

y= y

0

+ v

0

t + a

y

/2 t

2

v

x

2

= v

0x

2

+ 2 a

x

x v

y

2

= v

0y

2

+ 2 a

y

y

Physics 101: Lecture 7, Pg 7

Eqs. of Kinematics in 2 Dim.

The motions along the x and y directions are completely

independent. They only share a common time.

Three swimmers can swim equally fast relative to the

water. They have a race to see who can swim across a river

in the least time. Relative to the water, Beth (B) swims

perpendicular to the flow, Ann (A) swims upstream, and

Carly (C) swims downstream. Which swimmer wins the

race?

A) Ann

B) Beth

C) Carly

Time to get across = width of river / y-component of velocity

A B C

correct

Physics 101: Lecture 7, Pg 8

Projectile Motion

A flatbed railroad car is moving along a track at constant

velocity. A passenger at the center of the car throws a ball

straight up. Neglecting air resistance, where will the ball land ?

1. Forward of the center of the car

2. At the center of the car

3. Backward of the center of the car

correct

Physics 101: Lecture 7, Pg 9

Kinematics of Projectile Motion (t

0

=0)

x direction : motion with constant velocity => a

x

= 0

x = x

0

+ v

0x

t

v

x

= v

0x

y direction : free fall => a

y

= - g = -9.80 m/s

y = y

0

+ v

0y

t - 1/2 g t

2

v

y

= v

0y

– g t

v

y

2

= v

0y

2

– 2 g (y-y

0

)

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