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Honors Physics

“Mechanics for Physicists and Engineers”

Agenda for Today

Advice

1-D Kinematics

Average & instantaneous velocity and acceleration

Motion with constant acceleration

Freefall

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 2

Kinematics Objectives

Define average and instantaneous velocity

Caluclate kinematic quantities using equations

interpret and plot position -time graphs

be able to determine and describe the meaning of the

slope of a position-time graph

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 3

Kinematics

Location and motion of objects is described using

Kinematic Variables:

Some examples of kinematic variables.

position r vector, (d,x,y,z)

velocity v vector

acceleration a vector

Kinematic Variables:

Measured with respect to a reference frame. (x-y axis)

Measured using coordinates (having units).

Many kinematic variables are Vectors, which means

they have a direction as well as a magnitude.

Vectors denoted by boldface V or arrow above the

variable

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 4

Motion

Position: Separation between an object and a

reference point (Just a point)

Distance: Separation between two objects

Displacement of an object is the distance

between it‟s final position d

f

and it‟s initial

position d

i

(d

f

- d

i

)= d

Scalar: Quantity that can be described by a

magnitude(strength) only

Distance, temperature, pressure etc..

Vector: A quantity that can be described by both

a magnitude and direction

Force, displacement, torque etc.

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 5

Speed describes the rate at which an object moves.

Distance traveled per unit of time.

Velocity describes an objects‟ speed and direction.

Approximate units of speed

40 km/hr 25 miles/hr 11 m/s

100 km/hr 62 miles/hr 28 m/s

120 km/hr 75 miles/hr 33 m/s

Speed and Velocity

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 6

Motion in 1 dimension

In general, position at time t

1

is usually denoted d, r(t

1

) or

x(t

1

)

In 1-D, we usually write position as x(t

1

) but for this level

we’ll use d

Since it‟s in 1-D, all we need to indicate direction is + or .

Displacement in a time t = t

2

- t

1

is

x = x

2

- x

1

= d

2

-d

1

t

x

t

1

t

2

x

t

x

1

x

2

some particle‟s trajectory

in 1-D

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 7

1-D kinematics

t

d

t t

v

av

1 2

) d1 - (d2

t

x

t

1

t

2

x

d

1

d

2

trajectory

Velocity v is the “rate of change of position”

Average velocity v

av

in the time t = t

2

- t

1

is:

t

V

av

= slope of line connecting x

1

and x

2

.

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 8

Instantaneous velocity v is defined as the velocity at

an instant of time ( t= 0)

Slope formula becomes undefined at t = 0

1-D kinematics...

dt

t dx

t v

) (

) (

t

x

t

1

t

2

x

x

1

x

2

t

so V(t

2

) = slope of line tangent to path at t

2

.

t

d

t t

v

av

1 2

) d1 - (d2

»Calculus Notation

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 9

More 1-D kinematics

We saw that v = x / t

so therefore x = v t ( i.e. 60 mi/hr x 2 hr = 120 mi )

See text: 3.2

In “calculus” language we would write dx = v dt, which we

can integrate to obtain:

x t x t v t dt

t

t

( ) ( ) ( )

2 1

1

2

Graphically, this is adding up lots of small rectangles:

v(t)

t

+ +...+

= displacement

v

t

1 2

60

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 10

1-D kinematics...

a

v t v t

t t

v

t

av

( ) ( )

2 1

2 1

Acceleration a is the “rate of change of velocity”

Average acceleration a

av

in the time t = t

2

- t

1

is:

And instantaneous acceleration a is defined as:The

acceleration when t = 0 . Same problem as

instantaneous velocity. Slope equals line tangent to

path of velocity vs time graph.

a t

dv t

dt

d x t

dt

( )

( ) ( )

2

2

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 11

Problem Solving

Read !

Before you start work on a problem, read the problem

statement thoroughly. Make sure you understand what

information in given, what is asked for, and the meaning

of all the terms used in stating the problem.

Watch your units !

Always check the units of your answer, and carry the

units along with your numbers during the calculation.

Understand the limits !

Many equations we use are special cases of more

general laws. Understanding how they are derived will

help you recognize their limitations (for example,

constant acceleration).

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 12

IV. Displacement during acceleration.

You accelerate from 0 m/s to 30 m/s in 3 seconds, how far

did you travel?

What if a car initially at 10 m/s, accelerates at a rate of 5

m/s2 for 7 seconds. How far does it move?

df=1/2at2 + vit + di

C. An airplane must reach a speed of 71 m/s for a

successful takeoff. What must be the rate of acceleration if

the runway is 1.0 km long?

d = (vf2 - vi2) /2a

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 13

Recap

If the position x is known as a function of time, then we can

find both velocity v and acceleration a as a function of time!

x x t ( )

x

a

v

t

t

t

a

v t v t

t t

v

t

av

( ) ( )

2 1

2 1

v

x t x t

t t

x

t

av

( ) ( )

2 1

2 1

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 14

Recap

So for constant acceleration we find:

v v at

0

x x v t at

0 0

2

1

2

a const

x

a

v

t

t

t

v v a x x

v v v

av

2

2

1

2

2 1

1 2

2

1

2

( )

( )

From which we can derive:

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 15

IV. Acceleration due to gravity

The acceleration of a freely falling object is 9.8 m/s2 (32 ft/s2)

towards the earth.

The farther away from the earth‟s center, the smaller the value of

the acceleration due to gravity. For activities near the surface of

the earth (within 5-6 km or more) we will assume g=9.8 m/s2 (10

m/s2).

Neglecting air resistance, an object has the same acceleration on

the way up as it does on the way down.

Use the same equations of motion but substitute the value of „g‟

for acceleration „a‟.

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 16

Recap of kinematics lectures

Measurement and Units (Chapter 1)

Systems of units

Converting between systems of units

Dimensional Analysis

1-D Kinematics

Average & instantaneous velocity

and and acceleration

Motion with constant acceleration

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 17

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