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Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 1

Honors Physics
“Mechanics for Physicists and Engineers”
Agenda for Today
 Advice
 1-D Kinematics
Average & instantaneous velocity and acceleration
Motion with constant acceleration
Freefall
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 2
Kinematics Objectives
 Define average and instantaneous velocity
 Caluclate kinematic quantities using equations
 interpret and plot position -time graphs
 be able to determine and describe the meaning of the
slope of a position-time graph
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 3
Kinematics
 Location and motion of objects is described using
Kinematic Variables:
 Some examples of kinematic variables.
position r vector, (d,x,y,z)
velocity v vector
acceleration a vector
 Kinematic Variables:
Measured with respect to a reference frame. (x-y axis)
Measured using coordinates (having units).
Many kinematic variables are Vectors, which means
they have a direction as well as a magnitude.
Vectors denoted by boldface V or arrow above the
variable
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 4
Motion
 Position: Separation between an object and a
reference point (Just a point)
 Distance: Separation between two objects
 Displacement of an object is the distance
between it‟s final position d
f
and it‟s initial
position d
i
(d
f
- d
i
)= d
 Scalar: Quantity that can be described by a
magnitude(strength) only
Distance, temperature, pressure etc..
 Vector: A quantity that can be described by both
a magnitude and direction
 Force, displacement, torque etc.
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 5
 Speed describes the rate at which an object moves.
Distance traveled per unit of time.
 Velocity describes an objects‟ speed and direction.
 Approximate units of speed
40 km/hr 25 miles/hr 11 m/s
100 km/hr 62 miles/hr 28 m/s
120 km/hr 75 miles/hr 33 m/s
Speed and Velocity
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 6
Motion in 1 dimension
 In general, position at time t
1
is usually denoted d, r(t
1
) or
x(t
1
)

 In 1-D, we usually write position as x(t
1
) but for this level
we’ll use d
 Since it‟s in 1-D, all we need to indicate direction is + or .

 Displacement in a time t = t
2
- t
1
is
x = x
2
- x
1
= d
2
-d
1
t
x
t
1
t
2
 x
 t
x
1
x
2
some particle‟s trajectory
in 1-D
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 7
1-D kinematics
t
d
t t
v
av





1 2
) d1 - (d2
t
x
t
1
t
2
 x
d
1
d
2
trajectory
 Velocity v is the “rate of change of position”
 Average velocity v
av
in the time  t = t
2
- t
1
is:
 t
V
av
= slope of line connecting x
1
and x
2
.
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 8
 Instantaneous velocity v is defined as the velocity at
an instant of time ( t= 0)
 Slope formula becomes undefined at  t = 0
1-D kinematics...
dt
t dx
t v
) (
) ( 
t
x
t
1
t
2
 x
x
1
x
2
 t
so V(t
2
) = slope of line tangent to path at t
2
.
t
d
t t
v
av





1 2
) d1 - (d2
»Calculus Notation
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 9
More 1-D kinematics
 We saw that v = x / t
so therefore x = v t ( i.e. 60 mi/hr x 2 hr = 120 mi )
See text: 3.2
 In “calculus” language we would write dx = v dt, which we
can integrate to obtain:
x t x t v t dt
t
t
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
1
2
 

 Graphically, this is adding up lots of small rectangles:
v(t)
t
+ +...+
= displacement
v
t
1 2
60
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 10
1-D kinematics...
a
v t v t
t t
v
t
av




( ) ( )
2 1
2 1


 Acceleration a is the “rate of change of velocity”
 Average acceleration a
av
in the time  t = t
2
- t
1
is:
 And instantaneous acceleration a is defined as:The
acceleration when  t = 0 . Same problem as
instantaneous velocity. Slope equals line tangent to
path of velocity vs time graph.
a t
dv t
dt
d x t
dt
( )
( ) ( )
 
2
2
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 11
Problem Solving
 Read !
Before you start work on a problem, read the problem
statement thoroughly. Make sure you understand what
information in given, what is asked for, and the meaning
of all the terms used in stating the problem.

 Watch your units !
Always check the units of your answer, and carry the
units along with your numbers during the calculation.

 Understand the limits !
Many equations we use are special cases of more
general laws. Understanding how they are derived will
help you recognize their limitations (for example,
constant acceleration).
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 12
IV. Displacement during acceleration.
 You accelerate from 0 m/s to 30 m/s in 3 seconds, how far
did you travel?
 What if a car initially at 10 m/s, accelerates at a rate of 5
m/s2 for 7 seconds. How far does it move?
 df=1/2at2 + vit + di
 C. An airplane must reach a speed of 71 m/s for a
successful takeoff. What must be the rate of acceleration if
the runway is 1.0 km long?
 d = (vf2 - vi2) /2a
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 13
Recap
 If the position x is known as a function of time, then we can
find both velocity v and acceleration a as a function of time!
x x t  ( )
x
a
v
t
t
t
a
v t v t
t t
v
t
av




( ) ( )
2 1
2 1


v
x t x t
t t
x
t
av




( ) ( )
2 1
2 1


Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 14
Recap
 So for constant acceleration we find:
v v at  
0
x x v t at   
0 0
2
1
2
a const 
x
a
v
t
t
t
v v a x x
v v v
av
2
2
1
2
2 1
1 2
2
1
2
  
 
( )
( )
 From which we can derive:
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 15
IV. Acceleration due to gravity
 The acceleration of a freely falling object is 9.8 m/s2 (32 ft/s2)
towards the earth.
 The farther away from the earth‟s center, the smaller the value of
the acceleration due to gravity. For activities near the surface of
the earth (within 5-6 km or more) we will assume g=9.8 m/s2 (10
m/s2).
 Neglecting air resistance, an object has the same acceleration on
the way up as it does on the way down.
 Use the same equations of motion but substitute the value of „g‟
for acceleration „a‟.
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 16
Recap of kinematics lectures
 Measurement and Units (Chapter 1)
Systems of units
Converting between systems of units
Dimensional Analysis
 1-D Kinematics
Average & instantaneous velocity
and and acceleration
Motion with constant acceleration

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 17