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# Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 1

Honors Physics
“Mechanics for Physicists and Engineers”
Agenda for Today
 1-D Kinematics
Average & instantaneous velocity and acceleration
Motion with constant acceleration
Freefall
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 2
Kinematics Objectives
 Define average and instantaneous velocity
 Caluclate kinematic quantities using equations
 interpret and plot position -time graphs
 be able to determine and describe the meaning of the
slope of a position-time graph
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 3
Kinematics
 Location and motion of objects is described using
Kinematic Variables:
 Some examples of kinematic variables.
position r vector, (d,x,y,z)
velocity v vector
acceleration a vector
 Kinematic Variables:
Measured with respect to a reference frame. (x-y axis)
Measured using coordinates (having units).
Many kinematic variables are Vectors, which means
they have a direction as well as a magnitude.
Vectors denoted by boldface V or arrow above the
variable
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 4
Motion
 Position: Separation between an object and a
reference point (Just a point)
 Distance: Separation between two objects
 Displacement of an object is the distance
between it‟s final position d
f
and it‟s initial
position d
i
(d
f
- d
i
)= d
 Scalar: Quantity that can be described by a
magnitude(strength) only
Distance, temperature, pressure etc..
 Vector: A quantity that can be described by both
a magnitude and direction
 Force, displacement, torque etc.
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 5
 Speed describes the rate at which an object moves.
Distance traveled per unit of time.
 Velocity describes an objects‟ speed and direction.
 Approximate units of speed
40 km/hr 25 miles/hr 11 m/s
100 km/hr 62 miles/hr 28 m/s
120 km/hr 75 miles/hr 33 m/s
Speed and Velocity
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 6
Motion in 1 dimension
 In general, position at time t
1
is usually denoted d, r(t
1
) or
x(t
1
)

 In 1-D, we usually write position as x(t
1
) but for this level
we’ll use d
 Since it‟s in 1-D, all we need to indicate direction is + or .

 Displacement in a time t = t
2
- t
1
is
x = x
2
- x
1
= d
2
-d
1
t
x
t
1
t
2
 x
 t
x
1
x
2
some particle‟s trajectory
in 1-D
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 7
1-D kinematics
t
d
t t
v
av

1 2
) d1 - (d2
t
x
t
1
t
2
 x
d
1
d
2
trajectory
 Velocity v is the “rate of change of position”
 Average velocity v
av
in the time  t = t
2
- t
1
is:
 t
V
av
= slope of line connecting x
1
and x
2
.
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 8
 Instantaneous velocity v is defined as the velocity at
an instant of time ( t= 0)
 Slope formula becomes undefined at  t = 0
1-D kinematics...
dt
t dx
t v
) (
) ( 
t
x
t
1
t
2
 x
x
1
x
2
 t
so V(t
2
) = slope of line tangent to path at t
2
.
t
d
t t
v
av

1 2
) d1 - (d2
»Calculus Notation
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 9
More 1-D kinematics
 We saw that v = x / t
so therefore x = v t ( i.e. 60 mi/hr x 2 hr = 120 mi )
See text: 3.2
 In “calculus” language we would write dx = v dt, which we
can integrate to obtain:
x t x t v t dt
t
t
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
1
2
 

 Graphically, this is adding up lots of small rectangles:
v(t)
t
+ +...+
= displacement
v
t
1 2
60
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 10
1-D kinematics...
a
v t v t
t t
v
t
av

( ) ( )
2 1
2 1

 Acceleration a is the “rate of change of velocity”
 Average acceleration a
av
in the time  t = t
2
- t
1
is:
 And instantaneous acceleration a is defined as:The
acceleration when  t = 0 . Same problem as
instantaneous velocity. Slope equals line tangent to
path of velocity vs time graph.
a t
dv t
dt
d x t
dt
( )
( ) ( )
 
2
2
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 11
Problem Solving
Before you start work on a problem, read the problem
statement thoroughly. Make sure you understand what
information in given, what is asked for, and the meaning
of all the terms used in stating the problem.

units along with your numbers during the calculation.

 Understand the limits !
Many equations we use are special cases of more
general laws. Understanding how they are derived will
constant acceleration).
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 12
IV. Displacement during acceleration.
 You accelerate from 0 m/s to 30 m/s in 3 seconds, how far
did you travel?
 What if a car initially at 10 m/s, accelerates at a rate of 5
m/s2 for 7 seconds. How far does it move?
 df=1/2at2 + vit + di
 C. An airplane must reach a speed of 71 m/s for a
successful takeoff. What must be the rate of acceleration if
the runway is 1.0 km long?
 d = (vf2 - vi2) /2a
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 13
Recap
 If the position x is known as a function of time, then we can
find both velocity v and acceleration a as a function of time!
x x t  ( )
x
a
v
t
t
t
a
v t v t
t t
v
t
av

( ) ( )
2 1
2 1

v
x t x t
t t
x
t
av

( ) ( )
2 1
2 1

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 14
Recap
 So for constant acceleration we find:
v v at  
0
x x v t at   
0 0
2
1
2
a const 
x
a
v
t
t
t
v v a x x
v v v
av
2
2
1
2
2 1
1 2
2
1
2
  
 
( )
( )
 From which we can derive:
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 15
IV. Acceleration due to gravity
 The acceleration of a freely falling object is 9.8 m/s2 (32 ft/s2)
towards the earth.
 The farther away from the earth‟s center, the smaller the value of
the acceleration due to gravity. For activities near the surface of
the earth (within 5-6 km or more) we will assume g=9.8 m/s2 (10
m/s2).
 Neglecting air resistance, an object has the same acceleration on
the way up as it does on the way down.
 Use the same equations of motion but substitute the value of „g‟
for acceleration „a‟.
Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 16
Recap of kinematics lectures
 Measurement and Units (Chapter 1)
Systems of units
Converting between systems of units
Dimensional Analysis
 1-D Kinematics
Average & instantaneous velocity
and and acceleration
Motion with constant acceleration

Honors Physics : Lecture 1, Pg 17