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Introduction to

Geography
Arthur Getis, Judith Getis, &
Jerome D. Fellmann

Population Geography
Chapter 6
Overview
Population Growth
Population Definitions
The Demographic Transition
The Demographic Equation
World Population Distribution
Population Density
Population Data & Projections
Population Controls
Population Growth
Over 6.25 billion people
About 77 million increase per year since 1990
China & India account for 38% of the worlds
population
Population Definitions
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
Infant Mortality Rate
Population Pyramids
Rapid growth
Stability
Decline
Disrupted growth
Growth
Rate of natural increase
Doubling times
Demographic Transition
Western Experience
Stage 1: High births, high deaths
Stage 2: High births, declining deaths
Stage 3: Declining births, low deaths
Stage 4: Low births, low deaths
(Stage 5: Deaths higher than births)
A Divided World Converging
The population history of Europe is not
necessarily predictive of what will happen in
the developing world
Western technologies, medicines, & public
health lower death rates quicker today than in
the past
Still some areas with very high fertility rates
Demographic Equation
Population is a function of natural change
and net migration
World Population Distribution
90% of all people live north of the equator,
2/3 in midlatitudes
A large majority occupies a small part of the
land surface
People congregate in lowland areas
More people live on the continental margins,
near oceans
Population Concentrations
East Asia Cluster
China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan
South Asia Cluster
India, Bangladesh, Pakistan
Europe
Northeastern United States / SW Canada
Population Density
The relationship between number of
inhabitants and the area they occupy
Crude density
# of people per unit of land
Physiological density
# of people per unit of arable land
Overpopulation
A value judgment
A reflection of carrying capacity
The # of people an area can support on a
sustained basis given the prevailing technology
Can be equated with conditions of life
Urbanization
Cities have grown rapidly in the past 50 years
Urban growth raises issues of housing,
sanitation, employment, transportation, etc.
Population Data & Projections
Accurate & precise data is often difficult to
obtain, but census quality is slowly improving
worldwide
Projections are based on assumptions and
are not forecasts

Population Controls
Malthus / Neo-Malthusians
Population will outstrip food
Population growth must be controlled
Fertility can be difficult to control
Cultural preferences for large families
Rejection of Western plans
Belief that technology will provide more food