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Spring 2010

Lesson #5 – Tuesday, Jan. 26, 2010
Textbook Sections 2.7

FREE VIBRATON WITH NON-VISCOUS DAMPING
Hermann E. Alcazar
5. Free vibration with non-viscous damping MAE 653 - Advanced Vibrations/Fall 2010
2.7 Free vibration with Coulomb damping. Mathematical background.
In general a second-order nonhomogeneous linear differential equation with constant
coefficients has the form,
0 = + + x c x b x a   
where a, b, and c are constants and G is a continuous function. Its related homogeneous
equation is,
The general solution of the nonhomogeneous differential equation can be written as,

where x
h
is the general solution of the homogeneous equation and x
p
is a particular solution..
) ( ) ( ) ( t x t x t x
p h
+ =
) (
2
2
t G x c
dt
dx
b
dt
x d
a = + +
The particular solution can be found using the method of undetermined coefficients or the
method of variation of parameters. In the method of undetermined coefficients the shape of
the particular solution is assumed, and its coefficients are obtained after replacing into the
differential equation.
If G(x)=e
kx
P(x), where P is a polynomial of degree n, try y
p
(x)=e
kx
Q(x), where Q is a
n-degree polynomial.
If G(x)=e
kx
P(x) cos mx or G(x)=e
kx
P(x) sin mx, where P, Q, and R are n-degree
polynomials, try y
p
(x)=e
kx
Q(x) cos mx + e
kx
R(x) sin mx.
If any term of y
p
is a solution of the homogeneous equation, multiply y
p
by x (or by x
2
if
necessary)

5. Free vibration with non-viscous damping MAE 653 - Advanced Vibrations/Fall 2010
2.7 Free vibration with Coulomb damping. Equation of motion
Coulomb’s law or dry friction states that, when two bodies
are in contact, the force required to produce sliding is
proportional to the normal force acting in the plane of
contact.
N x k x m µ ÷ = +  
¹
´
¦
=
+ =
1
2 1
sin cos
D x
t A t A x
p
h
e e
N D k µ ÷ =
1
¬
k
mg
t A t A t x
µ
e e ÷ + = sin cos ) (
2 1
Case 1: 0 > x
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
<
=
=
0
0
x
x
A x
 

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
=
÷ =
0
0
x
x
A x
 

k
mg
t A t A t x
µ
e e + + = sin cos ) (
2 1
N x k x m µ = +  
¹
´
¦
=
+ =
2
2 1
sin cos
D x
t A t A x
p
h
e e
N D k µ =
2
,
x x
a m F = ¿
Case 2: 0 < x
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< ÷
=
>
=
0 , 1
0 , 0
0 , 1
) sgn(
x
x
x
x
0 ) sgn( = + + x k x N x m    µ
Finally:
x
x 
x
0 < x 0 > x
t
0 > x 0 < x
t A t x e sin ) ( =
5. Free vibration with non-viscous damping MAE 653 - Advanced Vibrations/Fall 2010
2.7 Free vibration with Coulomb damping. Solution (1)
d
x x A ÷ =
0
d
x ÷
0
x ÷
( )
d d
x t x x t x ÷ ÷ ÷ = e cos ) (
0
t
0 > x
d
x x A ÷ =
0
d
x
0
x
( )
d d
x t x x t x + ÷ = e cos ) (
0
t
0 < x
If a cosine function is considered as the solution, for an initial zero velocity, then
The amplitudes after the first half cycles are
±(x
0
-2x
d
).
In each cycle, the amplitude reduces in
4µN/k
Motion will stop at the end of the r-th half
cycle, when the force exerted by the spring
(kx) is less than the friction force (µN). The
amplitude falls into de dead zone.
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
> ¬ > ÷
k
N
k
N
x
r
k
N
k
N
r x
µ
µ
µ µ
2
2
0
0
5. Free vibration with non-viscous damping MAE 653 - Advanced Vibrations/Fall 2010
2.7 Free vibration with Coulomb damping. Solution (2)
For an initial zero velocity, then
k
N
t
k
N
x t x
n
µ
e
µ
+
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = cos ) (
0

k
N
t
k
N
x t x
n
µ
e
µ
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = cos
3
) (
0
, 0
n
t
e
t
s s
,
2
n n
t
e
t
e
t
s s
( ) 1 = r
( ) 2 = r
| |
k
N
t
k
N r
x t x
r
n
µ
e
µ
1
0
) 1 ( cos
) 1 ( 2 1
) (
+
÷ +
|
.
|

\
| ÷ +
÷ = , ) 1 (
n n
r t r
e
t
e
t
s s ÷
5. Free vibration with non-viscous damping MAE 653 - Advanced Vibrations/Fall 2010
Homework # 2
Due, Thursday February 04, 2010

Solve the following problems from the textbook “Mechanical Vibrations” by Rao:
2.46-2.47 Figure 2.75
2.62
2.74
2.96
2.100 Figure 2.95. Plot the solution (in a single graph, tag all characteristic
values) considering m=4 kg, k=1250 N/m, x
0
=100 mm, and v
0
=-10 m/s for
each of the following cases:
(a) c = 0
(b) c = 100 N-s/m
(c) c = 200 N-s/m
(d) c = 400 N-s/m
2.121 Plot the solution (tag all characteristic values). Determine the number of
cycles of motion and the final static position. Include the used Matlab code.
5. Free vibration with non-viscous damping MAE 653 - Advanced Vibrations/Fall 2010
Project Take-home Questions
Mid-term exam 5 % - Abstract 25 % 30 %
Final exam

5 % - Presentation
10 % - Report
20 % 35 %
Project: Build, test, acquire and analyze data from an experiment at the vibrations laboratory.
The topic is open and will be defined by the group in coordination with Dr. Mourad
Riad or Mr. Yan Luo. Groups of 2 (3 only depending on the complexity of the proposed
experiment).
Abstract, due Thursday February 11. In the format of research papers.
Presentation, dead week at the vibrations laboratory.
Report, after the presentation. In the format of research papers.
Take-home questions: The questions for the midterm and final exams will use the concepts of
vibration criteria, balancing of rotating machines, critical speed on shafts,
balancing of reciprocating engines, vibration isolation, and vibration
absorbers (Ch. 9). The knowledge of these topics are your responsibility.