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New World Order!?!

A New World Order?
 After the end of the Cold War, the United States
was left to dominate world affairs as the only
remaining superpower
 Following the US
victory in the Persian
Gulf, President Bush
proclaimed a “new
world order” where
the US would serve
as a global police
force under the guise
of the UN


Gulf War 1990-1991
 Saddam Hussein invades the oil-rich country of
Kuwait (does not expect international resistance)
in August 1990
 United Nations condemns actions and imposes
economic sanctions
on Iraq (this doesn’t
change anything)
 UN authorises use
of force to expel
the Iraqi Army
(ceasefire reached
in February 1991)

Canada and the Gulf War
 Canada was one of the first nations to agree to
condemn Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait and it quickly
agreed to join the US-led coalition
 Canada sent destroyers, supply ships and lead the
coalition force at sea
 After the UN authorised
full use of force in the
operation, Canada sent
support personnel and
a field hospital to deal
with casualties from
the ground war
Yugoslavia 1992
 Civil wars took
place around
the country as
new nation-
states looked to
secede (Croatia,
Slovenia and
Macedonia in
1991; Bosnia-
Herzegovina in
1992)


Yugoslavia (1992)
 President Slobodan Milošević was opposed to
granting these republics greater autonomy or
independence, claiming the large minority of Serbs
in other republics had the right to stay in
Yugoslavia
 Croatia faced armed resistance until 1995, while
Slovenia faced little opposition from Milošević
 Bosnia-Herzegovina was plunged into war even
before its formal declaration of independence,
where Bosnian Serb forces were intent on keeping
Bosnia in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia (1992)
 Canadian troops first came to the Balkans in
February 1992 under Operation Harmony to serve
with the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR),
which was formed to defend non-combatants
during the wars that tore apart the former
Republic of Yugoslavia
 NATO took over the peace-support mission in
December 1995, after the signing of the General
Framework Agreement for Peace, commonly
known as the Dayton Accords
(more on NATO later…)
Somalia 1992
 Canadian Airborne Regiment was sent to Somalia
to provide humanitarian aid and restore order as
the country faced famine and civil war
 Sent in as peacekeepers by the United Nations, the
Canadians ended up returning home disgraced
after tales of violence towards the Somali people
 Following revelations that Canadian military
leaders attempted to cover-up the violence during
the Somalia Inquiry (1994), numerous officials
were condemned and the Canadian Airborne
Regiment was disbanded
Somalia 1992
 Somali teenager Shidane
Arone was beaten to death
by Master Corporal
Clayton Matchee
Rwanda 1994
 During the Rwandan Civil War, a small group of
the Hutu elite decided to launch a full-scale
genocide against the Tutsi minority
 Canadian Roméo Dallaire led a small number of
peacekeepers (most of them from Bangladesh and
Ghana) sent to
Rwanda to oversee
a peace agreement
between the Hutu
and the Tutsi


Rwanda 1994
 After witnessing the killing of thousands of Tutsis,
Dallaire sent what became known as the genocide
fax, pleading with the UN for
additional troops, ammunition
and the authority to seize arms
caches
 The UN refused to deviate
from the terms of their
mandate, and ordered
Dallaire and the rest
of the peacekeepers
home


Rwanda 1994
 Dallaire defied orders from UN Secretary-General
Boutros Boutros-Ghali; and he and the remaining
500 peacekeepers
were forced to
watch genocide
of nearly
1 000 000
Rwandans
Kosovo 1999
 President Slobodan Milošević refuses to allow the
NATO forces into Kosovo amidst ethnic cleansing
of Kosovar Albanians
 NATO initiates
extensive bombing
campaign through
Operation Allied
Force against
Yugoslavia (these
attacks were not
authorised by the
United Nations)




Kosovo 1999
 Milošević eventually agrees to a ceasefire after:
 NATO agreed that Kosovo would be supervised
politically by the United Nations

 NATO agreed that there would be no Kosovar
independence referendum for three years (the
main objective of NATO was to have a vote on
independence)

 Strong diplomatic initiative from Russia
(traditional allies)
Kosovo 1999
 Canada is among the countries that were selected
as peacekeepers by the UN (role is to rebuild the
war-torn areas) following the
conflict

 Milošević is indicted for war
crimes by the International
Criminal Tribunal for the
former Yugoslavia, though
he dies in prison before the
case ever reaches trial