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Slide 1

Design and Planning of


Block Caving Operations
Enrique Rubio, PhD
July 2006
Slide 2
Outline
Introduction
Geotechnical Characterization
Block Cave Fundamentals
Caveability
Fragmentation
Stresses
Flow
Mine Design
Mine Planning
Slide 3
Workshop Scheme
9:00-10:30 Lectures
10:30-10:45 Coffee Break
10:45-12:15 Lectures
12:15-13:00 Lunch
13:00-14:30 Design Examples
14:30-14:45 Coffee Break
14:45-16:15 Design Examples
16:15-16:30 Closing
16:30-18:00 Personal Readings
Slide 4
Introduction
Slide 5
Mining Methods
Open ( usually partially extracted)
Supported
Caving
Surface mining
Slide 6
Pillar Supported
Artificially
Supported
Caving
Room and Pilar
Sublevel and
Longhole
stoping
Bench and Fill
stoping
Cut and Fill
Stoping
Shrinkage
Stoping
VCR
Stoping
Lonwall
Mining
Sublevel
Caving
Block
Caving
Increases Displacements
Increases stresses on the abutment areas
Underground Mining Methods
Slide 7
Evolution of daily production rates at
selected large underground mines
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
140000
160000
1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040
YEAR
T
O
N
N
E
S

P
E
R

D
A
Y

Bingham Canyon
Climax
Salvador
Kiruna
Mount Isa
San Manuel
El Teniente
Miami
Ridgeway
E
m
e
r
g
e
n
c
e

o
f

m
o
d
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r
n

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c
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Olympic Dam
Andina
Freeport IOZ/DOZ
Henderson
Malmberget
Palabora
Premier
Kidd Creek
Brown (2004)
Slide 8
Evolution of maximum mining depth for
selected mines
YEAR
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040
D
E
P
T
H

(
m
)

Mount Isa
Andina
Ridgeway
Palabora
Kidd Creek
Bingham Canyon
Freeport (DOZ)
Kiruna
Olympic Dam
E
m
e
r
g
e
n
c
e

o
f

m
o
d
e
r
n

m
i
n
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.

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El Teniente
Henderson
Salvador
Brown (2004)
Slide 9
Caving Mining
Cave mining refers to all
mining operations in which
the ore body caves
naturally after undercutting
the base. The caved
material is recovered using
draw points. (Laubscher,
1994)

Slide 10
Caving Mining System
Caving
Undercut Drilling
Undercut Level
Production Level
Haulage Level
Ventilation Level
2
nd
Haulage
Crusher
Tipping point
Draw Point
Secondary Breakage
Ore Passes
Feeder
Grizzly
Conveyor
Slide 11
Panel Caving, De Wolf 1981
Slide 12
Free Caving Methods
Block caving most
common method
Lowest working cost per
tonne
Long ramp-in periods
High up-front capital
Pit or Hybrid gearing
91m lowest block height
Cave de-stressing

Slide 13
Facts About Block Caving
Used by many of the worlds largest underground
mines
High production: 12,000 to 48,000 tpd
Lowest mining costs per ton of any underground
mining method
Excellent productivity per person and per unit of
equipment once developed
Suitable for automation
Low degree of selectivity
It requires skilled working force
Slide 14
Characteristics
Production rates 12000 a 48000 tpd
Dilution 20%
Mining Recovery 75%
Cost 2.1-5$/t

Slide 15
Ore Bodies Suitable to Use Block
Caving
Geology: Pipes, Porphyry, massive mineralization
Geometry: ore bodies that could sustain a large open
footprint
Rock Mass: weak enough to initiate caving and strong
enough to maintain the production crown pillar stable
(4A-2B, Laubscher 1990)
Structural patterns to orient sequence and propagate
caving to surface
Jointing is desired to produce fine fragmentation
Low grade variability, to avoid selective draw
Slide 16
Why is Block Caving relevant?

El Salvador
Andina
El Teniente
Bingham
Canyon
Chuquicamata
Freeport_DOZ
RTZ_Argyle
De Beers-
Finsch
RTZ_Northparkes
Philex_Padcal
RTZ_Palabora
De Beers-
Premier
IVANHOE
New Mines
Mines in operations 2003
Henderson
Slide 17
Chuquicamata, Chile

Slide 18
Bingham Canyon, US
Slide 19
Highland Valley
Copper,Canada
Slide 20
A Few Examples
Mina Pais Layout Produccin (Mt) Productos
El Teniente Chile LHD/Parrillas 54 Cobre
El Salvador Chile LHD 10 Cobre
Andina Chile LHD/Parrillas 16 Cobre
Henderson USA LHD 5.4 Molibdeno
Bell Canada LHD 0.9 Asbestos
Premier Sudfrica LHD 3 Diamantes
Shabanie Zimbawe LHD 1.3 Cobre
Philex Filipinas LHD/Parrillas 10 Cobre
Lutopan Filipinas Parrillas 9.4 Cobre
Freeport Indonesia LHD 18 Cobre/Oro
Northparkes Australia LHD 3.9 Cobre/Oro
Slide 21
Costing
September 2004 CIM Bulletin S.
FUENTES S. and J. CCERES S.

Slide 22
Production Rates for Different
Mines around the World
-
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
1,200,000
1,400,000
1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 101 111 121 131
Period
T
o
n
s
/
m
o
n
t
h
RU Palabora RU DOZ RU Esmeralda RU Padcal RU_ RN RU_ICW RU_IN RU_3pLHD
Slide 23
Block Cave Operating Costs
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Mining Rate (Ktpd)
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

C
o
s
t

(
$
/
t
)
Slide 24
Block Cave Operating Costs
Extraction costs
Pre undercutting caving 1-1.2 $/t
Advanced undercutting 2-2.4 $/t
Traditional undercutting 1.4-1.9 $/t
Loading and Haulage costs
0.3-1.0 $/t trains and trucks
Hauling
0.5-1 $/t automatic trains





50% of the operating costs are committed to
handling
Extraction: 1-2.4 $/t (pre undercutting and
Slide 25
Component of Operating Costs
Labor 49%
Supplies 23%
Third parties services 26%
Others 2%
Slide 26
Management Costs
Maintenance
Suppliers
Service equipment
Services to people
Administration
The overall management cost adds up
50% of the operating costs
Slide 27
Development Costs ($/m2)
Layout Hc CC $/m2
Tte 8 350 1.324324 1251
Pilar 2021 280 0.935897 708
Andesita 300 0.677419 549
Dacita 250.00 0.289855 196
Pipa 17x20 200.00 1.904762 1029
Diablo 17x15 300.00 1.354167 1097
Andina_LHD 13x13.5 350.00 0.878613 830
Andina_grizzly 8.5x8.5 280 1.205128 911
Slide 28
Development Costs Trend
y = 1.2791x - 21.026
R
2
= 0.8796
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Reserves (Mt)
C
a
p
i
t
a
l

C
o
s
t

(
M
$
)
Slide 29
Rock Mass Characterization
for Block Caving
Slide 30
Rock Mass Properties Affecting the
Mine Planning Process

Ore Body
Cavability Fragmentation
Mining Sequence
Gravity Flow Dilution
Stresses
Undercut Design
Draw Control
Draw rate, Uniformity, etc
Layout Design
Draw Height
Slide 31
Parameters to be Considered
Intact properties
Rock mass
Structures
Hydrogeology
Stresses
Induced stresses by blasting
Topography
Geological models
Slide 36
Full geotechnical log
RQD
Hardness
Number of joints/ joint spacing
Small/ large scale condition
Joint infilling
Alteration
Data can be turned into ratings
Slide 37
Rock Mass Classification
Use 3 rating systems
MRMR
- Support design
- Draw point spacing
- Cavability
- Glory hole definition
- Rock mass strength estimates (DRMS values)
Bartons Q
- ore pass stability assessment (Stacey 2001)
- check support design, shotcrete thickness
- Decline/ shaft support through soft near surface rocks
RMR/GSI
- Modeling input parameters


Slide 38
MRMR: Modified Rock Mass
Rating (Laubsher, 1977, 1984)
RMR(1976) and includes :
In situ and induced stresses
Blasting effects
Weathering of exposed rock masses
RMR was originally modified to be applied
in caving mining
Slide 39
IRMR Laubscher Lakubec (2000)
Slide 40
GSI, Hoek 1995

Slide 41
RQD
Concern of different measurement methods
3 main methods of RQD measurement
25% RQD error results in a 4 rating point error in RMR
52% RQD error results in an 6 rating point error in the RMR
Changes the caving Hydraulic Radius by 3 to 6m
RQD may not be the problem ?
Slide 42
MRMR SYSTEM
Critical points are the adjustments
Adjustments make the rock mass worse or better
Total worse case adjustment to rating is downgrade by 50%
Eg MRMR = 25 for RMR of 50
Therefore when the cave is being developed does weathering.
Stress, blasting and joint orientation have a +/- effect on the rock
mass
-An adjustment of 1 or 100 has no effect
-Joint orientation and stress hardest adjustments to apply
-A stress or joint adjustment of 85% means very effects
-120% stress adjustment has a confining effect on the rock mass
-Major error to use caving adjustments for support design

Slide 43
BC geotech issues
2 CAVE TYPES
HARD CAVES (MRMR >45, 1000m depth K ratio 1-2)
Cave stall
Fragmentation
Rock/strain bursting

SOFT CAVES (MRMR <45, 1000m depth, K ratio 1-2)
Excavation level & UC stress induced damage
Undercut crushing
Strain/rock bursting when MRMR >35

Slide 44
Fundamentals
Slide 45
Method Fundamentals
Caveability
Fragmentation
Flow
Stresses
Slide 46
Caveability
Often caveability measures the capacity of
an ore body to be caved
A few important aspects of caveability
Would it cave?
Hydraulic radius to induce caving
Caving rate (m/day)
Cave ratio, cave propagation
Slide 47
Undercutting aims
AIMS What are we trying to do?
Extract a void to allow caving to occur
Initiate caving with minimum stress
damage
Propagate the cave to reduce undercut
abutment stresses
Slide 48
State of Caving
Stress Caving, is the
state at which caving
propagates towards
surface, shear failure

Subsidence Caving,
when caving breaks
through surface,
tension cracks on
surface

Flores, et al 2004
Slide 49
Idealized Caving Model (after Voegele et al
1978)
Slide 50
Cave Propagation
Initial cut defines a beam and the
failure process begins with
tension failure at the back of the
cave
Cave back starts to shape
concave due to shear failure
at the back
The deformation area increases at
height and the seismic activity
decreases
Flores et al (2004b)
Slide 51
Caveability Chart (Laubscher 1988 and
Bartlett 1998)
Slide 52
Caveability Chart Including El Teniente
Observations
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
M
i
n
i
n
g

R
o
c
k

M
a
s
s

R
a
t
i
n
g

,

M
R
M
R

Hydraulic radius of the undercut area, H
R
(m)
Caving zone
Stable zone
INCA OESTE SECTOR
NORTHPARKES
Slide 53
Applying Stability Chart to Estimate Caveability
(Mawdesley et al 2001)
Slide 54
Caveability Using Numerical Models
Slide 55
Cave Rock Volume for Different states of
the Hydraulic Radius (ICS, 2000)
Cave rate changes as
caving propagates to
surface
Slide 56
Measuring Cave Propagation Using TDRs
at DOZ (T. Szwedzicki, 2004)

Slide 57
Measuring Cave Propagation Using TDRs
at DOZ (T. Szwedzicki, 2004)
Cave rate changes for
different rock types
for marble 0.25 to
1.10 m per day
for magnetite skarn
0.15 to 0.95 m per
day
for forterite skarn
0.08 to 0.30 m per
day.

Also cave rate changes
at different depths

Slide 58
Caving propagation factor (CPF)
(Flores, 2003)
Stress over strength
(Flores et al 2004b)
Slide 59
H
P
H
C
h
C
B
K
=
=
=
=
=
400 m
500 m
150 m
100 m
1.5
S
1
H
P
H
C
h
C
B
K
=
=
=
=
=
400 m
500 m
150 m
100 m
1.5
H
P
H
C
h
C
B
K
=
=
=
=
=
400 m
500 m
150 m
100 m
1.5
S
1
Estimating Major Stresses using
Numerical Modeling
Slide 60
CPF for a given rock mass
Slide 61
CPF for Different Rock Masses
Slide 62
Back analysis of Inca Oeste Caveability
using CPF (Flores et al 2004b)
Slide 63
F O O T P R I N T W I D T H ( m )
Flores et al (2004a)
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
B

L
O

C

K



H

E

I
G

H

T




(
m

)

H = 2 B H = B
Difficult
connectio
n to
surface
Connectio
n to
surface
Easy
connectio
n to
surface
Block Height and Footprint width for Caving
Propagation (Flores, et al 2004)
Slide 64
CAVING INITIATION
CAVING WITHOUT CONNECTION CAVING WITHOUT CONNECTION
CONNECTION TO THE PIT
BOTTOM
TRANSITIONAL CAVING
STEADY-STATE CAVING
(Flores & Karzulovic 2003b)
Caving Connecting to an Open Pit
Based on modeling

It shows sliding
failure of the pit

Two cases Palabora
and Northparkes the
pit failures have been
rather toppling than
sliding
Slide 65
Summary Caveability
Caveability affects productivity since it defines
the hydraulic radius of a block and the sequence
at which they need to be undercut
Draw rate must be lower than cave rate
Caving performance will affect the formation of
stable arcs
Depending on the cave propagation there could
be point stresses at the edges of the layout
Slide 66
Fragmentation
Slide 67
The Relevance of Fragmentation in
Block Caving
Equipment selection and Ore Handling
Strategy
Productivity by affecting the oversize and
hang up frequency
Ultimate defines the utilization of the ore
body

Slide 68
The Relevance of Fragmentation in
Block Caving
Defines the draw point spacing to achieve
interaction

Mixing and dilution entry

Slide 69
Fragmentation
Primary fragmentation
Secondary
fragmentation/
material flow and
friction
Primary fragmentation
Slide 70
Fragmentation at Premier SouthAfrica
(after Butcher 2002a)

Slide 71
Block Volume Estimation to Asses
Fragmentation (Cai et al 2004)
Block Volume
Slide 72
Fragmentation at Esmeralda , El Teniente
Slide 73
Fragmentation input data
Primary
- Mean dip/ dip direction
- Spacing statistics
- Rock mass strength
- Dip/ direction of the cave face
- General stress regime
Secondary
- Aspect ratio
- Rate of draw
- Cushing/ fines
- Cave height and muck pile pressure

Slide 74
Main Components of Rock Mass
Fragmentation Assesments
Joint setting
Blocks
Fractures within the blocks
Draw rates
Particle size reduction through draw
Height of draw
General caving performance
Slide 75
Fragmentation Determination
Empirical tables (Laubscher 2000)
- Primary
- Secondary
- effects
BCF (Esterhuizen 1994)
- Primary secondary
- Secondary
- Draw rates and hang-up frequency
CHASM (Butcher 2000)
- Primary fragmentation
- Visualization tool
JKFrag ( Harries 2001)
-Primary
-Rigorous tool


Slide 76
Fragmentation (Laubscher, 1994)
Slide 77
BCF Fragmentation Software
Slide 78
Fragmentation (BCF)
Slide 79
Fragmentation for Different Stress Index
(Eadie 2003)
In situ
Slide 80
El Teniente method (Blondel et al 1995)
Geotechnical characterisation (structural domain
definition, set definition, orientation and spacing
statistics, rock strengths, rock mass classifications)

Establish stresses in the confinement zone ahead of
caving

Determine anisotropy indices for the structural domains

Establish the geometry of the natural unit block (on the
basis of three orthogonal discontinuity sets)

Slide 81
El Teniente method continue.. (Blondel et al 1995)
Generate a statistical distribution of block
volumes produced by primary fragmentation
(before further fracturing)

Measure fragmentation at draw points
excluding fine material and construct particle
size distribution curve

Compare predicted and measured results

Slide 82
Validation of El Teniente method (Blondel et al 1995)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Structural Domain 1
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

%


Volume (m
3
)
Sets 1-3-4

Measured Total
Sets 2A-3-4

Measured Partial
Set 3 and drift mapping

Measured Metallica Consulting
+
Slide 83
World Fragmentation Curves
Comparison of primary fragmentation from different deposits around the world
0
20
40
60
80
100
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
Block Volume (m
3
)
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

V
o
l
u
m
e

P
e
r
c
e
n
t

L
e
s
s

T
h
a
n
GRSBC
Kucing Liar
DOZ Fos-Mag
DOZ Diorite
Palabora Less Fractured
Palabora Well Fragmented
Bingham Coarse
Bingham Fine
Argyle
MLZ Overall
Annavarapu S, Un-Published
Slide 84
Evolution of Fragmentation as
Draw Points Mature at DOZ
Fragmentation within different HOD's
0
20
40
60
80
100
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
Volume (m
3
)
S
u
m
m
a
r
y

%

c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
hod 0-50 m_Skarns
hod 50-100 m_Skarns
hod 100-150m_Skarns
hod 150-200 m_Skarns
hod >200 m_Skarns
Annavarapu S, Un-Published
Slide 85
Equipment selection
> 2 or 3m
3:

>2m
3
(4.6m
3
LHD bucket- 1400E)
>3m
3
(6.4m
3
LHD bucket-0010)
Primary Frag >2m
3
=40%
Secondary Frag >2m
3
=15%

There is a considerable size reduction as material
draws down


Slide 86
Fragmentacin, Palabora Sudfrica
Slide 87
Fragmentation Affecting Production
Slide 88
Hang Ups Observations at
Palabora
Hang Up Freq at Different dpts Maturity
Hang Up Freq dpt productivity
Slide 89
Secondary Breakage
Bock caves are like red wine
older better
Coarse rock start at cave
A few large rocks many
problems
Rock removal is an art
Hard caves at beginning is
critical
Effects production by 30%
planned
25% total project cost blow
out
Skill training seen as critical
from start
Slide 90
Movie
Slide 91
Gravity Flow in Block Caving
Slide 92
Gravity Flow Models
Just a representation
We use empirical models when there are no
fundamental models to explain the un derlying
behaviour
Scientific method may help to construct robust
models
Observation
Formulation
Calibration and validation
Slide 93
YENGE 1980
Broken rock flow behaviour can not
be satisfactory explained by theories
developed to describe the flow of
other materials such as grains and
sand
Slide 94
Introduction
Sand box
experiments Kvapil
1961-1982
There is a zone of
movement
characterized by an
ellipsoid shape
The geometry of the
ellipsoid of movement
is a function of the
extraction
Slide 95
Different Theories
How the broken ground is drawn/ flows
Draw point spacings to reduce dilution/
increase recovery
Still not well understood
Physical models/ bunkers- Kvapli & Jenike
1960s
Mathematic/ numerical plastic flow Pariseau
1960s
Full scale marker tests Kvapli , Just &
Janelid 1960s
Physical models Laubscher, Taylor etc -1970-
1980s
Kvapil curves revisited/ Laubscher- Bull &
Page 1998-2000
ICS 2001-present
Physical models
PFC
Ring marker trials


Slide 96
Apparent Density and Draw
Low density area
Behringer R P, Baxter W, 1994. Pattern
Formation and Complexity in Granular Flows
A low density area is formed as a result of drawing
down broken material from a draw point
Slide 97
Geometrical Parameters to
Describe the Zone of Movement
The ellipsoid of movement
delineates the area that is
broken to the in situ rock
The ellipsoid of extraction is
the one that represents the
extracted ore
The relation between the
ellipsoid heights is 1:2.5
The relationship between the
volumes is 1:15
Draw cone representation (Kvapil 1980)
Slide 98
Fragmentation and the Geometry
of the Ellipsoids
The eccentricity is a
function of the
fragmentation
The coarser the
fragmentation the
wider the ellipsoid of
movement

n
n n
a
b a
5 . 0 2 2
) (
= c
Draw cone representation (Kvapil 1980)
Slide 99
Example
Excentricidad 0.98
Hn 200
bn 19.9
bg 48.7
| | ( )
5 . 0
2
1 5 . 1 c =
n g
h b
20 m
49 m
5 . 0 2
) 1 (
2
c =
n
n
h
b
200 m
Slide 100
Isolated Draw Diameter
The volume of material
moving is a function of
draw
Dta: Isolated draw
diameter (Kvapil, 1962)
Fragmentation
Fragmentation variance
Friction angle
Others: water, induced
stresses


Low Density
Movement Zone
g
Draw
Dta
Slide 101
Isolated Draw Diameter (Laubscher,
1994)
Slide 102
Isolated draw
diameter (Dta)
Draw Point Spacing
(Dpe)
Isolated Draw Diameter from Sand
Box
Slide 103
Fragmentation and Isolated Draw
Diameter
Draw cone width and particle size relationship
(Richardson, 1981)
Slide 104
Areas del Elipsoide de Extraccin
Plastic failure zone, large
deformations
Slide 105
Summary
2 zones
- Ellipsoid of extraction
- Ellipsoid of movement
Moving rock
- continues draw zone
- zone of plastic failure due to induced shear stress
Within the ellipsoid
- Material moves faster at the center of the ellipsoid
- Fine material produces thin ellipsoids
- Coarse broken rock produces wide ellipsoids
- The ellipsoid geometry depends also on the size of the discharge
hole
Slide 106
Principles of Draw Theory
Slide 107
Gravity Flow More than one Draw
Point
Apparent density
gradient
Source of energy to
take the system to a
lower level of disorder
Particles move to
reach a balance
within the muck pile

Flores, 2004. Different Stages of Cave
propagation. Massmin 2004
Slide 108
Apparent Density
Density adjusted by
void ratio
As void ratio
increases apparent
density decreases
POPOV K,2003. J.Serb.Chem.Soc.
68(11)903907(2003)
Slide 109
Apparent Density Gradient
A function of
Fragmentation and its
variance within the muck
pile
Draw point spacing
Draw performance among
neighbored dpts
Finally the shape of the
movement will depend
strongly on the material
angle of friction
Behringer R P, Baxter W, 1994. Pattern
Formation and Complexity in Granular Flows
Slide 110
Fragmentation and Flow
The variance of
fragmentation along the
draw column reduces the
void ratio, increasing the
apparent density of the
mix
Then different
fragmentation curves
would induce different
densities within the muck
pile
Barker G C, 1994. Computer
Simulation of Granular Materials
Slide 111
Fragmentation and Flow
Binary mix between two
sphere size
X, % of smaller particles
in the mix
Y, sphere packing volume
used by the mix
Then the mix of different
fragmentations would
affect the particles
packing, thus the
apparent density
Barker G C, 1994. Computer
Simulation of Granular Materials
Slide 112
Primary and Secondary
Fragmentation BCF
Slide 113
Draw Point Spacing and Flow
The gradient of
apparent density
within the muck pile
increases as draw
point are spaced
wider apart
Slide 114
Draw and Flow
Draw performance
The uniformity at which
drawing is performed between
a dpt and its neighbors is
relevant to define the zone of
low density
The more even draw is
performed the higher would be
the changes to erode the
pillars between low density
zones produce by the isolated
draw diameter
Friction Interfaces
Friction Interfaces
Plan view of different Dta of a dpt
and neighbors
Tonnage
drawn
Slide 115
Draw Performance and Flow
PFC2D 2.00
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc. Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
Job Title: Idealized
Step 28000 18:11:01 Wed Jun 9 2004
View Size:
X: -1.749e+002 <=> 7.425e+001
Y: -6.253e+001 <=> 2.132e+002
Ball
Contact
Displacement
Maximum = 7.474e+001
Linestyle
Wall
PFC2D 2.00
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc. Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
Job Title: Idealized
View Title: consolidation state
Step 28000 23:04:48 Wed Jun 9 2004
View Size:
X: -1.803e+002 <=> 7.983e+001
Y: -6.253e+001 <=> 2.129e+002
Ball
Contact
Displacement
Maximum= 7.242e+001
Linestyle
Wall
Even Draw Isolated Draw
Isolated draw behaviour tends to produce a high density area
surrounding movement zones which induces high hang ups
frequency
Rubio E et al, 2004. Massmin
2004
Slide 116
Interactive Draw Theory for
Block/Panel Caving
Slide 117
Interactive Draw Theory
If draw point spacing is wider than the
isolated draw diameter would it be
interaction between draw points?
Isolated draw
diameter (Dta)
Draw Point Spacing
(Dpe)
?
Slide 118
Interactive Draw Theory
It is relevant to understand the concept of
interaction since it allows to define whether the
method is suitable for hard rock masses
If draw points can be spaced wider there are
cost benefits as well as the possibility of using
larger equipment
Larger equipment improves productivity
Slide 119
Interactive Draw Experiments (Heslop
Laubscher, 1982)
Uneven Draw Experiments
Wide spaced (216mm), Dpe/Dta=2.2 draw points,
showing no interaction
Close spaced draw points (108mm), Dpe/Dta=1.1,
showing no interaction
Slide 120
Interactive Draw Experiments
(Heslop Laubscher, 1982)
Even Draw Experiments
Wide spaced draw points (158 mm), Dpe/Dta=1.5
showing little interaction
Close spaced draw points (108mm), Dpe/Dta=1.1
showing full interaction
Slide 121
Draw Point Spacing
1,5 times the isolated draw diameter seems to
be the draw point spacing limit to achieve
interaction, this assumes perfect even draw
Isolated draw can jeopardize the mine design by
introducing dilution channeling
If draw is controlled and managed the draw point
spacing can go upto 1.5 accepting a dilution
entry of 60% and overall dilution of about 20%.

Slide 122
Height of Interaction Zone
For a given density
gradient within the
muck pile
An energy buffer is
needed to equilibrate
the system
Height of interaction
(HIZ)

HIZ
a
A
(Duplancic & Brady
1999)
Slide 123
Height of Interaction Zone (HIZ)
The HIZ is a mainly
a function of
Draw point spacing
Fragmentation
Variability of
fragmentation within
the mining block
Spacing between drawpoints
HIZ
Slide 124
HIZ from ffm model
Dilution ffm rating
12 30 22
Average = 12
Ore
Divided into three
ffm rating zones
Rule of thumb
How to get ffm rating from RMR
L
Ffm rating=RMR
L
*0.4
Laubschers RMR 1989
Slide 125
HIZ Estimation (Courtesy Dennis Laubscher)
ff/m
Slide 126
Schematic illustration of granular flow paths for
(a) an isolated drawpoint, and (b) several drawpoints worked
concurrently (Laubscher 2000)
Slide 127
Schematic illustration of the void diffusion mechanism
for (a) an isolated drawpoint, and (b) several drawpoints
operating concurrently (Laubscher 2000)
Slide 128
Modelo de Laubscher, 1994
Another version of HIZ chart in which the RMR is the main geotech parameter. It has been found
that the ff/m rating chart fits better the observations made in Chile
Slide 129
Draw Control Factor (dcf)
Dcf is a measure of
differential draw between a
drawpoint and its
neighbors
It should be computed in a
monthly or weekly bases
Dilution will be postpone
by performing as high DCF
d
c
f

Coeficient of varitation of tonnage
between a draw point and its neighbours
1.0
0.3
1.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 11.0 9.0
0.75
0.5
Buen control
Mal control
Drawpoint
Neighbours
Slide 130
Percentage of Dilution Entry
PDE is the percentage of ore
column draw at which dilution
is seen at the dpt.
HIZ is an indicator of the
amount of mixing within the
draw column. Therefore
affects the PDE
PDE is highly influenced by
differential draw

HIZ
Waste
Hc
Slide 131
Estimation of Percentage of
Dilution Entry (PDE)
The percentage of
dilution entry is
computed as follows
Where
Hc is the height of the
draw column
HIZ is the height of
interaction zone
dcf is the draw control
factor
S is the swell factor
c
c
H
dcf s
HIZ
H
PDE
*

=
Slide 132
Mixing with Volumetric Algorithm, (Heslop and
Laubscher 1982)
Se define el % de
entrada de la dilucin
(PDE)
El PDE es el % de
extraccin de columna in
situ al cual se observa
material diluyente

c
c
H
s dcf HIZ H
PDE
) * (
=
PDE Diluyente
Mineral
Hc
Hc
Mineral
Diluyente
PDE
c
H
HIZ
dcf
s
Porcentaje de entrada de la dilucin
Altura de columna
Altura de interaccin
Factor de control de tiraje
Factor de esponjamiento
Slide 133
Volumetric Algorithm
Depending on COG
the column height
mined could be
shorter or larger than
the Hc
The mixing simulates
the grade of the draw
point affected by the
gravity flow process

PDE Diluyente
Mineral
Hc
Slide 134
Examples Volumetric Algorithm
-
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
2
0
1
3
0
1
4
0
1
5
0
1
6
0
1
7
0
1
8
0
1
9
0
2
0
0
Altura Columna (m)
%
C
u
In Situ
Mezclada
PDE=45%
-
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
2
0
1
3
0
1
4
0
1
5
0
1
6
0
1
7
0
1
8
0
1
9
0
2
0
0
Altura Columna (m)
%
C
u
In Situ
Mezclada
PDE=80%
Slide 135
Denis Laubscher s Model Using
Multiple Iterations
10
9
8
7 3+ 2*#It e= 5
6 #It e= 1
5
4 3 2 3 4 5
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0
10
9
8
7
6
5 3+ 2*#It e= 10
4 #It e= 4
3 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Ba
Bi
Ba+2#Ite=Bi
Traditional Laubscher
Algorithm
PDE PDE
Slide 136
Volumetric Algorithm with Multiple
Iterations

-
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
2
0
1
3
0
1
4
0
1
5
0
1
6
0
1
7
0
1
8
0
1
9
0
2
0
0
Altura de Columna (m)
%
C
u
Laubs 1 Laubs 2 In Situ %Cu Laubs 3
PDE=65%
Slide 137
Issues with the Volumetric
Algorithm
It does not explicitly integrates the draw
column fragmentation and its evolution as
draw point matures
It does not allow to modify HIZ along the
draw column
It works for 1 iteration for multi iterations
results have not been calibrated
Slide 138
PC-BC Mixing Model (Diering, 2000)
Mixing Horizon






It is based on mixing fractions
When a block is depleted
mixing progresses up to the
MH
The model repeats the process
simulating the depletion of the
entire column
) * ( s dcf HIZ UCL MH + =
UCL
Undercut level elevation
HIZ
dcf
s
Heoght of interaction
Draw control factor
Swell factor
Hc
MH
0.1
0.2
Slide 139
Mixing in PC-BC (Premix)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
2
0
0
1
8
0
1
6
0
1
4
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
8
0
6
0
4
0
2
0
Altura de Columna (m)
%
C
u
InSitu
Mezclada
100
50
0.2
0.3
Grade profile changes
considerable between
the scenarios with
and without mixing
Slide 140
PC-BC Multiple Iterations
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Banco
L
e
y

(
0
.
2
-
0
.
1
)
1ite 2ite 3ite 4ite 5ite InSitu
Hc
MH
#Ite
#Ite
Slide 141
PC-BC Calibration and Laubscher
PDE
0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
1 . 2
1 . 4
1 . 6
0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5
# Ite
H
I
Z
/
O
r
e

C
o
l
u
m
n
-
H
e
i
g
h
t
P DE 5% -12%
P DE 64% -73%
P DE 48% -62%
P DE 28% -40%
P DE 16% -27%
P DE 73% -85%
Slide 142
PC-BC and Fragmentation
Mixing fractions as a
function of the
amount of fines within
the draw column
Vertical flow is faster
for fine material than
coarse
Coarse Fines
0.1
0.1 0.2
0
Slide 143
Examples Different Fragmentations
0.3
0.3
Coarse Fines
0.03
0.07 0.06
0
0.5
0.5
Coarse Fines
0.05
0.05 0.1
0
Coarse contribution 0.07
Fines contribution 0.09
30% Fines
50% Fines
Coarse contribution 0.05
Fines contribution 0.15
Slide 144
PC-BC Sequential Mixing
Mixing is performed
as material is drawn
from the dtps
The shared
component of the
draw column moves
down as function of
the draw performance
Further calibration is
needed
Hc
MH
#Ite
Slide 145
Seqeuntial Mixing for Different MHs
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
2
0
0
1
8
0
1
6
0
1
4
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
8
0
6
0
4
0
2
0
Altura de Columna (m)
%
C
u
InSitu
Mezclada
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
2
0
0
1
8
0
1
6
0
1
4
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
8
0
6
0
4
0
2
0
Altura de Columna (m)
%
C
u
InSitu
Mezclada
Mixing fractions for coarse and fines 0.3 y 0.2
MH=50
MH=100
Slide 146
Issues with PC-BC
Fixed mixing fractions
HIZ constant along draw column
Mixes the whole column on premix mode
Slide 147
Celular Automaton Mixing
Algorithm
It mixes for a given
depletion treshold dt
If dt>t
1. The depletion volume is
replaced with the
neighbored dpts in the
proportion shown in a
mixing fraction matrix
2. If the neighbors are
depleted dt then the
method is recursive on
this block
It is extremely efficient
to simulate different
matrixes mixing fraction
0.1
0.05 0.15 0.05
0.2 0.3 0.15
Slide 148
Celular Automaton Mixing Models
Very easy to use
They require a PFC model first to compute the
mixing fractions for different geotech domains
Fine diffusion models can be fast simulated
using the celular models
Volumetric algorithm is the first celular
automaton model
Henderson mine showed an interesting
application of matrix mixing fractions in 2004
Slide 149
Summary
Flow
Rock Mass
Geotech
Mine
Design
Draw
performance
Conceptual Model of Flow, CIM, UofChile.
Slide 150
Uniformity Index and Flow (CIM,
Susaeta 2004)
There is a free flow
behaviour above the
drawpoint and interactive
flow above the major apex
pillar

Both zones of movements
(isolated zone and interactive
zone) are characterized by
their vertical flow rates va
and vi

Degree of interaction
Gi =vi/va degree of interaction
HIZ
Production drift
Va
Vi
a
i
i
v
v
G =
Slide 151
Model Components (T A-I) (Susaeta 2004)
Interactiv
e zone
Isolated Zone
Interaction between
drawing zones.
Plastic shear failure
Dpe draw point
spacing
Height of
Interaction zone
Isolated
draw
diameter
Isolated draw
velocity
Interactive flow
velocity vi
Slide 152
Flow Model for El Teniente Layout

(Vta)
(Vti)
Slide 153
Uniformity Index
An indicator to quantify the uniformity of
draw for a given draw point and its
neighbors
Definition
Susaeta 2004
Slide 154
Flow Behaviour
For a degree of
interaction greater than
0 there is interaction
above the major apex
pilar

Flow properties
changes as draw is
performed

Slide 155
a) Flujo Interactivo (Vti=Vta) b)Flujo Aislado Interactivo (Vti<Vta)
c) Flujo Aislado (Vti=0)
d) Puntos de extraccin cerrado, comn para
todos los casos
Altura Interaccin
Slide 156
Degree of Interaction and
Uniformity Index
What matters is the % of the
time that a draw point has
been drawn isolated to affect
its degree of interaction

The more time a dpt is drawn
isolated the higher the
chances to have the draw point
with no interaction with the
neighbors
Slide 157
Model Calibration
Initial calibration show
agreement between
Uniformity Index and %
dilution entry at El
Salvador mine

A large applied research
project is undergoing at
the University of Chile to
test the hypothesis with
all Codelco
Underground Mines

We shall have results
early 2007
Slide 158
Dilution Model
% Extraccin (%)
% Dilucin (%)
Lateral
Dilution
Vi=0
Vi>0
Vi=Va
Dilution from the
isolated zone (Pedza)
Dilution from the
Interactive Zone
(Pedzi)
Slide 159
Dilucin INC-N0503E (Oficial)
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
% de Extraccin
%

D
i
l
u
c
i

n
Dilucin INC-N0504E (Oficial)
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 20 40 60 80 100
% de Extraccin
%

D
i
l
u
c
i

n
Dilution Observations at El Salvador Mine
The observations fit the model. The
whole process of computing and
capturing dilution observations is
underway. Lots to refine in the
methodology. So far good
Slide 160
Grfico % Extraccin v/s % Riolita
(medio) Sector Parrillas Andina

Presencia de Riolita vs Porcentaje de Extraccin en reas 1 y 2 Parrillas
0.0%
2.0%
4.0%
6.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
14.0%
16.0%
18.0%
20.0%
22.0%
24.0%
26.0%
28.0%
25.0% 35.0% 45.0% 55.0% 65.0% 75.0% 85.0% 95.0% 105.0
%
115.0
%
125.0
%
135.0
%
% Extraccin
%

R
i
o
l
i
t
a

PEDZA
PEDZI
Under review many data problems
Slide 161
Flow Considerations
None of the mixing models take into
account the cave propagation process
Particles re distribution
Differential of apparent density
Draw influences fragmentation and
fragmentation draw
Mine design and flow characteristics are
not independent
Slide 162
Stresses
Slide 163
Mining Method
Geotechnical properties of rock mass lead into
analyzing SLC or BC (manual, mechanized)
Stresses behaviour defines the undercutting
design, > 46Mpa will be pre undercutting caving
Undercut design will affect fragmentation and
cavability of rock mass
Mining Method Major Stresses
Panel caving <35Mpa
Panel caving advanced undercutting 35--45 Mpa
Panel caving pre undercutting >45 Mpa
Slide 164
Induced Stress by Caving
The horizontal cut reduces confinement and induces rotation of the
stress tensor increasing the shear stress up to 2.5 times the pre mining
condition
Panek, 1981
Slide 165
Plan section through the three dimensional model
used to calculate ground reaction curves (Lorig 2000)
Production Area
Slide 166
Ground reaction curves calculated
for drift 2 (Lorig 2000)
Slide 167
Schematic diagram showing regions of rock
behaviour defined on the basis of the calculated ground
reaction curves (after Lorig 2000)
Production Areas
Slide 168
Caving Mining System
Caving
Undercut Drilling
Undercut Level
Production Level
Haulage Level
Ventilation Level
2
nd
Haulage
Crusher
Tipping point
Draw Point
Secondary Breakage
Ore Passes
Feeder
Grizzly
Conveyor
Slide 169
Undercutting Design
Aims
Undercut Strategies
Management
Configuration
Control
Draw
Control
Pre Post Advanced
Extraction method
Fan Flat Inclined Lags/Leads Blast
Draw
Slide 170
Undercut Mining Sequences

Barraza and Crorkan, 2000
Different Methods to
avoid abutment stress
zones
Difficult to implement lots of mine
development needs to be done in a
short period of time to avoid
compaction. UCL implemented as
production level
Slide 171
Undercutting strategies
Pre undercutting
Reduced stresses, production delays, compaction
remnants
Post undercutting
Faster production, stress induced damage
> 60% extraction ratio - severe draw horizon damage,
500m operation limit
Advanced undercutting
Limited draw horizon damage
< 60% critical draw horizon extraction limit
Slide 172
Undercut
extent
Stress
condition
Remarks
25% of HR Low Limited damage
50% of HR
Becoming a
concern
Onset of critical
damage
75-110% of HR Maximum Severe damage
Super caves (MRMR > 45): Stress level
becomes a concern for extraction > 75% of
HR
Slide 173
Pre Undercuting
Undercut developed before draw
horizon
Advantage
Reduced stress damage
Slide 174
POST UNDERCUTTING
(conventional)
Draw horizon full developed then undercut
Advantage
Block brought into production quicker
Disadvantages
Draw horizon stress induced damages, drift
repair, production delays
Slide 175
POST UNDERCUTTING
(conventional)
Draw horizon damage relates to stress
magnitude and draw horizon extraction
Stress magnitude 2-3 times higher than the pre-
undercut levels
Severe damage occurs at 60% draw horizon
extraction
Collapse occurs at 80% draw horizon extraction
Limiting operational depth 500m
Slide 176
ADVANCE UNDERCUTTING
Limited amount of development on draw horizon
before undercutting
Drifts before undercut, crosscuts and drawbells
after undercut
Keep draw horizon extraction < 60 % (Butcher
1999)
Slide 177
ADVANCE UNDERCUTTING
Advantages
draw horizon damage is reduced
the cave is brought into production quicker
than with a pre-undercutting strategy
a separate level is still required for
undercutting
this strategy is slower than post undercutting
Disadvantages
Some draw horizon
Slower than post undercutting

Slide 178
Angle of Draw
Undercut Level
Undercut Sequence
Vertical Cross Section
Angle of Draw
HOD Profile
Rubio, 2005
Slide 179
Induced Shear Stress as a function
of the Angle of Draw
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
80
0
70
0
60
0
50
0
40
0

N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
D
e
v
i
a
t
o
r
i
c

S
t
r
e
s
s
Distance from the cave front (m)
Angle of Draw
Rubio, et al 2004
Slide 180
Extraction level support and reinforcement by bolts,
shotcrete, mesh and straps, Koffiefontein Mine, South
Africa
Flores et al (2004a)
Slide 181
Pillar and drawpoint support,
El Teniente 4 South, Chile (Flores 1993)
Slide 182
Failure of yielding arch support at a drawpoint,
El Salvador Mine
Photo: M. L. Van Sint Jan
Slide 183
Extraction level support and reinforcement
design cases
Blocks falling or sliding; unravelling

General plastic yield

Localised brittle slabbing or spalling

Instability controlled by major structures

Dynamic failures induced by rockbursts

Combined modes of failure
Slide 184
Collapse of an extraction level drift at Ten 4 Sur,
El Teniente Mine, 1989
CONCRETE
DAMAGE
CONCRETE
DAMAGE
1.5 m
Slide 185
Slide 186
Models of rock mass response at the Brunswick Mine
(Diederichs et al 2002)
Slide 187
Isometric view of key block truncated by the undercut,
production level, Panel II, Rio Blanco Mine, Chile, 1989
5
2
4
3
1
Three dimensional view of key
block before truncation by the
undercut, production level, panel
II
Slide 188
Construction of the Seismic
Envelop
Monitor the principal
stresses located at the
seismic events in a
window of 1 month ahead
of mining activity
August 04, Jan 05 and
May 05
Looking at rock types,
stress tensor and seismic
moment
) , (
3 1
o o
Slide 189
Expected Seismic
Activity
Seismic Envelop
Aug04, Jan05 and May05

1
= 1.6
3
+ 8
R
2
= 0.89
-
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
- 5 10 15 20 25
3 (MPa)

1

(
M
P
a
)
Slide 190
Induced Seismicity
As mining propagates
to surface seismic
events are induced as
a response of the
rock mass to high
stresses
Seismic events can
help to indicate where
the cave back is
located at any given
time

Slide 191
PMC Seismic Database
Slide 192
Rockbursts
A rockburst is the uncontrolled disruption of rock
associated with a violent release of energy
additional to that derived from falling rock
fragments (Cook et al 1964)

A rockburst is a seismic event which causes
violent and significant damage to tunnels and
other excavations in the mine (Ortlepp 1997)
Slide 193
Seismic events
Seismic events arise from conditions of unstable
equilibrium and involve the release of stored
strain energy and the propagation of elastic
waves through the rock mass

Brady & Brown (2004)

Slide 194
Necessary conditions for rockbursting
The induced stresses must be high enough to
induce slip on a pre-existing discontinuity (e.g. a
fault) or fracture of the rock

The resulting slip or fracture must be
mechanically unstable, releasing energy that
cannot be absorbed in the processes of slip or
fracture themselves

Slide 195
Unstable slip on a fault
Slide 196
Mine Design
Slide 197
Block and Panel caving
Block caving The whole footprint is undercut.
Usually the ore body footprint is divided into
small blocks of 80x80 m. It reports high lateral
dilution
Panel caving Blocks are undercut in a
continuous manner forming an angle of
interface between broken ore and dilution. This
method was invented to minimize the amount of
lateral dilution
Slide 198
Block Caving Miami

Slide 199
Panel Caving
Henderson, DeWolf 1981
Slide 200
Panel Cave (De Wolf, 1982)
Slide 201
Draw Point Spacing
Geotechnical Information
RMR 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80
ff/m 50-7 20-1.5 5-0.4 1.5-0.2
Rock size range (m) 0.01-0.3 0.1-2 0.4-5 1.5-9
Loading width/Isolated draw diameter (m)
5m 11.5 13
4m 9 11 12.5
3m 6.5 8.5 10.5 12
2m 6 8 10
Grizzly Method LHD Mechanized Method
Pilar Mayor
Slide 202
Draw layouts 1.5 IF
Slide 203
Draw Point Spacing Across the Major
Apex Pillar for Different Fragmentations
Mine
Ertsberg
El Teniente
Grace
Henderson
Creighton
Climax
Urad
Thetford
Mather
San Manuel
Median Fragment Size (m)
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.9
0.6
0.5
0.2
0.4
Draw point spacing (m2)
236
224
165
148
110
106
80
58
32
24

Slide 204
Types of block cave
Grizzly
Slusher
LHD/panel
Front cave
Inclined draw point
Slide 205
Production Systems
Grizzly/ manual
LHD
Fine material complete gravity flow model
Highly productive 0.75 t/m2/da, lower
operations cost 2.5 $/t high capital cost
1500 $/m2

Coarse rock, equipment can handle
different volumes
Productivity 0.55 t/m2/da, Operation cost
3.5 $/t Capital cost 700$/m2

Slide 206
Grizzly (Pillar 1981)
Slide 207
SLUSHER (HARTLEY 1981)
Slide 208
SLUSHER (Hartley 1981)
Slide 209
Block caving -LHD

Slide 210
Front cave
Slide 211
Inclined draw point
Slide 212
Inclined drawpoint
Slide 213
LHD Flat Undercut System
Slide 214
Multi Lift Northparkes (Block
Caving)

Slide 215
Crinkle Cut for Advance
undercuting

Slide 216
Fan Ring Undercuting at El
Teniente

Slide 217
LHD Layouts (Diering y Laubscher
1992)
Herringbone y offset are
suitable for mechanic
equipment, electric equipment
Henderson method has been
found to be the best for
electric equipment
Offset is the best design to
achieve interaction across the
major apex pilar
El Teniente method is the best
from the stability point of view
Slide 218
Herringbone layout
Slide 219
Offset herringbone layout
Slide 220
Henderson layout
Slide 221
El Teniente Layout (Chacon et al,
2004)
(a)
(b)
Slide 222
Isolated Draw Diameter for
Different Mine layouts
Slide 223
Interactive Draw (Laubscher
1994)
Slide 224
Palabora Mine, South Africa (Calder et
al 2000)
Slide 225
Lift 2, Northparkes E26 Mine, Australia
Slide 226
Drawpoint support, Koffiefontein Mine,
South Africa
Slide 227
Drawpoint support, Henderson Mine
Slide 228
LHD Method at Tte 4 South Ovalle
and Chacon

Slide 229
LHD Layout Tte 4 Sur

Slide 230
Undercut Fan Drill Pattern

Slide 231
Drawpoint support, Koffiefontein Mine,
South Africa
Slide 232
Drawpoint support, Henderson Mine
Slide 233
Esmeralda Teniente

Slide 234
Padcal, Filipinas

Slide 235
DOZ, Freeport Indonesia

Slide 236
IOZ, Freeport Indonesia

Slide 237
Extraction methods
Block cave fan undercut without separate level
Slide 238
Extraction methods
Conceptual Plan of flat undercut showing possible problem areas
Slide 239
Extraction methods
Inclined undercut potential problem areas
Slide 241
Undercut management
Rate of advances
Advance as rapidly as possible to HR
without incurring problems
Reduce rate of advance from HR
Cave tons > undercut tons - prevent
arch induced abutment crushing
Rate of advance 2300m
2
/month
Slide 244
Experience
5 recent caves
Drifts 4.2m X 4.2m
Drift spacing 28- 34m (30m)
Draw point spacing 14- 18m (16m)
Offset-herringbone- reduced spans
Distance to UC 15m
MASSMIN 2000


Slide 245
Caving Subsidence
Slide 246
Subsidence process
1. Propagate the cave to surface
2. Centre subsidence
3. break back
Slide 247
Macro /angle of break/cave definition
Angle of cave is a Function of
- Rock mass strength
- Muck pile support (H)
- Depth of ore\body
- Major structures
- Rock mass\shear strength
Angle of break= angle of cave +
perimeter fracture zone (Tc)
Slide 248
Stage 3 progression
Slide 249
Subsidence Angle Estimation
(Laubscher Approach)
RMR 80
MRMR 72
Min Span
Height of cave material 400
Depth 700
Min Span 200
Max span 800
factor Min_span 14
factor Max_span 3.5
Angle Min_span 85
Angle Max_span 80

RMR 50
MRMR 45
Min Span
Height of cave material 400
Depth 700
Min Span 200
Max span 800
factor Min_span 14
factor Max_span 3.5
Angle Min_span 75
Angle Max_span 65

Slide 250
Macro Subsidence definition
(Karzulovic 1999)
Slide 251
Important definitions
Alpha = angle of break to surface fracture zone
Beta = angle of cave to the edge of glory hole
Tc =Fracture zone around the glory hole
Ti =underground fracture zone
H = muck pile height
As = final width of glory hole

Slide 252
Subsidence Angle Estimation
(Andina Approach)

Slide 253
Karzulovic -1997
Slide 254
Types of discontinuous subsidence
(Flores & Karzulovic 2004a)
Block caving
Progressive hangingwall
caving
Hangingwall toppling
Ore
Caved
ore
Toppling
Slide 255
Subsidence resulting
from Grasberg IOZ
panel caving operation,
Indonesia
Crater
Perimeter
Caved
rock
Slide 256
Crater
perimeter
Caved
rock
Subsidence generated by Salvadors block and
panel caving operations, Chile
Slide 257
Subsidence generated by El Tenientes block and
panel caving operations, Chile
Braden
Pipe
Quebrada
Teniente
Teniente 4
Fortuna
Teniente 4
Regimiento
Teniente 5
Pilares
Teniente
3 Isla
Teniente
Sub 6
Teniente
4 Sur
N
Crater
perimeter
Caved
rock
Slide 258
Design chart for the angle
of break based on limit
equilibrium analyses
(H
T
= 600 -1700 m)

(Flores & Karzulovic 2004a)
Slide 259
Design chart for extent of
zone of influence based on
numerical analysis
(H
T
= 600 -1700 m)

(Flores & Karzulovic 2004a)
Slide 260
Practical example using
design chart to estimate
angle of break
(H
T
= 1200 m)

(Flores & Karzulovic 2004a)
Slide 261
Practical example using
design chart to estimate
extent of zone of influence
(H
T
= 1200 m)

(Flores & Karzulovic 2004a)