## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

KEYING (BPSK)

DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES

There are basically two types of transmission of digital signals

1. Baseband data transmission :The digital data is transmitted over the channel

directly. There is no carrier or any modulation. This is suitable for transmission over

short distances

2. Passband data transmission: The digital data modulates high frequency

sinusoidal carrier. It is suitable for transmission over long distances.

TYPES OF PASS BAND MODULATION:

The digital data can modulate can phase frequency , or amplitude of carrier. This gives

rise to three basic techniques

•Phase shift keying (PSK)

•Frequency shift keying (FSK)

•Amplitude shift keying (ASK)

Introduction

Figure 6.2

Functional model of pass-band data transmission system.

• Receiver side (blocks described in detail p.326-327)

– detector

– signal transmission decoder; reverses the operations

performed in the transmitter;

PSK (PHASE SHIFT KEYING)

Phase Shift Keying (PSK)

• Phase of carrier is varied to represent 1 or 0

• Peak amplitude and frequency remain constant

• Phase remains constant during each bit duration

Forms of phase shift keying

PSK - Phase Shift Keying

1. BPSK - Binary ( 2 point ) Phase Shift Keying

2. QPSK – Quadrature (4 point ) Phase Shift Keying

3. 8 PSK - 8 Point Phase Shift Keying

4. 16 PSK - 16 Point Phase Shift Keying

5. 32 PSK - 32 Point Phase Shift Keying

6. 64 PSK - 64 Point Phase Shift Keying

These are just some of the major forms of phase shift keying, PSK,

In general the higher order forms of modulation allow higher data

rates to be carried within a given bandwidth.

Binary phase-shift keying (BPSK)

• BPSK is the simplest form of phase shift keying (PSK). It

uses two phases which are separated by 180° and so

can also be termed 2-PSK. It does not particularly matter

exactly where the constellation points are positioned, and

in this figure they are shown on the real axis, at 0° and

180°.

Advantages

The distance between the signal point is great, then the error rate of BPSK is less

BPSK Generation Scheme

• A sinusoidal waveform is multiplied by the input bit stream.

• Each time the bit stream changes sign (by crossing zero level), the

phase of the PSK signal also changes.

BPSK ( 2 - PSK)

2-PSK: only 2 phase values are used, each for 1 or 0

Only phase is varied to represent 1 or 0

6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying

- Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)

• In a coherent binary PSK the pair of signals

used to represent binary 0 and 1 are defined

as:

1

2

( ) cos(2 ) (6.8)

b

c

b

E

s t f t

T

t =

2

2 2

( ) cos(2 ) cos(2 ) (6.9)

b b

c c

b b

E E

s t f t f t

T T

t t t = + = ÷

transmitted energy

per bit

duration of one bit

f

c

=n

c

/T

b

• So the transmitted signals can be expressed as:

1

2

( ) cos(2 ), 0 (6.10)

c b

b

t f t t T

T

| t = s <

1 1

( ) ( ), 0 (6.11)

b b

s t E t t T | = s <

• The equations (6.8) and (6.9) represent antipodal signals – sinusoidal

signals that differ only in a relative phase shift of 180 degrees.

• In BPSK there is only one basis function of unit energy expressed as:

2 1

( ) ( ), 0 (6.12)

b b

s t E t t T | = ÷ s <

• A coherent BPSK system can be characterized

by having a signal space that is one

dimensional (N= 1), with signal constellation

consisting of two message points (M = 2)

• The coordinates of the message points are:

11 1 1

0

( ) ( )

(6.13)

b

T

b

s s t t dt

E

| =

= +

}

21 2 1

0

( ) ( )

(6.14)

b

T

b

s s t t dt

E

| =

= ÷

}

Figure 6.3

Signal-space diagram for coherent binary PSK system. The waveforms depicting the

transmitted signals s

1

(t) and s

2

(t), displayed in the inserts, assume n

c

= 2.

Note that the frequency f

c

is chosen to ensure that each transmitted bit contains an integer

number of cycles..

message point

corresponding to

s

1

message point

corresponding to

s

2

n

c

is an integer such that

T

symbol

= n

c

/T

bit

Error Probability of Binary PSK

• Decision rule: based on the maximum likelihood

decision algorithm/rule which in this case means

that we have to choose the message point closest to

the received signal point

observation vector x lies in region Z

i

if

the Euclidean distance ||x-s

k

|| is minimum for k = i

• For BPSK: N= 1, space is divided into two areas

(fig.6.3)

– the set of points closest to message point 1 at +E

1/2

– the set of points closest to message point 2 at – E

1/2

• The decision rule is simply to decide that signal s

1

(t) (i.e.

binary 1) was transmitted if the received signal point falls

in region Z

1

, and decide that signal s

2

(t) (i.e. binary

symbol 0) was transmitted if the received signal falls in

region Z

2

.

• Two kinds of errors are possible due to noise:

– sent s

1

(t), received signal point falls in Z

2

– sent s

2

(t), received signal point falls in Z

1

• This can be expressed as: Z

i

: 0 < x

1

< æ

• and the observed element is expressed as a function of

the received signal x(t) as:

1 1

0

( ) ( ) (6.15)

b

T

x x t t dt | =

}

So,

• In Ch.5 it was deduced that memory-less AWGN

channels, the observation elements X

i

are Gaussian

RV with mean s

ij

and variance N

0

/2.

• The conditional probability density function that x

j

(signal s

j

was received providing m

i

was sent) is given

by:

2

1

0

0

1 1

( / ) exp[ ( ) ]

j

x j i ij

f x m x s

N

N t

= ÷ ÷

• When we substitute for the case of BPSK

1

2

1 1 21

0

0

2

1

0

0

1 1

( / 0) exp[ ( ) ]

1 1

exp[ ( ) ] (6.16)

x

b

f x x s

N

N

x E

N

N

t

t

= ÷ ÷

= ÷ +

1

2

10 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

1 1

( / 0) exp[ ( ) ] (6.17)

x b

f x dx x E dx

N

N

µ

t

· ·

= = ÷ +

} }

• Then the conditional probability of the receiver

in favor of 1 provided 0 was transmitted is:

• if we substitute and change the integration

variable:

1

0

1

( )] (6.18)

b

z x E

N

= +

0

2

10

/

0

1

exp( )

1

( (6.19)

2

b

E N

b

z dz

E

erfc

N

µ

t

·

= ÷

=

}

• Considering an error of the second kind:

– signal space is symmetric about the origin

– p

01

is the same as p

10

• Average probability of symbol error or the bit

error rate for coherent BPSK is:

0

1

( ) (6.20)

2

b

e

E

P erfc

N

=

• So increasing the signal energy per bit

makes the points - and move

farther apart which correspond to reducing

the error probability.

Generation and Detection of Coherent

BPSK Signals

• Transmitter side:

– Need to represent the binary sequence 0 and 1 in

polar form with constant amplitudes, respectively –

and + (polar non-return-to-zero – NRZ -

encoding).

– Carrier wave is with frequency f

c

=(n

c

/T

b

)

– Required BPSK modulated signal is at the output of

the product modulator.

• Receiver side

– noisy PSK is fed to a correlator with locally generated

reference signal

– correlator output is compared to a threshold of 0 volts

in the decision device

Figure 6.4

Block diagrams for (a) binary PSK transmitter and (b)

coherent binary PSK receiver.

Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK)

• 4-PSK

QPSK can encode two bits per symbol. Analysis shows that

this may be used either to double the data rate compared

to a BPSK system while maintaining the bandwidth of the

signal or to maintain the data-rate of BPSK but halve the

bandwidth needed.

– May utilize four variations of phase shift by 90 degrees

– Each phase shift represents 2 bits ;technique is

referred to as 4-PSK

– Allows data transmission two times as fast as 2-PSK

4 -PSK

QPSK versus BPSK

• BPSK modulation results in 1 symbol/Hz, where QPSK modulation

results in 2 symbols/Hz).

• As a result, the spectrum of QPSK is narrower than that of BPSK.

• The main lobe of QPSK is half the width of the BPSK spectrum

mainlobe.

• The probabilities of bit error for BPSK and QPSK are equal, but

QPSK can support twice the data rate that BPSK can.

• Higher orders of PSK can be designed (8-PSK, 16-PSK, etc.), but

there is a tradeoff (higher required power or higher BER).

BPSK VS QPSK

• Reliable performance

– Very low probability of error

• Efficient utilization of channel bandwidth

– Sending more then one bit in a symbol

• Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) - example of quadrature-

carrier multiplexing

– Information is carried in the phase

– Phase can take one of four equally spaced values – π/4, 3π/4,

5π/4, 7π/4

– We assume gray encoding (10, 00, 01, 11)

– Transmitted signal is defined as:

2

cos[2 (2 1) ], 0

( ) (6.23)

4

0,

c

i

E

f t i t T

s t

T

elsewhere

t

t

¦

+ ÷ s s ¦

=

´

¦

¹

6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying - QPSK

Signal-Space Diagram of QPSK

• From 6.23 we can redefine the transmitted signal

using a trigonometric identity:

• From this representation we can use Gram-

Schmidt Orthogonal Procedure to create the

signal-space diagram for this signal.

• It allows us to find the orthogonal basis

functions used for the signal-space

representation.

2 2

( ) cos[(2 1) ]cos(2 ) sin[(2 1) ]sin(2 ) (6.24)

4 4

i c c

E E

s t i f t i f t

T T

t t

t t = ÷ ÷ ÷

• In our case there exist two orthogonal basis

functions in the expansion of s

i

(t). These are

φ

1

(t) and φ

2

(t), defined by a pair of quadrature

carriers:

• Based on these representations we can make

the following two important observations:

1

2

( ) cos(2 ), 0 (6.25)

c

t f t t T

T

| t = s s

2

2

( ) sin(2 ), 0 (6.26)

c

t f t t T

T

| t = s s

• There are 4 message points and the associated

vectors are defined by:

• Values are summarized in Table 6.1

• Conclusion:

– QPSK has a two-dimensional signal constellation

(N = 2) and four message points (M = 4).

– As binary PSK, QPSK has minimum average energy

cos[(2 1) ]

4

, 1, 2, 3, 4 (6.27)

sin[(2 1) ]

4

i

E i

s i

E i

t

t

(

÷

(

= =

(

(

÷

(

¸ ¸

Figure 6.6

Signal-space diagram of coherent QPSK system.

8-PSK

In this we Vary signal by shifts of 45

degrees; each shift may then represent

three bits (tri-bit) and send data three

times as fast

Constellation (or Phase-State)

Diagram

Comparison b/w 4-psk and 8-psk

M-PSK (Circular Constellations)

16-PSK

a n

b

n

4-PSK

M-PSK ( 16 - PSK) constellations

Tradeoffs

– Higher-order modulations (M large) are more spectrally

efficient but less power efficient (i.e. BER higher).

– M-QAM is more spectrally efficient than M-PSK but

also more sensitive to system nonlinearities.

BER and Eb/No

• ‰The rate at which bits are corrupted beyond the capacity to reconstruct them

is called the BER (Bit Error Rate).

• A BER of less than 1 in 100,000 bits is generally desired for an average

satellite communications channel (also referred to as a BER of 10-5).

• For some types of data, an even smaller BER is desired (10-7).

• ‰The BER is directly dependent on the Eb/No, which is the Bit Energy-to-

Noise Density ratio.

• Since the noise density present on the channel is difficult to control, this

basically means that BER can be reduced through using a higher powered

signal, or by controlling other parameters to increase the energy transmitted

per bit.

• As the following chart shows, the BER will decrease (i.e., fewer errors)

if the Eb/No increases.

Higher Eb/No Reduces the BER

Bandwidth vs. Power Efficiency

Bandwidth vs. Power Efficiency

MPSK:

Bandwidth of M-PSK

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages

1. BPSK produce less errors as compared to ASK

2. More efficient use of bandwidth means higher data rate is possible

Disadvantages

More complex detection process than ASK and FSK

Rapid amplituded change between symbols due to phase discontinuty

QPSK AND BPSK::::

1. In QPSK higher data rate as compared to BPSK

2. For the same bit error rate the band width required by QPSK is reduced to

half than BPSK

APPLICATIONS

•IN SATELLITE COMMUNICATION

• wireless LAN

•biometric passports

• Bluetooth

•CDMA system

•DVB-S

•Cable modems

•Video conferencing

•Cellular phone system and other forms of digital

communication system over an RF

- 2015-2016 Theoretical Subjects for Data Communications
- IJAIEM-2014-05-31-116
- Third Year
- Wcdma Ran Principle
- SignalEncodingTechniques,Computer Networks
- Digital-Modulation.pdf
- Dipanwita Thesis
- EcNo Radio
- WC Question Bank 10.10.17 St Copy
- TELEMETRY QUESTION BANK
- Mobile Communication brief
- Analytical Review of Advance Optical Modulation Formats
- The Basic Principles of OFDM
- Performance Analysis of OFDM Signal Using BPSK and QPSK Modulation Techniques
- Ceyhan Kasap Presentation
- 01158911
- ds-cdm750
- 25223-910.doc
- 53339 91646v00 Acaddigest Byu Final
- Gsm
- Communications System Toolbox Getting Started Guide
- 0 = PhD_Thesis_Daniel_Sira
- ece-6
- MKG-0906-AR92xx_MFG_Guide
- Selective laser melting
- Rr322205 Communication Systems
- CD Ma Tutorial 16
- NOISE MINIMIZATION IN IMAGES AND COMMUNICATION
- EE 574–Digital Wireless Transceiver Design-Momin Uppal
- AM Modulation

- AP9212
- UNIT 5 EMF
- Multiplier
- Wn Unit1 and Unit5
- ADA SYLLABUS 2013.docx
- Pg Question Paper Format(1)
- http.docx
- Http
- ADA SYLLABUS 2013.docx
- RF&MW_M_1
- CH 3 - Feedback
- UNIT 1 ADA 2014.pptx
- Unit 1 Adsd Kncet
- Syllabus Wn 2016
- Ex05b -Pdsp Question Paper_te_1
- Ex06 - Answer Key-lic Te1 210114
- PDSP_T1_1_SHAJU QP
- AP7102-ADSD-SYLLABI
- Dsp Question Paper Unit 1
- AP7102-ADSD-SYLLABI
- Dsp Question Paper Unit 4
- Ec52- Digital Signal Processing
- AP7102-ADSD
- Ec2050 Mobile Adhoc Networks l t p c
- Vl9221 Lesson Plan
- EC6403 Lesson Plan EMF 2014
- qb manet
- Dsp Objective Questions
- Ec52- Digital Signal Processing
- UNIT 1 ADA 2014

Read Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading