BINARY PHASE SHIFT

KEYING (BPSK)
DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES
There are basically two types of transmission of digital signals
1. Baseband data transmission :The digital data is transmitted over the channel
directly. There is no carrier or any modulation. This is suitable for transmission over
short distances
2. Passband data transmission: The digital data modulates high frequency
sinusoidal carrier. It is suitable for transmission over long distances.
TYPES OF PASS BAND MODULATION:
The digital data can modulate can phase frequency , or amplitude of carrier. This gives
rise to three basic techniques
•Phase shift keying (PSK)
•Frequency shift keying (FSK)
•Amplitude shift keying (ASK)










Introduction
Figure 6.2
Functional model of pass-band data transmission system.
• Receiver side (blocks described in detail p.326-327)
– detector
– signal transmission decoder; reverses the operations
performed in the transmitter;
PSK (PHASE SHIFT KEYING)
Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
• Phase of carrier is varied to represent 1 or 0
• Peak amplitude and frequency remain constant
• Phase remains constant during each bit duration




Forms of phase shift keying

PSK - Phase Shift Keying

1. BPSK - Binary ( 2 point ) Phase Shift Keying
2. QPSK – Quadrature (4 point ) Phase Shift Keying
3. 8 PSK - 8 Point Phase Shift Keying
4. 16 PSK - 16 Point Phase Shift Keying
5. 32 PSK - 32 Point Phase Shift Keying
6. 64 PSK - 64 Point Phase Shift Keying

These are just some of the major forms of phase shift keying, PSK,
In general the higher order forms of modulation allow higher data
rates to be carried within a given bandwidth.
Binary phase-shift keying (BPSK)
• BPSK is the simplest form of phase shift keying (PSK). It
uses two phases which are separated by 180° and so
can also be termed 2-PSK. It does not particularly matter
exactly where the constellation points are positioned, and
in this figure they are shown on the real axis, at 0° and
180°.
Advantages
The distance between the signal point is great, then the error rate of BPSK is less
BPSK Generation Scheme
• A sinusoidal waveform is multiplied by the input bit stream.
• Each time the bit stream changes sign (by crossing zero level), the
phase of the PSK signal also changes.

BPSK ( 2 - PSK)
2-PSK: only 2 phase values are used, each for 1 or 0
Only phase is varied to represent 1 or 0
6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying
- Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)
• In a coherent binary PSK the pair of signals
used to represent binary 0 and 1 are defined
as:
1
2
( ) cos(2 ) (6.8)
b
c
b
E
s t f t
T
t =
2
2 2
( ) cos(2 ) cos(2 ) (6.9)
b b
c c
b b
E E
s t f t f t
T T
t t t = + = ÷
transmitted energy
per bit
duration of one bit
f
c
=n
c
/T
b

• So the transmitted signals can be expressed as:
1
2
( ) cos(2 ), 0 (6.10)
c b
b
t f t t T
T
| t = s <
1 1
( ) ( ), 0 (6.11)
b b
s t E t t T | = s <
• The equations (6.8) and (6.9) represent antipodal signals – sinusoidal
signals that differ only in a relative phase shift of 180 degrees.
• In BPSK there is only one basis function of unit energy expressed as:
2 1
( ) ( ), 0 (6.12)
b b
s t E t t T | = ÷ s <
• A coherent BPSK system can be characterized
by having a signal space that is one
dimensional (N= 1), with signal constellation
consisting of two message points (M = 2)
• The coordinates of the message points are:

11 1 1
0
( ) ( )
(6.13)
b
T
b
s s t t dt
E
| =
= +
}
21 2 1
0
( ) ( )
(6.14)
b
T
b
s s t t dt
E
| =
= ÷
}
Figure 6.3
Signal-space diagram for coherent binary PSK system. The waveforms depicting the
transmitted signals s
1
(t) and s
2
(t), displayed in the inserts, assume n
c
= 2.
Note that the frequency f
c
is chosen to ensure that each transmitted bit contains an integer
number of cycles..
message point
corresponding to
s
1

message point
corresponding to
s
2

n
c
is an integer such that
T
symbol
= n
c
/T
bit

Error Probability of Binary PSK
• Decision rule: based on the maximum likelihood
decision algorithm/rule which in this case means
that we have to choose the message point closest to
the received signal point
observation vector x lies in region Z
i
if
the Euclidean distance ||x-s
k
|| is minimum for k = i
• For BPSK: N= 1, space is divided into two areas
(fig.6.3)
– the set of points closest to message point 1 at +E
1/2

– the set of points closest to message point 2 at – E
1/2

• The decision rule is simply to decide that signal s
1
(t) (i.e.
binary 1) was transmitted if the received signal point falls
in region Z
1
, and decide that signal s
2
(t) (i.e. binary
symbol 0) was transmitted if the received signal falls in
region Z
2
.
• Two kinds of errors are possible due to noise:
– sent s
1
(t), received signal point falls in Z
2

– sent s
2
(t), received signal point falls in Z
1
• This can be expressed as: Z
i
: 0 < x
1
< æ
• and the observed element is expressed as a function of
the received signal x(t) as:
1 1
0
( ) ( ) (6.15)
b
T
x x t t dt | =
}
So,
• In Ch.5 it was deduced that memory-less AWGN
channels, the observation elements X
i
are Gaussian
RV with mean s
ij
and variance N
0
/2.
• The conditional probability density function that x
j

(signal s
j
was received providing m
i
was sent) is given
by:
2
1
0
0
1 1
( / ) exp[ ( ) ]
j
x j i ij
f x m x s
N
N t
= ÷ ÷
• When we substitute for the case of BPSK
1
2
1 1 21
0
0
2
1
0
0
1 1
( / 0) exp[ ( ) ]
1 1
exp[ ( ) ] (6.16)
x
b
f x x s
N
N
x E
N
N
t
t
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ +
1
2
10 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
1 1
( / 0) exp[ ( ) ] (6.17)
x b
f x dx x E dx
N
N
µ
t
· ·
= = ÷ +
} }
• Then the conditional probability of the receiver
in favor of 1 provided 0 was transmitted is:
• if we substitute and change the integration
variable:
1
0
1
( )] (6.18)
b
z x E
N
= +
0
2
10
/
0
1
exp( )
1
( (6.19)
2
b
E N
b
z dz
E
erfc
N
µ
t
·
= ÷
=
}
• Considering an error of the second kind:
– signal space is symmetric about the origin
– p
01
is the same as p
10

• Average probability of symbol error or the bit
error rate for coherent BPSK is:
0
1
( ) (6.20)
2
b
e
E
P erfc
N
=
• So increasing the signal energy per bit
makes the points - and move
farther apart which correspond to reducing
the error probability.
Generation and Detection of Coherent
BPSK Signals
• Transmitter side:
– Need to represent the binary sequence 0 and 1 in
polar form with constant amplitudes, respectively –
and + (polar non-return-to-zero – NRZ -
encoding).
– Carrier wave is with frequency f
c
=(n
c
/T
b
)
– Required BPSK modulated signal is at the output of
the product modulator.
• Receiver side
– noisy PSK is fed to a correlator with locally generated
reference signal
– correlator output is compared to a threshold of 0 volts
in the decision device
Figure 6.4
Block diagrams for (a) binary PSK transmitter and (b)
coherent binary PSK receiver.

Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK)

• 4-PSK
QPSK can encode two bits per symbol. Analysis shows that
this may be used either to double the data rate compared
to a BPSK system while maintaining the bandwidth of the
signal or to maintain the data-rate of BPSK but halve the
bandwidth needed.
– May utilize four variations of phase shift by 90 degrees
– Each phase shift represents 2 bits ;technique is
referred to as 4-PSK
– Allows data transmission two times as fast as 2-PSK

4 -PSK
QPSK versus BPSK
• BPSK modulation results in 1 symbol/Hz, where QPSK modulation
results in 2 symbols/Hz).
• As a result, the spectrum of QPSK is narrower than that of BPSK.
• The main lobe of QPSK is half the width of the BPSK spectrum
mainlobe.
• The probabilities of bit error for BPSK and QPSK are equal, but
QPSK can support twice the data rate that BPSK can.
• Higher orders of PSK can be designed (8-PSK, 16-PSK, etc.), but
there is a tradeoff (higher required power or higher BER).
BPSK VS QPSK
• Reliable performance
– Very low probability of error
• Efficient utilization of channel bandwidth
– Sending more then one bit in a symbol
• Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) - example of quadrature-
carrier multiplexing
– Information is carried in the phase
– Phase can take one of four equally spaced values – π/4, 3π/4,
5π/4, 7π/4
– We assume gray encoding (10, 00, 01, 11)
– Transmitted signal is defined as:


2
cos[2 (2 1) ], 0
( ) (6.23)
4
0,
c
i
E
f t i t T
s t
T
elsewhere
t
t
¦
+ ÷ s s ¦
=
´
¦
¹
6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying - QPSK
Signal-Space Diagram of QPSK
• From 6.23 we can redefine the transmitted signal
using a trigonometric identity:
• From this representation we can use Gram-
Schmidt Orthogonal Procedure to create the
signal-space diagram for this signal.
• It allows us to find the orthogonal basis
functions used for the signal-space
representation.

2 2
( ) cos[(2 1) ]cos(2 ) sin[(2 1) ]sin(2 ) (6.24)
4 4
i c c
E E
s t i f t i f t
T T
t t
t t = ÷ ÷ ÷
• In our case there exist two orthogonal basis
functions in the expansion of s
i
(t). These are
φ
1
(t) and φ
2
(t), defined by a pair of quadrature
carriers:






• Based on these representations we can make
the following two important observations:

1
2
( ) cos(2 ), 0 (6.25)
c
t f t t T
T
| t = s s
2
2
( ) sin(2 ), 0 (6.26)
c
t f t t T
T
| t = s s
• There are 4 message points and the associated
vectors are defined by:




• Values are summarized in Table 6.1
• Conclusion:
– QPSK has a two-dimensional signal constellation
(N = 2) and four message points (M = 4).
– As binary PSK, QPSK has minimum average energy

cos[(2 1) ]
4
, 1, 2, 3, 4 (6.27)
sin[(2 1) ]
4
i
E i
s i
E i
t
t
(
÷
(
= =
(
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
Figure 6.6
Signal-space diagram of coherent QPSK system.

8-PSK

In this we Vary signal by shifts of 45
degrees; each shift may then represent
three bits (tri-bit) and send data three
times as fast
Constellation (or Phase-State)
Diagram
Comparison b/w 4-psk and 8-psk
M-PSK (Circular Constellations)
16-PSK
a n
b
n
4-PSK
M-PSK ( 16 - PSK) constellations
Tradeoffs
– Higher-order modulations (M large) are more spectrally
efficient but less power efficient (i.e. BER higher).
– M-QAM is more spectrally efficient than M-PSK but
also more sensitive to system nonlinearities.
BER and Eb/No
• ‰The rate at which bits are corrupted beyond the capacity to reconstruct them
is called the BER (Bit Error Rate).
• A BER of less than 1 in 100,000 bits is generally desired for an average
satellite communications channel (also referred to as a BER of 10-5).
• For some types of data, an even smaller BER is desired (10-7).
• ‰The BER is directly dependent on the Eb/No, which is the Bit Energy-to-
Noise Density ratio.
• Since the noise density present on the channel is difficult to control, this
basically means that BER can be reduced through using a higher powered
signal, or by controlling other parameters to increase the energy transmitted
per bit.
• As the following chart shows, the BER will decrease (i.e., fewer errors)
if the Eb/No increases.
Higher Eb/No Reduces the BER
Bandwidth vs. Power Efficiency
Bandwidth vs. Power Efficiency
MPSK:
Bandwidth of M-PSK
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
1. BPSK produce less errors as compared to ASK
2. More efficient use of bandwidth means higher data rate is possible


Disadvantages
More complex detection process than ASK and FSK
Rapid amplituded change between symbols due to phase discontinuty
QPSK AND BPSK::::
1. In QPSK higher data rate as compared to BPSK
2. For the same bit error rate the band width required by QPSK is reduced to
half than BPSK


APPLICATIONS
•IN SATELLITE COMMUNICATION
• wireless LAN
•biometric passports
• Bluetooth
•CDMA system
•DVB-S
•Cable modems
•Video conferencing
•Cellular phone system and other forms of digital
communication system over an RF

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