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Compendium Review

Major Topic Two: Nutrition
Table of Contents
• The Digestive Tract
• The Mouth and Stomach
• The Small and Large Intestine
• Accessory Organs and their Functions
• Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids
• Minerals and Vitamins
• Obesity and Diseases
• Eating Disorders

• The Digestive Tract
• The Mouth and Stomach
• The Small and Large Intestine
• Accessory Organs and their Functions
• Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids
• Minerals and Vitamins
• Obesity and Diseases
• Eating Disorders

Picture from

Picture from

The Digestive Tract

The digestive tract, known as the gastrointestinal tract, has multiple digestive process which aid in
the normal function of the system, starting from the mouth and ending at the anus.

• Ingestion of foods through our mouth
• Digestion of foods in our mouth
(mechanically) and in parts of our GI
tract (chemically)
• Movement of contents through our
• Absorption of nutrients
• Elimination of indigestible waste

The wall of the GI tract has four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and
serosa. Mucosa is the innermost layer neighboring the lumen (inner space) which
protects the wall from enzymes by producing mucous. Submucosa is the second layer
which includes vessels (blood and lymphatic) and nerves. Muscularis externa is the
third layer which is comprised of two smooth muscle layers (circular and longitudinal)
that are responsible for movement control of digested food. Lastly, the serosa consists
of the adventitia (layers of epithelium tissue) that faces the mesentery (double layer of
peritoneum [lining of abdominal cavity]) which are covered by connective tissue to
form the outer layer. This layer is responsible for secreting serous fluids.

• The Digestive Tract • The Mouth and Stomach • The Small and Large Intestine • Accessory Organs and their Functions • Carbohydrates.asp . tale/fish-in-sharks-mouth-fp1422- poster. and Lipids • Minerals and Vitamins • Obesity and Diseases • Eating Disorders Picture from http://www.

. Pictures from The Mouth and Stomach http://en.wikipedia. Saliva contains an enzyme (salivary amylase) which aid in digesting starch. Salivary Glands 2. Submandibular Gland: ingested food. The roof of the mouth has a hard palate (anterior) which contains bones and a soft palate (posterior) which is made of muscle. There are three sets of salivary glands which send saliva (watery mucous substance) to the mouth.wikipedia. The dentin covers the pulp which houses the 4. Parotid Gland: largest gland which facilitates chewing and swallowing Teeth are responsible for the mechanically break up of 3. Mader page The first part of the GI tract which is responsible for ingestion and digestion both 146 mechanically and chemically is the mouth. Each tooth has a crown consisting of a accounts for about ¾ hard enamel layer covering a bonelike layer known as salivary volume dentin. Under the crown is the root section which houses both mucous and serous for the root canal and nerves. At the back of the mouth is the uvula (end of soft palate) and lymphatic tissue known as & Human Biology by Sylvia & http://en. Sublingual Gland: contains nerves.

org/wiki/Pharynx Peristalsis is the contraction of the food bolus in the esophagus. larynx. The Mouth and Stomach The tongue aids in mechanical digestion by moving food around. The tongue is made of skeletal muscle and contains our taste buds. The trachea is known as the windpipe and is in front of the esophagus which is the tube that takes food to our stomachs. If stomach contents escape into the esophagus. and pushing it towards the pharynx. Pictures from http://en. or a valve muscle which opens to allow food in and closes to prevent acidic contents from hea & http://en. When we swallow food.wikipedia.wikipedia. forming a bolus (mass of chewed food). . The pharynx is the department above the esophagus. and trachea where food and air pass through. a flap called the epiglottis blocks the chewed food from entering in the glottis (opening to larynx [voice box]). it can lead to a burning sensation known as heartburn. The food is pushed down to the stomach where it passes through the lower esophageal sphincter.

and many gastric pits which lead to gastric glands. At the end of the stomach is the pyloric sphincter which controls the movement of chyme from the stomach to the small intestine. Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. mixing and sending food to the small intestines. The Mouth and Stomach The stomach is a lima bean shaped organ responsible for breaking down. They also produce hydrochloric acid to kill any bacteria and mucus. The innermost layer mucosa contains deep folds called rugae. The muscularis layer of the stomach contains three smooth muscle layers. the extra layer helps in the stretching of the stomach. Mader Page 149 . The gastric glands produce an enzyme called pepsin which aids in the digestion of proteins. The stomach is responsible for the digestion of proteins and the movement of chyme (thick food material) to the intestines. The stomach is connects to the esophagus at the top and the duodenum (first part of small intestine which is responsible for chemical digestion) at the bottom.

Proteins. and Lipids • Minerals and Vitamins • Obesity and Diseases • Eating Disorders Picture from http://en.wikipedia.• The Digestive Tract • The Mouth and Stomach • The Small and Large Intestine • Accessory Organs and their Functions • .

Nutrient absorption takes place in the small intestine. Mader page 150-151 The small intestine is responsible for completing digestion. and fats. The Small and Large Intestine Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. . Sugar and amino acids move into the blood stream from the blood vessels in a villus. People who are lactose intolerant do not have the lactase enzyme in their small intestine to break lactose down. proteins. Bile (emulsifies fat) from the liver and gallbladder is brought through the duodenum as well. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes which enter the small intestines at the duodenum and aid in breaking down carbohydrates. where the mucosa layer contains projections known as villi which aid in the surface area for absorption. A villus contains lymphatic capillaries known as lacteal which take large lipoproteins called chylomicrons and deposit them into the blood stream. Intestinal enzymes break carbohydrates down to glucose and fat droplets to glycerol and fatty acids.

the large intestine is not responsible for nutrient absorption. and water. a combination of fiber. bacteria. The color of feces is caused by oxidized iron and the smell is caused by bacterial action. The large intestine will push feces into the end of the intestine known as the rectum where it collects until defecation. Constipation 4. Polyps and Cancer – small growths . Hemorrhoids .inflamed blood vessels at anus 5. the bacteria in the large intestine helps to break down further food particles. The Small and Large Intestine Unlike the small intestine. Most importantly. Irritable Bowel Syndrome – muscularis contracts abnormally 7. The large intestine prevents dehydration by water absorption. byPicture from Human Biology Sylvia S. Diarrhea 3. Mader page 154 Disorders of Large Intestine 2. the large intestine produces feces for excretion. The large intestine aids in homeostasis by ridding the body of its waste through defecation. digestive materials. Diverticulosis – pouches of mucosa which push through muscularis layer 6. Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome – ulcers and lesions 8. Also.

Picture from Human • The Digestive Tract Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 152 • The Mouth and Stomach • The Small and Large Intestine • Accessory Organs and their Functions • Carbohydrates. Proteins. and Lipids • Minerals and Vitamins • Obesity and Diseases • Eating Disorders .

Accessory Organs and their Functions The accessory organs to the digestive tract consist of the pancreas. It sits below the liver and connects to the duodenum via the bile duct. and fat by lipase. Sodium bicarbonate helps neutralize the acid in digested materials. the disassembly of hemoglobin. The gallbladder is the storage tank for bile. where the pancreatic ducts secrete juices and digestive enzymes into the duodenum. The liver contains about 100. The liver is responsible for maintaining blood cholesterol levels by converting cholesterol into bile salts which emulsify fats in the small intestine. The liver is the largest gland in the body and is responsible for cleaning the . and stores glucose as glycogen to aid in normal blood glucose levels in between eating. Starch is broken down by pancreatic amylase. protein by trypsin. the pancreas produces a hormone known as insulin which counters high blood glucose levels.000 lobules where blood filters through and is detoxified. the liver. which is another function the liver is responsible for. The pancreas is a skinny pink colored organ that lies next to the duodenum. Sometimes the liquid will harden in the gallbladder causing hard pieces known as gallstones. Bile gets its yellowish color from bilirubin.wikipedia. Also. In addition. and the gallbladder. Picture from http://en. the liver removes vitamins and iron for storage.

B is usually spread through sexual contact. gall bladder” Hereditary disease. contaminated needles. Picture and Verbiage from http://en. caudate lobe.Accessory Organs and their Functions Liver Disorders • Jaundice – bile pigments transfer into blood turning eyes and/or skin yellowish.wikipedia. Hep. There is a vaccine for both. A is usually from sewage tainted food or beverage. 7. visceral aspect • Cancer “1. blood transfusions. causes body to retain copper. and from mother to baby during childbirth. 6. in body leads to liver damage. Usually seen in malnourished individuals such as alcoholics or obesity. hepatic artery and portal vein. . C is spread through blood and there is no vaccine for it. hepatic lymph nodes. 4. right lobe. 5. Liver of a sheep. 3. • Cirrhosis – dead liver cells are replaced by fibrous scar tissue. Hep. 2. • Hepatitis – liver inflammation due to virus. left lobe. There are now 6 known hepatitides. • Haemochromatosis – iron buildup quadrate lobe. • Wilson’s Disease – hereditary.

wikipedia.or g/wiki/Salmon .wikipedia.or g/wiki/Egg_%28food %29 & http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Carbohydrates & http://en.• The Digestive Tract • The Mouth and Stomach • The Small and Large Intestine • Accessory Organs and their Functions • Carbohydrates.or g/wiki/Coconut_oil & http://en.wikipedia. and Lipids • Minerals and Vitamins • Obesity and Diseases • Eating Disorders Pictures from http://en. Proteins.

and signaling • Lipids contain triglycerides/fats (saturated and unsaturated). metabolism. absorbing cholesterol and bile salts such as red meats. Proteins. and cholesterol which can lead to plaque • Saturated fats: usually from animal sources. palm kernel. which can lead to kidney • Insoluble fiber aids in normal bowel movement stones • Soluble fiber prevents small intestine from • Too much saturated fat from some meats. and tea seed. and Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins • Simple or Complex • Proteins are broken down when digested. flaxseed. used as energy storage. 8 are essential amino acids • Complex units digested to glucose • Not stored in body. canola. and minerals are removed during • High protein diets can lead to dehydration refinement of grains and calcium loss. sesame. grapeseed. solid form at room temperature such as butter. can lead to cardiovascular disease Lipids • Lipids are bylayer for cells. omega-3 fatty acid (obtained from some fish types and flax) • Monounsaturated fats: oils such as peanut. vitamins. contain linoleic and linolenic acids which cannot be made by body (essential fatty acids must be supplied by diet). some dairy products such as creams and cheese • Polyunsaturated fats: oils such as corn and safflower. nuts and avocado . oils. cottonseed. Carbohydrates. olive. and coconut oil. needed daily • Brain cells need glucose • amino acids cannot be utilized if one • Fatty acids cannot be converted to glucose essential amino acid is missing • Fiber. • Glucose (simple) used as energy becoming amino acids • 20 amino acids.

and Lipids Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) carry cholesterol through the blood. Proteins. LDL levels are raised by consumption of saturated fats and lowered by consumption of unsaturated fats. 8 Essential Amino Acids 20 Amino Acids Pictures from . LDL is considered bad because it transports the cholesterol and triglycerides to tissues where it can build plaque. Carbohydrates.wikipedia. HDL is considered good because it transports the cholesterol from tissues straight to the liver where it is changed into bile salts.

php .com/wellness/Vitamins_Minerals.diseaseeducation. and Lipids • Minerals and Vitamins • Obesity and Diseases • Eating Disorders Picture from http://www. • The Digestive Tract • The Mouth and Stomach • The Small and Large Intestine • Accessory Organs and their Functions • Carbohydrates. Proteins.

neutralizes humans* acidity. builds bone. supports synthesis and function of • Cobalt is required for biosynthesis of vitamin blood cells)* B12 family of coenzymes* • Chloride (for production of hydrochloric • Copper is required component of many acid in the stomach and in cellular pump reduction/oxidation enzymes* functions)* • Fluorine participates in formation of tooth • Magnesium is required for processing ATP enamel which contains fluoroapatite* and related reactions (health. (bone mineralization)* notably hemoglobin* • Potassium is a systemic electrolyte and is • Manganese is a cofactor in function of essential in co-regulating ATP with sodium* antioxidant enzymes* •Sodium is a systemic electrolyte and is • Molybdenum is required for xanthine oxidase essential in co-regulating ATP with and related oxidases* potassium* • Nickel is present in urease* • Sulfur is an essential component of • Selenium is required for peroxidase (antioxidant cysteine and methionine amino acids and proteins)* participates as an enzyme cofactor* * Verbiage from http://en. builds . components of • Body contains < 5 grams. Minerals and Vitamins Major Minerals Trace Minerals • Body contains > 5 grams. increases alkalinity)* • Iodine is required for the biosynthesis of thyroxin* • Phosphorus is a component of bones and energy processing and many other functions • Iron is required for many proteins and enzymes. heart and digestive • Chromium is implicated in sugar metabolism in system health. part of a larger cells and tissues molecule • Calcium (for muscle.

fractures are likely. Magnesium and vitamin D have also been shown to aid in slowing bone deterioration. The most common fractures in individuals with osteoporosis is the wrists. and lumbar vertebrae. Exercise and nutrition are the best mechanisms against developing . Minerals and Vitamins Osteoporosis is a disease that affects the strength of bones. Hypertension is heightened in individuals who consume a diet high in sodium (salt).org/wiki/Osteoporosis#Diseases_and_disorders & http://kidneyinthenews. hips.wordpress.wikipedia. Due to weakening bone. Calcium is shown to slow down bone degeneration and is therefore a major mineral needed. “A scanner used to measure bone density with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. and new medicines can aid in treatment of the disease.” Verbiage and Picture from http://en.

Mader Page 161 .Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S.

cell signaling and metabolism. There are several types of vitamins. B9. a molecule with extra . B6. D. and C) can dissolve in water with no trouble. and regulators of growth in tissues and cells. Vitamins A. C. while fat-soluble vitamins (A. antioxidants. B3. Most vitamins can be obtained through food consumption. E and K) need help from lipids where they dissolve in the produce adequately. all considered organic compounds. B7. Some functions of vitamins include enzyme helpers. Vitamins are classified into two categories: water-soluble and fat-soluble.Minerals and Vitamins Vitamins are nutrients that humans need but cannot Picture from http://en. while some such as D can be acquired from ultraviolet lights and K and B7 can be obtained from microorganisms that live in the intestines.wikipedia. Water-soluble vitamins (B1. hormones. B5. and E are termed antioxidants because they fight against free radicals. B2. B12.

Mader pg 163 .Vitamin Table (fat-soluble) Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S.

Vitamin Table (water-soluble) Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader . .• The Digestive Tract • The Mouth and Stomach • The Small and Large Intestine • Accessory Organs and their Functions • Carbohydrates. and Lipids • Minerals and Vitamins • Obesity and Diseases • Eating Disorders Picture from http://en.wikipedia.

diabetes. osteoarthritis. which is an individuals weight (kg) divided by the square of the height (meters).org/wiki/Body_mass_index .wikipedia. and increase risk of thrombosis. respiratory problems. Excess body fat is associated with cardiovascular disease. Eating healthy foods and getting adequate exercise can help reduce obesity and future health problems. Obesity is measured by ones body mass index (BMI). high blood pressure.fda. stroke. Pictures from http://www. certain types of cancer and organ diseases. Obesity and Diseases Obesity is the condition of being overweight and is associated with an abundance of health problems. The BMI chart above will tell you how much of a persons weight is fat (adipose tissue).cfsan. sleep apnea.html & More than 1/3 of American’s are considered to be obese.

Mader page 165 • The Mouth and Stomach • The Small and Large Intestine • Accessory Organs and their Functions • Carbohydrates. Proteins. Picture from Human Biology • The Digestive Tract by Sylvia S. and Lipids • Minerals and Vitamins • Obesity and Diseases • Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Muscle Dysmorphia .

htm . family. culture. low body weight • Extreme physical activity to lose weight or purging • Occasional binges • Laxative abuse • Mostly young teenage woman Picture from http://www. Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa • Afraid of getting fat • Psychological disorder.4women. and stress can bring it on • Refusal to eat •

and esophagus and mouth problems from vomiting • Mostly woman suffer Some people binge-eat and do not purge from this disorder afterwards. Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa • Constant binge eating and purging • Psychological disorder. low to normal body weight • Laxative abuse • Anemia. culture. dehydration. menstrual cycle problems. and stress can bring it on • Malnourishment. family.4women. bowel problems. heart disorder. . This is known as binge-eating Picture from http://www. ulcers.

is not satisfied with appearance of body. Mader page 165 . Eating Disorders: Muscle Dysmorphia Muscle Dysmorphia • Obsessed with muscle strengthening. not muscular enough • Spend obsessive time working out. depression and cultural pressures can be an onset of the obsession Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. strength training • Constantly examining their body in the mirror • Easily stressed if they miss a work out session or meal • Consume a heavy protein diet • May take steroids or muscle building products • Affects mostly men.

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