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• According to their properties, plant
tissues are distinguished into two
as follows:

a.Meristem tissues
 called embryonal tissue,
because is consist of a group of
young cells which continuously split
producing another tissue
Meristem Tissue

1 0 x m icro sco p e
im a g e o f ro o t tip
w ith m e riste m
1 - ca lyp tro g e n
2 - q u ie sce n t
ce n tre
3 - e p id e rm is
4 - ro o tca p
5 - va scu la r
cylin d e r
b. Permanent tissues

• Cover tissue -> - Epidermis

 -
• Filler tissue (Parenchyma) -> - Palisade
 - Sponge
• Support tissue -> - Collenchyma

- Sclerenchyma
• Transport tissue -> - Xylem
 - Phloem
• Cambium tissue
Typical leaf reveals 4 distinct
tissue layers:
1 . Upper epidermis .
This is a single layer
of cells containing few
or no chloroplasts

2 . Palisade layer . This

consists of one or more layers
of cylindrical cells oriented
with their long axis
perpendicular to the plane of
the leaf. The cells are filled
with chloroplasts
3 . Spongy layer . Lying beneath the 4 . Lower epidermis .
palisade layer, its cells are irregular Typically. most of the
in shape and loosely packed. Although stomata (thousands per
they contain a few chloroplasts, their square centimeter) are
main function seems to be the temporary located in the lower
storage of sugars and amino acids epidermis
synthesized in the palisade layer.

1. pith
2. protoxylem
3. xylem I
4. phloem I
5. Sclerenchyma (
bast fibre)
6. cortex
7. epidermis
Kinds of Tissue
No Tissue Function
1. Epidermis Protects and covers the tissue underneath
2. Palisade The location of photosynthesis
3. Sponge The location of gas exchanges
4. Collenchyma As strengthener (support) to the young plant and
5. SclerenchymaAs support
6. Xylem As transport vessel of water and nutrients from
roots to the leaves and entire plant body
7. Phloem As transport vessel of food substances resulting
from photosynthesis on the leaves to the entire
8. Cambium plant body
Inward fission forms xylem and outward fission
forms phloem