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Slab on Grade: Study & Design

Rohit Yadav 081111049


Kamlesh Gupta 081111068
Sumit Bhadoriya 081111070
Saket Rusia 081111072
Submitted To:
Dr. M.S. Chauhan Dr. Nitin Dindorkar
Subject Coordinator Project Coordinator
Slab on Grade
Introduction
What is Slab
on Grade?
Why this topic
has been
chosen?
Importance of
Topic
No design
code
IRC is for
Pavement
design.
Why engg.
design is
required?
Requirement of
Levelness /
Flatness
Serviceability
Criteria
Literature
Types of
Failure
Design
Consideration
Design
Methodology
(Detail Design)
Methods
Comparison of
Methods
Design
Design 1
Design 2
Design 3
Construction
Site Visit
Conclusion
Line of Action
Slab on Grade
A slab, continuously supported by ground, whose total loading when uniformly
distributed would impart a pressure to the grade or soil that is less than 50 percent
of the allowable bearing capacity thereof.

The slab may be of uniform or variable thickness, and it may include stiffening
elements such as ribs or beams.

The slab may be plain, reinforced, or pre-stressed concrete. The reinforcement or
prestressing steel may be provided for the effects of shrinkage and temperature or
for structural loading.
Applications of slab on grade
Heavy and light industrial floor
Commercial slabs
Apartment slabs, single-family dwelling slabs
Parking lot slabs
Paving surfaces
Types of Loading
Vehicle wheel loads
Concentrated loads
Line and strip loads
Uniform loads
Construction loads
Environmental effects including expansive soil
Unusual loads, such as forces caused by differential
settlement
Theories Proposed
Westergaards Theory
Burmisters Theory

Westergaards Theory
Isotropic, homogeneous, elastic slab.
Winkler subgrade.
Infinite thickness.
Burmisters Theory
Finite thickness.
Layered solid
Different models used for the slab:-


The elastic-isotropic solid.
The thin elastic slab.
The thin elastic-plastic slab.
Problems in concrete
Cracking Shrinkage
Curling Top of slab shrinks more than bottom and slab edge lifts.
Scaling Hardened concrete breaking away from slab top.
Dusting Appearance of powdery material at slab surface.
Crazing Many fine hairline cracks in a new slab which resemble a
road map.
Spalling Disintegration of concrete at joint edges.
Cracking
Curling
Scaling
Dusting
Prime focus in design
Leveling
Flatness
Dusting
Serviceability
Levelness and Flatness
Type of slabs on grade
A) Plain concrete slab
B) Slab reinforced for shrinkage and temperature only
C) Shrinkage-compensating concrete with shrinkage
reinforcement
D) Slab post-tensioned to offset shrinkage
E) Slab post-tensioned and/or reinforced, with active prestress
F) Slab reinforced for structural action
Type A, Plain concrete slab
The design of this slab involves determining its thickness as
a plain concrete slab without reinforcement; however, it
may have strengthened joints.
Plain concrete slabs do not contain any wire, wire fabric,
plain or deformed bars, post-tensioning, or any other type of
reinforcement.
The thickness of such slab designed is sufficient to remain
uncracked due to loads on the slab surface.
The cement normally used in its construction is Portland
cement.

To reduce drying shrinkage cracks, greater number of
joints are required and hence the spacing of
contraction and/or construction joints is limited.
So to obtain greater flexibility in spacing of joints,
reinforcement is provided in slab.
Type B, Slab reinforced for shrinkage
and temperature only
The primary purpose of the reinforcement in the type B slab
is to hold tightly closed any cracks that may form between
the joints.
Reinforcement does not prevent the cracking, nor does it
add significantly to the load-carrying capacity of the slab.
These slabs are normally constructed using Portland
cement.


Thickness design is the same as for plain concrete
slabs and is sufficient to withstand external loads.
Amount of reinforcement area or steel stress is
usually computed from a predetermined joint spacing.
Type C, Shrinkage-compensating
concrete with shrinkage reinforcement
The shrinkage compensating-concrete used in these
slabs is produced either with a separate admixture or
with cement which contains the expansive admixture.
This concrete does shrink, but first it expands an
amount intended to be slightly greater than its drying
shrinkage.
Type C slabs are designed to remain uncracked due to
loads applied to the slab surface. Thickness design is
the same as for Type A and B slabs, but joints can be
spaced farther apart than in those slabs.
Reinforcement must be stiff enough that it can be
positively positioned in the upper half of the slab.
Type D, Slabs post-tensioned to offset
shrinkage
Post-tensioned slabs are normally made with Portland
cement, following thickness design procedures like those
for Types A, B, and C.
However, special techniques and sequences of post-
tensioning the tendons are required.
Joint spacing and amount of post-tensioning force required
to offset later shrinkage and still leave a minimum
compressive stress.

Type E, Slabs post-tensioned and/or
reinforced, with active prestress
Type E slabs are designed to be un-cracked slabs using active
prestress, which permits the use of thinner slabs.
These are Reinforced with post-tensioning tendons or mild steel
reinforcement or both.
The Type E slab may be designed to accept structural loadings, such
as edge loadings from a building super-structure.
These can also be designed to resist the forces produced by the
swelling or shrinking of unstable soils.
Type F, Slabs reinforced for structural
action
Unlike the previously described slab types, the Type F slab
is designed with the assumption that it is possible for the
slab to crack under loads applied to its surface.
These are typically built with Portland cement, and are
reinforced with conventional mild steel in the form of
deformed bars or substantial wire fabric.

One or two layers of reinforcement may be used,
depending on the design requirement,
Since cracking is anticipated, joint spacing, usually set for
crack control, are not critical, but they must be set to
accommodate the construction process.
Design methods

Five basic slab design methods are properly handled.
The Portland Cement Association (PCA) method.
The Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI).
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (COE).
The Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) method.
The Shrinkage-Compensating concrete method.



The Portland Cement Association (PCA) method -
The PCA method is based on computerized analysis and the variables
used -

Flexural strength,
Working stress,
Wheel contact area and spacing,
The subgrade modulus.

The PCA Method is for interior loadings only; that is, loadings are on
the surface of the slab but are not adjacent to free edges.


Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI) method
The WRI design charts, for interior loadings only, are
based on a discrete element computer model.
The slab is represented by rigid bars, torsion bars for plate
twisting, and elastic joints for plate bending.
Variables are slab stiffness factors (modulus of elasticity,
subgrade modulus, and trial slab thickness), diameter of
equivalent loaded area, distance between wheels, flexural
strength, and working stress.
Only loadings on the interior of the slab are considered.
Corps of Engineers (COE) method-

The COE design charts are intended for wheel and axle loadings
applied at an edge or joint only.
Variable inherent in the axle configuration is built into the design
index category. Concentrated loads, uniform loads, construction loads,
and line and strip loads are not covered.
Method is based on Westergaards formula for edge stresses in a
concrete slab on grade.
The edge effect is reduced by a joint transfer coefficient of 0.75 to
account for load transfer across the joint.

Post- Tensioning Institute (PTI) method-

Method containing recommendations for establishing the strength
requirements for any reinforced concrete slab on either stable, expansive, or
compressible soils.

The PTI design procedure capitalizes on the unique advantages of post-
tensioning as the reinforcing for a ribbed and stiffened slab. A stiffened slab is
reinforced to provide sufficient strength and deflection control in swelling and
compressible soil conditions. The uncracked section modulus in a post-
tensioned analysis enhances stiffness and flexural stress control, two of the
most important factors associated with slab-on-ground design.

ACI Committee 223 shrinkage-compensating concrete method

It does not deal directly with the slab thickness required for loads placed on
the surface of the slab.

It deals with the critical aspects of concrete mix expansion and shrinkage.

ACI 223 specifies the proper amount of reinforcement, in the form of
reinforcing steel, and its location within the depth of the slab for specific
values of anticipated expansion and shrinkage. Requirements for expansion
joints are stated, as are joint spacing.

When concrete dries it contracts or shrinks, and when it is wetted again it
expands. These volume changes with changes in moisture content are an
inherent characteristic of hydraulic cement concretes. Volume changes also
occur with temperature changes. How shrinkage-compensating concretes
differ from conventional concretes with respect to these volume changes is
explained below.


The two basic differences between expansive concrete and normal
concrete are:

Early expansion instead of early shrinkage with shrinkage-
compensating concrete.
Delayed shrinkage strain with shrinkage-compensating concrete.




Methodology Conclusion




There is no single design technique that the ACI COMMITTEE
REPORT committee recommends for all applications. Each combination
must be selected based on the requirements of the specific application.


Design Comparison
Design and construction
variables
Loadings
Joint types and spacing
Design method
Slab type
Construction factors

Design Methods
Methods Used
I. PCA Method
II. WRI Method
III. Corps of Engineers (COE) Method
Loading Condition
I. Single Axle Wheel Loading
II. Uniform Distributed Load

Design by PCA method
Loading Condition Single Axis Wheel Loading
Step 1: Determination of slab thickness
Axle loading = 11.81 kips (52.5 KN)
Effective contact area of one wheel = 42 in
2
(27000 mm
2
)
Wheel spacing = 40.16 in (1020 mm)
Subgrade modulus (K) = 100 pci (2.714*10
-5

N/mm
3
)

Characteristic compressive strength of concrete (f
ck
) = 4348 psi (30
N/mm
2
)
28 day cylinder strength (f
ck
) = 3478 psi (24 N/mm
2
)
Modulus of rupture (MOR) = 530.79 psi (3.66 N/mm
2
)
Safety factor = 1.9
Allowable stress in steel (f
s
) = f
y
= 27173.9 psi (187.5 N/mm
2
)
Allowable stress in concrete = MOR/S.F. = 279.36 psi (1.927 N/mm
2
)
Stress per 1000 lb of axle load = 279.36/11.81 = 23.65 psi (0.164 N/mm
2
)
Thickness of slab = 5.8 in (147.32 mm)
(From Figure A 1.2.1 PCA design chart, ACI 360R-92)

Subgrade Drag Equation
Step 2: Reinforcement Details:
Ares of steel (A
s
) = = = 0.03 in
2
/ft
(A
s
) = 60.06 mm
2
/m
F = Friction factor
L = distance between joints
W = 3.75 N/mm
2
= 78.3372 psf
Minimum steel = 180 mm
2
/m
Spacing = 86.59 mm
Spacing provided = 100 mm (using R 3.15 bars).

Summary Chart
S.No Method Loading
Type
Slab
Thickness

1


PCA method
Single Axle
wheel
loading
5.8 inches
Uniformly
Distributed
load
5 inches

2.


WRI method
Single Axle
wheel
loading
6.6 inches
Uniform
Loading
5.4 inches
3.
Corps of
Engineers
(COE) method
Single Axle
Loading
5.25 inches
CASE STUDY AND SITE VISITING
Companies and Firms:
Site - Project Crown
Client : Proctor & Gamble
Contractor : Capital Construction Private Limited (CCPL)
Consultant : Vishwakarma Engineering Consultant (VEC)
Designer : Mr. Kulvelkar Salkar

Total area of concreting 12500 sq m
Construction of Building is based on PBS (Pre Build Structure) principle

LDPE
Bottom R/F
Placing
Channel
levelling
Channel
Grouting
Upper R/F
Placing
On-Site Testing
Concrete
Pouring
Screeding
Surface
Levelling
Vacuum
Dewatering
Hardener
Application
Power
Trowelling
Curing
Channel
Removal
Groove Cutting
FLOW CHART


Reinforcement
Concrete Pouring & Needle
Vibration
Screeder
Level Bar (Funti)
Vacuum Dewatering
Dewatering Pump
Surface Hardener
Disc Power Trowel
Curing
Dowel Bar
Levelness and Flatness
Conclusion
1. Despite its huge significance and also being an
indispensable element of the construction stream
Slab on Grade design is still not on a roll in India.
2. There is not a single Indian Standard code available,
which can suffice the design of such industrial floors
with required specifications.
3. The Designs that are implemented are all based on
the American code ACI 360R-92, which is the only
code available in context of Slab on Grade
construction.

4. The design process becomes very tedious and time
consuming as one have to first convert the available
data in FPS units, then after design reconvert it to SI
system.
5. There should be dedicated companies for the
specific design of slab on grade, which should have
expertise on slab on grade construction, so as to
minimize to problem occurs before, during or after
construction of slab.
6. Also the available codes in Indian Road Congress too
are have their design based on exterior exposing of
slab, and doesnt lays the emphasis on dusting etc
which are an important design factor during indoor
slab construction.
7. Slab on Grade is a very important topic and is a
prerequisite for any industry as functioning of an
industry cannot start without its floor; a dedicated
Indian code is required for the same.