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Theory of Rolling

Rolling is a metallurgical process used to


shape the metal to desired shape.
- Here in VSP the application is for Hot
Rolling of Steel only.
- Rolling is very important process among
the various methods as 90% of the metal
products used are Rolled products only.

Theory of Rolling
- Hot Rolling of metal involves heating of the
metal above the recrystallization
temperature and is performed between the
temperatures of 1200 C to 900 C.
- Heating is done in the Furnaces.
- Hot Rolling is done in the 2-High Roll
stands.

Theory of Rolling
Angle of Bite
Top Roll
Bottom Roll
Input
H0
Output
H1
Theory of Rolling
Angle of bite is 25-30 Degrees in case of
Continuos Mills and a max of 20 Degrees
in case of Cross-country Mills.
The picture also indicates that the more
the Roll Dia the more is the spread.
There is also a condition of Forward &
Backward slip which effects the speed of
the material to some extent.
Theory of Rolling
The important point considered for Rolling
process is
- The Volume is always constant
i.e the input volume is equal to the output
volume.
B0 X H0 X L0 = B1 X H1 X L1
or (B0/B1)x(H0/H1)x(L0/L1) = 1
wherein B0/B1 is Spread
H0/H1 is Draft
L0/L1 is elongation
Rolling Process in VSP
STEEL MELTING
SHOP
Bloom
320X250


Bloom
250X250
LMMM MMSM
BRM
WRM
PRODUCTS- BARS & ROUNDS
Light STRUCTURALS
PRODUCTS- ROUNDS
and Medium
STRUCTURALS
Types of Mills
Cross Country mills
- Low Production
- More Manual
involvement
- 2-high or 3-high
Rolling
- High Section Change
time
Continuous Mills
- High Production
- More Rolls & Guides.
- 2-high Rolling
- Less Manual
intervention
- easy section changes
Theory of Rolling-Roll Pass design
It is a Rolling Technology which deals with
production of desired shape within
permissible deviations with the required
surface finish free from any surface
defects.It also has to ensure optimum
utilization of mill equipment,high rolling
rate and safe working conditions of
operators.
Theory of Rolling- Roll pass Design
The following factors are considered for
development of Roll pass design:-
Power Availability.
No. of Stands.
Roll barrel length , roll material etc
Input material.
Theory of Rolling- Roll pass Design
Factors influencing the spread are:
- Reduction in height or the Draft.
- Roll Diameter.
- Rolling Temperature.
- Friction between rolls and the rolled
material
- Steel Composition.
Theory of Rolling- Roll pass Design
The degree of spread of a steel depends
on the steel composition:-
- Carbon:Increase in Carbon increases
spread
- Chromium: same as above.
- Nickel : inversely proportional to spread.
- Manganese: Directly proportional to
spread.
Theory of Rolling- Roll passDesign
The Various Shapes of passes for round
rolling:
BOX Diamond
Square
Oval
Round
Theory of Rolling- Roll passDesign
The different Rolling Sequences used in Roll
pass design as per requirement are:-
- Box Oval Round.
- Box Diamond Square.
- Square Oval Round.
- Box Box - Box
- Butterfly pass is used in Angle Rolling.
- Edger pass is used in Flat Rolling.
- Closed passes are used in Chanel & Beam
Rolling
Theory of Rolling-Rolling Practice
The most important points to noted for
efficient Rolling practice are:-
-Proper Mill Settings
-Roll Pass & Guide alignment.
- Roll wear compensation.
- Timely Pass Changes.
- Material Temperature.
- Speed adjustments.
Existing Mills Proposed Mills
Wirerod mill 2
0.6 MtPY
Structural mill
0.7 MtPY
Spl. Bar mill
0.75 MtPY
Seam less
tube mill
0.3 MtPY
WRM-1
1.05 MtPY
MMSM
1.05 MtPY
LMMM
0.9 MtPY
TOTAL ROLLS REQUIRED BY VSP

TONNAGE : 1200-1500 T/Year

No of rolls/year : 400-500
VSP : ROLLS REQUIREMENT
TYPES OF ROLLS USED IN VSP

CAST IRON
CAST STEEL
FORGED

Strand
No
Roll Size (mm)
(Dia x B.L)
Roll Material
BILLET MILL WORK ROLLS
1& 2 850 x 1200 AFS 40-45 SHC
UTS 85-100 Kgf/mm
2
3 730 x 1000 AFS 40-45 SHC
UTS 85-100 Kgf/mm
2
4 730 x 1000 SGCI 50-55 SHC
5 650 x 1000 SGCI 50-55 SHC
6 650 x 1000 SGCI 55-60 SHC
7 630 x 1000 SGCI 55-60 SHC
TYPE OF ROLLS USED
Strand No Roll Size (mm)
(Dia x B.L)
Roll Material
WIRE ROD MILL- WORK ROLLS
H1& H2 610 x 1000 SGCI 48-53 SHC
H3 TO H5 610 x 1000 SGCI 52-57 SHC
H6 490 x 960 SGCI 52-57 SHC
H7 490 x 960 SGCI 52-57 SHC
H8 TO H10 480 x 840 SGCI 68-72 SHC
H11 TOH13 375 x 740 SG(AC) 70-75 SHC
TYPE OF ROLLS USED
Strand No Roll Size (mm)
(Dia x B.L)
Roll Material
MMSM- WORK ROLLS -1
1 TO 10
(Rounds & squares)
680 x 1000 ACS 40-45 SHC &
UTS 740-960 N/mm
2
1 TO 14
(Structurals)
660 x 825 ACS 40-45 SHC &
UTS 740-960 N/mm
2
11 TO 14
(Rounds & squares)
680 x 1000 SGCI 50-55 SHC
15 TO 20
(Rounds, squares,
flats & beams)
555 x 630 SGCI 58-63 SHC
15 TO 20
(Angles & channels)
555 to 670 SGCI 58-63 SHC
375 x 740 SG(AC) 70-75 SHC
TYPE OF ROLLS USED
Strand No Roll Size (mm)
(Dia x B.L)
Roll Material
MMSM- WORK ROLLS-2
11 & 13 U-H 1070 x 180 SGCI 58-63 SHC

15,16,18 &20
U-H
900 X 180 SGCI 58-63 SHC

11 & 13 U-V 710 x 170 HICRCI 63-68 SHC
15,16,18 & 20
U-V
600 x 170 HICRCI 63-68 SHC
TYPE OF ROLLS USED
Strand No Roll Size (mm)
(Dia x B.L)
Roll Material
BAR MILL- WORK ROLLS -1
H1 610 x 1244 AFS 40-45 SHC
UTS 85-100
Kgf/mm
2

H2 TO H4 610 X 1244 ACS 40-45 SHC &
UTS 85-100 N/mm
2
H5 TO H8

460 x 1084 SGCI 50-55 SHC

H6 TO H8
(angles&channels)

430 TO 495 x
850
SGCI 50-55 SHC
H9 TO H 18 380 TO 495 x
850
SGCI 50-55 SHC
TYPE OF ROLLS USED
Strand No Roll Size (mm)
(Dia x B.L)
Roll Material
BAR MILL- WORK ROLLS -2
V11 & V16 360 x 600 SGCI 58-63 SHC
V 19 V21 360 X 600 SG(AC) 70-755 SHC

H-20 H22
(round upto 20mm)
360 x 600 DPCI 72-77 SHC

H 22(all rebars) 360 x 600 SGCI 68-73 SHC
H 20 H22
(round TO 36 mm)
360 x 600 SG(AC)68-73 SHC
H 20 H22
(angles)
340 TO 450 x
600
SGCI 56-60 SHC
H20 TO H 22 340 TO 450 x
600
SGCI 56-60 SHC
TYPE OF ROLLS USED
Y.V.S.Naidu
DCM(O) ; RS&RS