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Analytic or Semi-analytic Study

2-Dimensional Wieselsberger,C
Tomotika et al
Green, A. E.
Plotkin, A. and Kennelle, C.G
3-Dimensional Plotkin,A. and Dodbele,S.S
Tan,C.H. and Plotkin,A
Teruhiko,Kida and Yoshihiro, Miyai
Qian-Xi Wang
Sheila E Widnall and Timothy M. Barrows

Analytic or Semi-analytic Study


Wieselsberger,C.,”Wing Resistance Near the Ground,” NACA TM77, April 1922.

The first to solve this problem. Used the method of images, thus satisfying the no penetration boundary condition
on the ground surface automatically.

Tomotika et al.,”The lift on a Flat Plate Placed Near a Plane Wall, with Special Reference
to the Effect of Ground Upon the Lift of a Monoplane Aerofoil,” Aeronautical Research Inst.,
Rept. 97, Tokyo Imperial Univ., Tokyo, Aug.1933(as reported in Pistolesi,1935)
Used the conformal mapping technique to obtain the exact solution for the flow around a flat plate
near ground.

Havelock,T.H.,”The Lift and Moment on a Flat Plate in a Stream of Finite Width,”

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Vol.166, No.2, London,1940, pp.19-54.
Obtained an exact solution for the flow past an elliptic cylinder between two parallel plates by conformal
mapping. Using a limiting process he obtained a series solution for the flow past a flat plate near a single
wall(ground) which matched Tomotika’s solution far from the wall.
Green, A. E., ”The Forces Acting on the Circular-Arc Aerofoil in a Stream Bounded by a Plane
Wall,” Proceedings, London Mathematical Society, Vol.46, No.2, London, 1940,pp.19-54.
Green, A. E., ”The Two-Dimensional Aerofoil in a Bounded Stream,” Quarterly Journal of
Mathematics, Vol.18, 1947,pp.167-177.
Obtained the solution for a circular-arc airfoil and later for an airfoil with finite thickness near a olane wall
also using conformal mapping. He showed that camber tends to increase the lift, while thickness tends to
decrease it first and then increase it as the ground is approached. Based on the opposite effects of camber
and thickness, one may expect the results of a flat plate in ground proximity to give a reasonable
approximation for actual airfoils.

Plotkin, A. and Kennelle, C.G.,”Thickness-Induced Lift on a Thin Airfoil in Ground Effect, ”

AIAA Journal, Vol.19, Nov. 1981,pp.1984-1986.
Used the perturbation analysis the effect of thickness of the airfoil on the lift coefficient was calculated
to the 2nd order in the thickness ratio. Analytical results was presented for the Joukowski airfoil. The first-order
angle-of-attack solution for the flat plate was presented. The liftforce experienced by the airfoil in an infinite fluid
is decreased by the effect of thickness and increased by the effect of angle of attack.

Tuck,E.O.,”Steady Flow and Static Stability of Airfoils in Extreme Ground Effect,”

Journal of Engineering Mathematics, Vol.15, 1981,pp.89-102
For incompressible, irrotational flow, solutions for small values of wall clearance have been obtained
for airfoils.

Plotkin,A. and Dodbele,S.S.,”Slender Wing in Ground, ” AIAA Vol.28, No.4,1988.

Determine analytically the lift coefficient for a slender(low-aspect ratio) wing in ground effect
for large values of wall clearance by using perturbation analysis.

Newman,J.N.,”Analysis of Small-Asprct-Ratio Lifting Surfaces in Ground Effect.,”

Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol.117, 1982,pp.305-314
For incompressible, irrotational flow, solutions for small values of wall clearance have been obtained
for slender wings. The gap flow beneath the lifting surfaces is represented by a simple nonlinear solution
in the cross-flow plane, and appropriate conditions are imposed at leading and trailing edges. For steady-
state motion of a delta wing with sufficiently large angle of attack, the transition point is upstream of the tail.
For oscillatory heaving motion of a delta wing the transition point is cyclic if the heave velocity
is sufficiently large.

Tan,C.H. and Plotkin,A.,”Lifting-Line Solution for a Symmetrical Thin Wing in Ground Effect., ”
AIAA Journal Vol.24, No.7.,1985.
For a symmetrical thin wing, a lifting-line solution is obtained and effect of thickness on lift was considered
in both the lifting-line and vortex-lattice formulations. For small values of h/c, the presence of the ground
introduces a nonlinearity in angle of attack much stronger than in infinite fluid problem.
Teruhiko,Kida and Yoshihiro, Miyai, “Jet-Flapped Wings in Very Colse Proximity
to the Ground.,”AIAA Journal Vol.10, No.5.,1971.
The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the problem of jet-flapped wings of finite span
in very close proximity to the ground. For linearization, angle of attack and jet deflection are assumed to
be smaller than the ratio of the ground clearance to the root chord. This study treats the flow in the confined
region beneath the wing and jet sheet with a 2-D channel flow with known boundaries and mass addition, coming
from the boundary condition of the flow tangency.

Timothy M. Barrows and Sheila E.Windall,”Optimum Lift-Drag Ratio for Ram Wing Tube
Vehicle, ” AIAA Journal 1970.
Munk’s theorem specifying the downwash condition for minimum drag is generalized to include lifting surfaces
operating in proximity to solid boundaries. By developing a method for finding optimum lift distribution on a wing
and extending it to the case of finding optimum configuration for a ram wing in a tube, this study concludes that
the ram wing concept looks very promising as a method of supporting vehicles in a tube.

Qian-Xi Wang, ”Flow around an unsteady thin wing close to curved ground,”
J. Fluid Mech. Vol.226, pp. 175-187., 1985.
The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the flow analysis of a 3-D thin wing
moving uniformly in very close proximity to a curved ground surface. Flow above the wing is reduced to a direct
problem, and the flow beneath it appears to be a 2-D channel flow. An equivalence is found between the extreme
curved-ground effect and the corresponding flat-ground effect, which can be treated by the image method.
Tuck,E.O.,”Nonlinear extreme ground effect on thin wings of arbitrary aspect ratio,”
J. Fluid Mech. Vol.136, pp.73-84.,1983.
Nonlinear problem from nonlinear gap was studied.A semi-numerical solution for a wing of circular
planform was given. In the special case of an exponentially varying clearance, it is possible
to write down a solution in the form of a Bessel-function expansion, and good accuracy is
achievable by truncating this series to a small number of terms.
Tuck,E.O.,”A nonlinear unsteady one-dimensional theory for wings in extreme ground
effect.,”J. Fluid Mech. Vol.98, pp.33-47.,1980.
Flow induced by a body moving near a plane wall is analyzed. The gap-flow problem in the case of unsteady
motion is reduced to a nonlinear first-order ordinary differential equation in the time variable.
As an illustration of the unsteady theory, the problem is solved of a flat plate falling toward the ground
under its own weight, while moving forward at uniform speed.
Sheila E Widnall and Timothy M. Barrows,”An analytic solution for two- and three-dimensional
wings in ground effect,” J. Fluid Mech. Vol.41, pp.769-792.,1970.
The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the problem of a wing of finite span in very close
proximity to the ground. The lifting surface problem is shown to be a direct problem, represented by a source-
sink distribution on the upper surface of the wing and the wake, with concentrated sources around the leading
and trailing edges plus a separate confined channel flow region under the wing and wake. An expression for the lift
at small clearance at small clearance and angle of attack, valid for moderate aspect ratio, is derived.
Numerical Study - Panel Method

Yen-Sen Chen,”Dynamic Ground Effects on a Two-Dimensional Flat Plate,”

J. Aircraft.Vol.22, No.7,pp.638-640.,1985.
2-D unsteady ground effect was studied by using QVLM and modeling the wake with a sequence of
discrete vortices. But their results are limited and their approach does not seem to be rigorous in the treatment
of the path of the wake.
A.O. Nuhait and M.F.Zedan,”Numerical simulation of Unsteady Flow Induced by a Flat
Plate Moving near Ground., ” J. Aircraft.,Vol.30, No.5, Sept.-Oct.,1993.
General unsteady 2-dimensional vortex-lattice method and the method of images was developed
to predict the unsteady ground effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of a flat plate.
The wake is computed as a part of solution by allowing it to deform and roll up into its natural
force-free position. For large sink rates, the wake becomes very close to the flight path with its position
less dependent on the height above the ground.
D.T.Mook, S.Roy,G.Choski, and B.Dong,” Numerical Simulation of the Unsteady Wake
Behind an Airfoil,” J. Aircraft.Vol.26, No.6, pp.509-514.,1989.
The unsteady wake behind an airfoil is simulated numerically by a system of discrete vortex cores, also
called point vortices. At each time step, a core is added to the wake at the trailing edge, and the cores already
in the wake are convected at the local particle velocity.

A.O. Nuhait and D.T.Mook,” Numerical Simulation of Wings in Steady and Unsteady
Ground Effects,” J. Aircraft.Vol.26, No.12, pp.1081-1089.,1989.
A numerical simulation of steady and unsteady ground effect is developed. The simulation is
based on the general unsteady vortex-lattice method and computed results are compared with limited exact
solutions and experimental data. This study showed the influences of various parameters on the aerodynamic
coefficients for both steady and unsteady flows.
Generally aerodynamic coefficients increase with proximity to the ground, the greater the sink rates
the greater the increases. Increasing the aspect ratio increases both the steady and unsteady ground effects
for both rectangular and delta planforms.

Katz,J., ” Calculation of the Aerodynamic Forces on Automotive Lifting Surfeces,”

Journal of Fluid Enginnering. Vol.107,Dec. pp.438-443.,1985.
Used a vortex-lattice method that included a freely deforming wake to investigate the performance
of lifting surfaces close to the ground, such as those found on racing cars. Katz found that the increases
in aerodynamic loads due to the unsteady ground effect are about 100% greater than those
due to the steady ground effect.
A.O. Nuhait,” Unsteady Ground Effects on Aerodynamic Coefficients of Finite Wings
with Camber,” J. Aircraft.Vol.32, No.1, pp.186-192.,1995.
A numerical investigation on finite thin cambered wings moving near ground in unsteady flow was conducted.
Increasing the aspect ratio increases the ground effect, causing wings to start feeling at higher position. The greater
the sink rate, the weaker the increase. The ground effects are weaker as the camber ratio increases,
consistent with the results of two dimensional plates. Moving the position of maximum camber backward
has a similar effect. Meanlines of NACA five-digit series showed bigger increase in CL and CM compared to
NACA four-digit and six-digit series meanlines. Increasing the angle of attack increases the ground effects
in conflict with the results of two-dimensional plates.
Numerical Study -CFD
Deese,J.E. and Agarwal,R.K.,”Euler Calculation for Flow Over a Wing In Ground Effect., ”
AIAA Paper 86-1765 CP,1986.
Hashiguchi, M.,Ohta,T.,and Kuwahara,K.,”Computational Study of Aerodynamic Behavior
of a Car Configuration., ” AIAA Paper 87-1386,1987.
Noboyuki Hirata and Takanori Hino., ” Investigation of a Three-Dimensional
Power-Augmented Ram Wing in ground Effect.,” AIAA-97-0822 ,1997.
The Navier-Stokes solver used was MUSCL-type third-order accurate upwind differencing, finite-volume,
artificial compressibility code based on multi-block grid approach. In order to understand the mechanism
of the power-augmentation effect, two boundary conditions on the ground were considered.
(1) a moving belt ground plane condition
(2) a fixed ground plate condition corresponding to a wind-tunnel test.
Thrust was represented using prescribed body-force distributions. The flow around a rectangular wing with end
plates and propellers which were placed forward of the wing and blew under the wing, were computed
by the solver with different trailing edge heights.
Yen-Sen Chen,”Dynamic Ground Effects on a Two-Dimensional Flat Plate,”
J. Aircraft.Vol.22, No.7,pp.638-640.,1985.
2-D unsteady ground effect was studied by using QVLM and modeling the wake with a sequence of
discrete vortices. But their results are limited and their approach does not seem to be rigorous in the treatment
of the path of the wake.

Chih-Min Hsiun and Chao-Kuang Chen.,Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 2-

Dimensional Airfoil ” J. Aircraft.Vol.33, No.2,pp.386-392.,1985.
Applied steady, incompressible Navire-Stokes equations to treat the aerodynamic problem of an airfoil in
ground proximity. The standard k-e two equation model was used to account for turbulent flow at
high Reynolds number. But wrong boundary condition was imposed on the wall. So slip boundary
should be imposed.
Experimental Study

Ray Chung Chang and Vincent U. Muirhead,”Effect of Sink rate on Ground Effect
of Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings,” J. Aircraft.Vol.24, No.3,pp.176-180.,1987.
An experimental investigation of dynamic ground effect was conducted using delta wings of 60-,70-, and
75-deg sweep, the XB-70 wing, and the F-104A wing. Both static and dynamic tests were made at a Reynolds
number of 700,000.

Toyohiko Kono, Yasuaki Kohama and Nobuaki Matsui, ”Stability of Guide Way Type
Wing in Ground Effect Vehicle,” Proceedings of the third JSME-KSME Fluids
Engineering Conference, July 25-27, 1994,Sendai, Japan.
Aerofoil interference and dynamics of tandem was investigated. Numerical investigation is introduced to find
out an optimum wing profile. The condition when chord and attack angle of front wing is bigger, stability of
the system is more stable.