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2-Dimensional Wieselsberger,C

Tomotika et al

Havelock,T.H.

Green, A. E.

Tuck,E.O

Plotkin, A. and Kennelle, C.G

3-Dimensional Plotkin,A. and Dodbele,S.S

Newman,J.N.

Tan,C.H. and Plotkin,A

Teruhiko,Kida and Yoshihiro, Miyai

Qian-Xi Wang

Sheila E Widnall and Timothy M. Barrows

Tuck,E.O

LITERATURE SURVEY

2-Dimensional

The first to solve this problem. Used the method of images, thus satisfying the no penetration boundary condition

on the ground surface automatically.

Tomotika et al.,”The lift on a Flat Plate Placed Near a Plane Wall, with Special Reference

to the Effect of Ground Upon the Lift of a Monoplane Aerofoil,” Aeronautical Research Inst.,

Rept. 97, Tokyo Imperial Univ., Tokyo, Aug.1933(as reported in Pistolesi,1935)

Used the conformal mapping technique to obtain the exact solution for the flow around a flat plate

near ground.

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Vol.166, No.2, London,1940, pp.19-54.

Obtained an exact solution for the flow past an elliptic cylinder between two parallel plates by conformal

mapping. Using a limiting process he obtained a series solution for the flow past a flat plate near a single

wall(ground) which matched Tomotika’s solution far from the wall.

Green, A. E., ”The Forces Acting on the Circular-Arc Aerofoil in a Stream Bounded by a Plane

Wall,” Proceedings, London Mathematical Society, Vol.46, No.2, London, 1940,pp.19-54.

Green, A. E., ”The Two-Dimensional Aerofoil in a Bounded Stream,” Quarterly Journal of

Mathematics, Vol.18, 1947,pp.167-177.

Obtained the solution for a circular-arc airfoil and later for an airfoil with finite thickness near a olane wall

also using conformal mapping. He showed that camber tends to increase the lift, while thickness tends to

decrease it first and then increase it as the ground is approached. Based on the opposite effects of camber

and thickness, one may expect the results of a flat plate in ground proximity to give a reasonable

approximation for actual airfoils.

AIAA Journal, Vol.19, Nov. 1981,pp.1984-1986.

Used the perturbation analysis the effect of thickness of the airfoil on the lift coefficient was calculated

to the 2nd order in the thickness ratio. Analytical results was presented for the Joukowski airfoil. The first-order

angle-of-attack solution for the flat plate was presented. The liftforce experienced by the airfoil in an infinite fluid

is decreased by the effect of thickness and increased by the effect of angle of attack.

Journal of Engineering Mathematics, Vol.15, 1981,pp.89-102

For incompressible, irrotational flow, solutions for small values of wall clearance have been obtained

for airfoils.

3-Dimensional

Determine analytically the lift coefficient for a slender(low-aspect ratio) wing in ground effect

for large values of wall clearance by using perturbation analysis.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol.117, 1982,pp.305-314

For incompressible, irrotational flow, solutions for small values of wall clearance have been obtained

for slender wings. The gap flow beneath the lifting surfaces is represented by a simple nonlinear solution

in the cross-flow plane, and appropriate conditions are imposed at leading and trailing edges. For steady-

state motion of a delta wing with sufficiently large angle of attack, the transition point is upstream of the tail.

For oscillatory heaving motion of a delta wing the transition point is cyclic if the heave velocity

is sufficiently large.

Tan,C.H. and Plotkin,A.,”Lifting-Line Solution for a Symmetrical Thin Wing in Ground Effect., ”

AIAA Journal Vol.24, No.7.,1985.

For a symmetrical thin wing, a lifting-line solution is obtained and effect of thickness on lift was considered

in both the lifting-line and vortex-lattice formulations. For small values of h/c, the presence of the ground

introduces a nonlinearity in angle of attack much stronger than in infinite fluid problem.

Teruhiko,Kida and Yoshihiro, Miyai, “Jet-Flapped Wings in Very Colse Proximity

to the Ground.,”AIAA Journal Vol.10, No.5.,1971.

The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the problem of jet-flapped wings of finite span

in very close proximity to the ground. For linearization, angle of attack and jet deflection are assumed to

be smaller than the ratio of the ground clearance to the root chord. This study treats the flow in the confined

region beneath the wing and jet sheet with a 2-D channel flow with known boundaries and mass addition, coming

from the boundary condition of the flow tangency.

Timothy M. Barrows and Sheila E.Windall,”Optimum Lift-Drag Ratio for Ram Wing Tube

Vehicle, ” AIAA Journal 1970.

Munk’s theorem specifying the downwash condition for minimum drag is generalized to include lifting surfaces

operating in proximity to solid boundaries. By developing a method for finding optimum lift distribution on a wing

and extending it to the case of finding optimum configuration for a ram wing in a tube, this study concludes that

the ram wing concept looks very promising as a method of supporting vehicles in a tube.

Qian-Xi Wang, ”Flow around an unsteady thin wing close to curved ground,”

J. Fluid Mech. Vol.226, pp. 175-187., 1985.

The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the flow analysis of a 3-D thin wing

moving uniformly in very close proximity to a curved ground surface. Flow above the wing is reduced to a direct

problem, and the flow beneath it appears to be a 2-D channel flow. An equivalence is found between the extreme

curved-ground effect and the corresponding flat-ground effect, which can be treated by the image method.

Tuck,E.O.,”Nonlinear extreme ground effect on thin wings of arbitrary aspect ratio,”

J. Fluid Mech. Vol.136, pp.73-84.,1983.

Nonlinear problem from nonlinear gap was studied.A semi-numerical solution for a wing of circular

planform was given. In the special case of an exponentially varying clearance, it is possible

to write down a solution in the form of a Bessel-function expansion, and good accuracy is

achievable by truncating this series to a small number of terms.

Tuck,E.O.,”A nonlinear unsteady one-dimensional theory for wings in extreme ground

effect.,”J. Fluid Mech. Vol.98, pp.33-47.,1980.

Flow induced by a body moving near a plane wall is analyzed. The gap-flow problem in the case of unsteady

motion is reduced to a nonlinear first-order ordinary differential equation in the time variable.

As an illustration of the unsteady theory, the problem is solved of a flat plate falling toward the ground

under its own weight, while moving forward at uniform speed.

Sheila E Widnall and Timothy M. Barrows,”An analytic solution for two- and three-dimensional

wings in ground effect,” J. Fluid Mech. Vol.41, pp.769-792.,1970.

The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the problem of a wing of finite span in very close

proximity to the ground. The lifting surface problem is shown to be a direct problem, represented by a source-

sink distribution on the upper surface of the wing and the wake, with concentrated sources around the leading

and trailing edges plus a separate confined channel flow region under the wing and wake. An expression for the lift

at small clearance at small clearance and angle of attack, valid for moderate aspect ratio, is derived.

Numerical Study - Panel Method

2-Dimensional

J. Aircraft.Vol.22, No.7,pp.638-640.,1985.

2-D unsteady ground effect was studied by using QVLM and modeling the wake with a sequence of

discrete vortices. But their results are limited and their approach does not seem to be rigorous in the treatment

of the path of the wake.

A.O. Nuhait and M.F.Zedan,”Numerical simulation of Unsteady Flow Induced by a Flat

Plate Moving near Ground., ” J. Aircraft.,Vol.30, No.5, Sept.-Oct.,1993.

General unsteady 2-dimensional vortex-lattice method and the method of images was developed

to predict the unsteady ground effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of a flat plate.

The wake is computed as a part of solution by allowing it to deform and roll up into its natural

force-free position. For large sink rates, the wake becomes very close to the flight path with its position

less dependent on the height above the ground.

D.T.Mook, S.Roy,G.Choski, and B.Dong,” Numerical Simulation of the Unsteady Wake

Behind an Airfoil,” J. Aircraft.Vol.26, No.6, pp.509-514.,1989.

The unsteady wake behind an airfoil is simulated numerically by a system of discrete vortex cores, also

called point vortices. At each time step, a core is added to the wake at the trailing edge, and the cores already

in the wake are convected at the local particle velocity.

3-Dimensional

A.O. Nuhait and D.T.Mook,” Numerical Simulation of Wings in Steady and Unsteady

Ground Effects,” J. Aircraft.Vol.26, No.12, pp.1081-1089.,1989.

A numerical simulation of steady and unsteady ground effect is developed. The simulation is

based on the general unsteady vortex-lattice method and computed results are compared with limited exact

solutions and experimental data. This study showed the influences of various parameters on the aerodynamic

coefficients for both steady and unsteady flows.

Generally aerodynamic coefficients increase with proximity to the ground, the greater the sink rates

the greater the increases. Increasing the aspect ratio increases both the steady and unsteady ground effects

for both rectangular and delta planforms.

Journal of Fluid Enginnering. Vol.107,Dec. pp.438-443.,1985.

Used a vortex-lattice method that included a freely deforming wake to investigate the performance

of lifting surfaces close to the ground, such as those found on racing cars. Katz found that the increases

in aerodynamic loads due to the unsteady ground effect are about 100% greater than those

due to the steady ground effect.

A.O. Nuhait,” Unsteady Ground Effects on Aerodynamic Coefficients of Finite Wings

with Camber,” J. Aircraft.Vol.32, No.1, pp.186-192.,1995.

A numerical investigation on finite thin cambered wings moving near ground in unsteady flow was conducted.

Increasing the aspect ratio increases the ground effect, causing wings to start feeling at higher position. The greater

the sink rate, the weaker the increase. The ground effects are weaker as the camber ratio increases,

consistent with the results of two dimensional plates. Moving the position of maximum camber backward

has a similar effect. Meanlines of NACA five-digit series showed bigger increase in CL and CM compared to

NACA four-digit and six-digit series meanlines. Increasing the angle of attack increases the ground effects

in conflict with the results of two-dimensional plates.

Numerical Study -CFD

Deese,J.E. and Agarwal,R.K.,”Euler Calculation for Flow Over a Wing In Ground Effect., ”

AIAA Paper 86-1765 CP,1986.

Hashiguchi, M.,Ohta,T.,and Kuwahara,K.,”Computational Study of Aerodynamic Behavior

of a Car Configuration., ” AIAA Paper 87-1386,1987.

Noboyuki Hirata and Takanori Hino., ” Investigation of a Three-Dimensional

Power-Augmented Ram Wing in ground Effect.,” AIAA-97-0822 ,1997.

The Navier-Stokes solver used was MUSCL-type third-order accurate upwind differencing, finite-volume,

artificial compressibility code based on multi-block grid approach. In order to understand the mechanism

of the power-augmentation effect, two boundary conditions on the ground were considered.

(1) a moving belt ground plane condition

(2) a fixed ground plate condition corresponding to a wind-tunnel test.

Thrust was represented using prescribed body-force distributions. The flow around a rectangular wing with end

plates and propellers which were placed forward of the wing and blew under the wing, were computed

by the solver with different trailing edge heights.

Yen-Sen Chen,”Dynamic Ground Effects on a Two-Dimensional Flat Plate,”

J. Aircraft.Vol.22, No.7,pp.638-640.,1985.

2-D unsteady ground effect was studied by using QVLM and modeling the wake with a sequence of

discrete vortices. But their results are limited and their approach does not seem to be rigorous in the treatment

of the path of the wake.

Dimensional Airfoil ” J. Aircraft.Vol.33, No.2,pp.386-392.,1985.

Applied steady, incompressible Navire-Stokes equations to treat the aerodynamic problem of an airfoil in

ground proximity. The standard k-e two equation model was used to account for turbulent flow at

high Reynolds number. But wrong boundary condition was imposed on the wall. So slip boundary

condition

should be imposed.

Experimental Study

Ray Chung Chang and Vincent U. Muirhead,”Effect of Sink rate on Ground Effect

of Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings,” J. Aircraft.Vol.24, No.3,pp.176-180.,1987.

An experimental investigation of dynamic ground effect was conducted using delta wings of 60-,70-, and

75-deg sweep, the XB-70 wing, and the F-104A wing. Both static and dynamic tests were made at a Reynolds

number of 700,000.

Toyohiko Kono, Yasuaki Kohama and Nobuaki Matsui, ”Stability of Guide Way Type

Wing in Ground Effect Vehicle,” Proceedings of the third JSME-KSME Fluids

Engineering Conference, July 25-27, 1994,Sendai, Japan.

Aerofoil interference and dynamics of tandem was investigated. Numerical investigation is introduced to find

out an optimum wing profile. The condition when chord and attack angle of front wing is bigger, stability of

the system is more stable.

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