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# INTRODUCTION

## TO BASIC FORCES AND

MECHANICS MOMENTS
SIMPLE
MACHINES LINEAR VELOCITY &
ACCELERATION

ELELMEMENTARY
MECHANICS
SCALARS AND FRICTIONS 1
VECTORS 1 FORCE, WORK,
POWER PRESSURE, POWER
STRESS & AND ENERGY
TRANSMISSION
STRAIN

Statics deals with forces and their
STATICS Every body will continue in its state of rest,
effects on rigid bodies at rest NEWTONS LAWS
OF MOTION
1 or uniform motion in a straight line, unless
it is acted upon by an external force.

## Dynamics deals with motion and the

effects of forces acting upon rigid The rate of change of motion is proportional
DYNAMICS
bodies in motion. 2 to the force producing the change and takes
place in the direction in which the force acts.

## INTRODUCTION TO 3 For every action, there is an

equal and opposite reaction.

BASIC MECHANICS

MASS
Mass is the quantity of matter a
body contains.

## PRESSURE = Force (N) Force is any action on a body

FORCE
area (m2) which tends to change its size or
= Pascal (Pa) shape, its state of rest, or its state
of motion.
Pressure is force per unit are Force = Mass (kg) * Acceleration (m/s2)
and acts in a direction normal to = kg m/s2
or at right angles to a surface = Newton (N)

VELOCITY ACCELERATION
Velocity is the rate of change of position Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.
Velocity = change in position Acceleration = Velocity (m/s) Gravity = 9.81 m/s2
time
time
POTENTIAL
Potential energy is the ability of a body to do work
by virtue of its position.

## KINETIC Potential Energy (PE) = Gravitational Force * Vertical height

Kinetic energy is the ability of a body to PE = m * g * h
do work due to its motion
Kinetic Energy (J) = 1/2 mass (kg) * velocity 2 (m/s)2
KE = Nm or Joule

INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY
Energy is the capacity of a
body or substance to

## BASIC MECHANICS perform work.

WORK
POWER
If a force is applied to a body and
Power is the rate of doing work. causes it to move through a distance,
then work is done.
Power (W) = work done (Nm) or (J)
time (s) Work (J) = Force (N) * Distance (m)
Watt (W) = Joule / Second Joule (J) = Newton Meter (Nm)

FORCE A force acting at any distance from a point will

MOMENT
A force is the pull or push exerted tend to produce a rotation around that point.
on a body, and it may make a body Moment = Force x perpendicular distance
move or bring it to rest. = Nm

FORCES AND
100 N 40 N

MOMENTS 1m 2m

BEAM EQUILIBRIUM
A beam is a rigid member or Upward forces = Downward forces Taking moments about A:
bar supported in some way so
that it is capable of carrying a Forces acting sideways to right = Clockwise moment = 40 N * 2 m = 80 Nm
Counter moment = 100 N * 1 m = 100 Nm
SIMPLY SUPPORTED Clockwise moments = Counter
Beam rests on supports so that it is clockwise moments Bar will move in counter clockwise dire
free to bend without restriction from
the supports. STEPS TO SOLVE

## 1. State taking moment FULCRUM

2. State clockwise = counter Single support about
3. Substitute known values which a bar is free to
& solve for unknown rotate.
Support Support
REACTION REACTION

MACHINE ACTUAL MECHANICAL
A machine is a device which receives energy VELOCITY RATIO (VR)
from some source and uses this energy to do
VR = distance moved by effort
SIMPLE MACHINE Effort

## WHEEL & AXLE

A simple machine is one which receives energy
by means of a single applied force, and produces
work by means of a single output force.
D d

LAW OF
SIMPLE VR = D
d

CONSERVATION OF
ENERGY
Work Input = Work Out + Work Wasted
MACHINES
PULLEY

PERCENT EFFECIENCY
Percentage efficiency = actual MA * 100
LEVER VR
VR = # ropes
A lever is a straight bar or other
rigid structure supported at a
block = 5
fulcrum in such a way that a small
force (or effort) can balance or Load
move a much larger load. Block

6m
2m
VR = 6 =3
2

VECTOR
SCALAR A Vector is a quantity which has magnitude and direction
A scalar quantity is one which has magnitude only VELOCITY is a Vector because it
and which can be completely described by a number Has speed and direction.
with the necessary units.

## VECTORS 1 DEFINE NORTH

PLOT FROM ONE POINT
SCALE = MAGNITUDE

STEPS DRAW
30˚
VECTOR DIAGRAM N

1. Determine north
2. Select scale
3. Order & Draw head to tail. 20˚

N CONCURRENT VECTORS
30˚
Vectors who’s lines meet at one point

CO-PLANAR
Located on same plane.
RESULTANT = DISPLACEMENT

## 20˚ Single vector replace system of vectors

LINEAR VELOCITY & NEWTONS LAWS
OF MOTION

## ACCELERATION Every body will continue in its state of rest,

ACCELERATION = Change of Velocity 1 or uniform motion in a straight line, unless
it is acted upon by an external force.
Rate of change of velocity (m/s )
2 time

a=v-µ
LAR
The rate of change of motion is proportional
t
C IR C U 2 to the force producing the change and takes
place in the direction in which the force acts.
MOTION
DERIVED FORMULA LIN
UNIFORM LINEAR MOTION E AR
v = µ + at 3 For every action, there is an
equal and opposite reaction.

v2 = µ2 + 2as

s = µt + 1/2 at2
= Distance traveled
DISTANCE
AVERAGE Total time
Quantity & has magnitude only
SPEED Distance traveled from A to D is 11 m
= speed + direction
VELOCITY Scalar = 20 m/s

s=µ+v*t
2 4m
s = displacement (m)
µ = Initial Velocity (m/s) D C
v = Final Velocity (m/s) DISPLACEMENT N
t = time (s) velocity Quantity Magnitude and change in position 3m
Relative to some reference point.

## AVERAGE = displacement time Displacement from A to D is 3 m north A B

time taken 4m
VELOCITY

Vector = 20 m/s North
Force is a push or pull exerted on an object, If a force is applied to a body and
which causes it to change state of motion or causes it to move through a distance
rest, shape or size. then work is done by the force.
Force = Mass (kg) * Acceleration (m/s2)
1 N = 1 kg/m/s2
Work done (J) = Force (N) * Distance (m)
Variable force is practical application in reality

FORCE
area

Force WORK
Distance

## PRESSURE Pressure is the measure of force per unit area

ABSOLUTE

GAGE
Absolute = Gage + Atmosphere (101.3 kPa)
Pressure (Pa) = Force (N)
Area (m2)
POWERPower (Watt) = Work (J)
Time (s)

## 1 horsepower = 746 watts

1 kilowatt hour = 3.6 MJ
MECHANICAL POTENTIAL
ELECTRICAL

ENERGY KINETIC

KE = 1/2 mv2
PE = mass * g * h

THERMAL

FRICTIONS 1

LAWS
1 Static friction is always greater than kinetic friction
2 The forces of friction, kinetic or static, are not affected by the
area of the two surfaces in contact.
3 Force of friction is proportional to the force which presses two
surfaces together. (downward force doubled friction doubled)
4 Kinetic friction is not affected by the speed of the body.
5 Force of friction either kinetic or static is affected by the
relative roughness of the two surfaces.
6 Kinetic friction is greater than rolling friction.

FORCE OF
ROLLING
FRICTION
A force that opposes motion of The resistance which
one surface over another. opposes the motion of FLUID
a wheel or roller as it The resistance to
rolls along a surface. movement within the
layers of a fluid

STATIC
COEFFICIENT OF KINETIC
The resistance which opposes the
initial movement of a body at rest. FRICTION
The resistance which opposes the
continued movement of an object.
Fw Gravity
Fw Gravity

FA Start Move
FA Start Move
µ = FF
µ = FF
FF Friction RN
RN FF Friction

## RN Reaction FF = Force of friction

FF = Force of friction
RN Reaction
FA = Force keep moving
FA = Force start moving
RN = Force opposing gravity
RN = Force opposing gravity
STRESS STIFFNESS
The ability of a material to resist a change in
shape or size when a load is applied.
ELASTICITY
original shape after the force or load which
caused the deformation is removed.
Internal resistance in a material developed TOUGHNESS
to counteract an external force (load). The ability of a material to absorb
DUCTILITY
STRESS (Pa) = Load (N) energy before breaking. The ability of a material to be stretched and
Area (m2) reduced in cross section without breaking.
HARDNESS
TENSILE The ability to resist penetration.
PLASTICITY
The ability of a material to retain its
P (N) Tie P (N) BRITTLENESS causing the deformation is removed.
Brittle materials break without much
deformation occurring before fracture.
Tensile stress (Pa) σ = Load (N) P
Area (m2) A
ELASTIC LIMIT
COMPRESSIVE MAX ALLOWABLE LOAD The maximum stress value that the
material can be subjected to and still
The greatest load that can be applied to a
P (N) Strut P (N) return to its original size and shape when
material under its design conditions.

## Compressive stress (Pa) τ = Load (N) P

Area (m2) A
FACTOR OF SAFETY ULTIMATE STRESS
SHEAR Factor of Safety = Ultimate Stress The stress at the instant a material breaks.
Allowable Stress
C ALLOWABLE STRESS
A P The amount of stress that a
X X material is allowed to carry
P B

SHEAR PLANE
STRAIN
Strain ε = ∆ l Change in length A measure of the deformation
l Original Length produced in a member by a load.
POWER
GEAR DRIVES
Same as belt only opposite rotation

TRANSMISSION
# teeth 1 = r/min 2
1 2 # teeth 2 r/min 1

## BELT DRIVE BACKLASH

DRIVER ROTATIONAL SPEED
Start/ Stop slop in teeth mesh can
SLACK SIDE FOLLOWER OF PULLEY Cause excessive forces
F2
Dia 1 = r/min 2
Dia 2 r/min 1
INTERMEDIATE
GEARS
F1 TIGHT SIDE PULLEY TRAIN
No change of speed r/min
• TRANSMISSION OF POWER Change direction
• CHANGE SPEEDS
A B C D
GEAR TRAIN
Dia A = r/min B Dia C = r/min D Similar to pulley train
BELT SLIPPAGE Dia B r/min A Dia D r/min C
INCREASE POWER BY R/min C = r/min B
• INCREASE ANGLE OF CONTACT CHAIN DRIVE
• INCREASE TENSION, REDUCE SLIPPAGE Same as gear drive

## % EFFECIENCY = POWER OUT x 100

POWER IN POWER TRANSMISSION
POWER (W) = (F1 - F2) x Speed of Belts (m/s)
TRANSMISSION
LINEAR VELOCITY
F1 = tension tight side (N)
Linear Velocity = r/min x 2 πR F2 = tension slack side
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