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INTRODUCTION

TO BASIC FORCES AND


MECHANICS MOMENTS
SIMPLE
MACHINES LINEAR VELOCITY &
ACCELERATION

ELELMEMENTARY
MECHANICS
SCALARS AND FRICTIONS 1
VECTORS 1 FORCE, WORK,
POWER PRESSURE, POWER
STRESS & AND ENERGY
TRANSMISSION
STRAIN
   
Statics deals with forces and their
STATICS Every body will continue in its state of rest,
effects on rigid bodies at rest NEWTONS LAWS
OF MOTION
1 or uniform motion in a straight line, unless
it is acted upon by an external force.

Dynamics deals with motion and the


effects of forces acting upon rigid The rate of change of motion is proportional
DYNAMICS
bodies in motion. 2 to the force producing the change and takes
place in the direction in which the force acts.

INTRODUCTION TO 3 For every action, there is an


equal and opposite reaction.

BASIC MECHANICS

MASS
Mass is the quantity of matter a
body contains.

PRESSURE = Force (N) Force is any action on a body

FORCE
area (m2) which tends to change its size or
= Pascal (Pa) shape, its state of rest, or its state
of motion.
Pressure is force per unit are Force = Mass (kg) * Acceleration (m/s2)
and acts in a direction normal to = kg m/s2
or at right angles to a surface = Newton (N)

VELOCITY ACCELERATION
Velocity is the rate of change of position Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.
Velocity = change in position Acceleration = Velocity (m/s) Gravity = 9.81 m/s2
time
    time
POTENTIAL
Potential energy is the ability of a body to do work
by virtue of its position.

KINETIC Potential Energy (PE) = Gravitational Force * Vertical height


Kinetic energy is the ability of a body to PE = m * g * h
do work due to its motion
Kinetic Energy (J) = 1/2 mass (kg) * velocity 2 (m/s)2
KE = Nm or Joule

INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY
Energy is the capacity of a
body or substance to

BASIC MECHANICS perform work.

WORK
POWER
If a force is applied to a body and
Power is the rate of doing work. causes it to move through a distance,
then work is done.
Power (W) = work done (Nm) or (J)
time (s) Work (J) = Force (N) * Distance (m)
Watt (W) = Joule / Second Joule (J) = Newton Meter (Nm)

   
FORCE A force acting at any distance from a point will

MOMENT
A force is the pull or push exerted tend to produce a rotation around that point.
on a body, and it may make a body Moment = Force x perpendicular distance
move or bring it to rest. = Nm

FORCES AND
100 N 40 N

MOMENTS 1m 2m

BEAM EQUILIBRIUM
A beam is a rigid member or Upward forces = Downward forces Taking moments about A:
bar supported in some way so
that it is capable of carrying a Forces acting sideways to right = Clockwise moment = 40 N * 2 m = 80 Nm
load or system of loads Forces acting sideways to left
Counter moment = 100 N * 1 m = 100 Nm
SIMPLY SUPPORTED Clockwise moments = Counter
Beam rests on supports so that it is clockwise moments Bar will move in counter clockwise dire
free to bend without restriction from
the supports. STEPS TO SOLVE

1. State taking moment FULCRUM


Point load Point load
about fulcrum
2. State clockwise = counter Single support about
3. Substitute known values which a bar is free to
& solve for unknown rotate.
Support Support
REACTION REACTION

   
MACHINE ACTUAL MECHANICAL
A machine is a device which receives energy VELOCITY RATIO (VR)
ADVANTAGE (MA)
from some source and uses this energy to do
VR = distance moved by effort
work. MA = Load distance moved by load
SIMPLE MACHINE Effort

WHEEL & AXLE


A simple machine is one which receives energy
by means of a single applied force, and produces
work by means of a single output force.
D d

LAW OF
SIMPLE VR = D
d

CONSERVATION OF
ENERGY
Work Input = Work Out + Work Wasted
MACHINES
PULLEY

PERCENT EFFECIENCY
Percentage efficiency = actual MA * 100
LEVER VR
VR = # ropes
A lever is a straight bar or other
supporting load
rigid structure supported at a
block = 5
fulcrum in such a way that a small
force (or effort) can balance or Load
move a much larger load. Block

load Effort
6m
2m
VR = 6 =3
2
   
VECTOR
SCALAR A Vector is a quantity which has magnitude and direction
A scalar quantity is one which has magnitude only VELOCITY is a Vector because it
and which can be completely described by a number Has speed and direction.
with the necessary units.

SCALARS SPACE DIAGRAM

VECTORS 1 DEFINE NORTH


PLOT FROM ONE POINT
SCALE = MAGNITUDE

STEPS DRAW
30˚
VECTOR DIAGRAM N

1. Determine north
2. Select scale
3. Order & Draw head to tail. 20˚

N CONCURRENT VECTORS
30˚
Vectors who’s lines meet at one point

CO-PLANAR
Located on same plane.
RESULTANT = DISPLACEMENT

20˚ Single vector replace system of vectors


   
LINEAR VELOCITY & NEWTONS LAWS
OF MOTION

ACCELERATION Every body will continue in its state of rest,


ACCELERATION = Change of Velocity 1 or uniform motion in a straight line, unless
it is acted upon by an external force.
Rate of change of velocity (m/s )
2 time

a=v-µ
LAR
The rate of change of motion is proportional
t
C IR C U 2 to the force producing the change and takes
place in the direction in which the force acts.
MOTION
DERIVED FORMULA LIN
UNIFORM LINEAR MOTION E AR
v = µ + at 3 For every action, there is an
equal and opposite reaction.

v2 = µ2 + 2as

s = µt + 1/2 at2
= Distance traveled
DISTANCE
AVERAGE Total time
Quantity & has magnitude only
SPEED Distance traveled from A to D is 11 m
= speed + direction
VELOCITY Scalar = 20 m/s

s=µ+v*t
2 4m
s = displacement (m)
µ = Initial Velocity (m/s) D C
v = Final Velocity (m/s) DISPLACEMENT N
t = time (s) velocity Quantity Magnitude and change in position 3m
Relative to some reference point.

AVERAGE = displacement time Displacement from A to D is 3 m north A B


time taken 4m
VELOCITY
   
Vector = 20 m/s North
Force is a push or pull exerted on an object, If a force is applied to a body and
which causes it to change state of motion or causes it to move through a distance
rest, shape or size. then work is done by the force.
Force = Mass (kg) * Acceleration (m/s2)
1 N = 1 kg/m/s2
Work done (J) = Force (N) * Distance (m)
Variable force is practical application in reality

FORCE
area

Force WORK
Distance

PRESSURE Pressure is the measure of force per unit area


ABSOLUTE

GAGE
Absolute = Gage + Atmosphere (101.3 kPa)
Pressure (Pa) = Force (N)
Area (m2)
POWERPower (Watt) = Work (J)
Time (s)

Power is the rate of doing work.

1 horsepower = 746 watts


1 kilowatt hour = 3.6 MJ
MECHANICAL POTENTIAL
ELECTRICAL

ENERGY KINETIC

KE = 1/2 mv2
PE = mass * g * h

THERMAL
   
FRICTIONS 1

LAWS
1 Static friction is always greater than kinetic friction
2 The forces of friction, kinetic or static, are not affected by the
area of the two surfaces in contact.
3 Force of friction is proportional to the force which presses two
surfaces together. (downward force doubled friction doubled)
4 Kinetic friction is not affected by the speed of the body.
5 Force of friction either kinetic or static is affected by the
relative roughness of the two surfaces.
6 Kinetic friction is greater than rolling friction.

FORCE OF
ROLLING
FRICTION
A force that opposes motion of The resistance which
one surface over another. opposes the motion of FLUID
a wheel or roller as it The resistance to
rolls along a surface. movement within the
layers of a fluid

STATIC
COEFFICIENT OF KINETIC
The resistance which opposes the
initial movement of a body at rest. FRICTION
The resistance which opposes the
continued movement of an object.
Fw Gravity
Fw Gravity

FA Start Move
FA Start Move
µ = FF
µ = FF
FF Friction RN
RN FF Friction

RN Reaction FF = Force of friction


  FF = Force of friction
  RN Reaction
FA = Force keep moving
FA = Force start moving
RN = Force opposing gravity
RN = Force opposing gravity
STRESS STIFFNESS
The ability of a material to resist a change in
shape or size when a load is applied.
ELASTICITY
The ability of a material to return to its
original shape after the force or load which
caused the deformation is removed.
Internal resistance in a material developed TOUGHNESS
to counteract an external force (load). The ability of a material to absorb
DUCTILITY
STRESS (Pa) = Load (N) energy before breaking. The ability of a material to be stretched and
Area (m2) reduced in cross section without breaking.
HARDNESS
TENSILE The ability to resist penetration.
PLASTICITY
The ability of a material to retain its
deformed shape when the load
P (N) Tie P (N) BRITTLENESS causing the deformation is removed.
Brittle materials break without much
deformation occurring before fracture.
Tensile stress (Pa) σ = Load (N) P
Area (m2) A
ELASTIC LIMIT
COMPRESSIVE MAX ALLOWABLE LOAD The maximum stress value that the
material can be subjected to and still
The greatest load that can be applied to a
P (N) Strut P (N) return to its original size and shape when
material under its design conditions.
load is removed.

Compressive stress (Pa) τ = Load (N) P


Area (m2) A
FACTOR OF SAFETY ULTIMATE STRESS
SHEAR Factor of Safety = Ultimate Stress The stress at the instant a material breaks.
Allowable Stress
C ALLOWABLE STRESS
A P The amount of stress that a
X X material is allowed to carry
P B

SHEAR PLANE
STRAIN
Strain ε = ∆ l Change in length A measure of the deformation
    l Original Length produced in a member by a load.
POWER
GEAR DRIVES
Same as belt only opposite rotation

TRANSMISSION
# teeth 1 = r/min 2
1 2 # teeth 2 r/min 1

BELT DRIVE BACKLASH


DRIVER ROTATIONAL SPEED
Start/ Stop slop in teeth mesh can
SLACK SIDE FOLLOWER OF PULLEY Cause excessive forces
F2
Dia 1 = r/min 2
Dia 2 r/min 1
INTERMEDIATE
GEARS
F1 TIGHT SIDE PULLEY TRAIN
No change of speed r/min
• TRANSMISSION OF POWER Change direction
• CHANGE SPEEDS
A B C D
GEAR TRAIN
Dia A = r/min B Dia C = r/min D Similar to pulley train
BELT SLIPPAGE Dia B r/min A Dia D r/min C
INCREASE POWER BY R/min C = r/min B
• INCREASE ANGLE OF CONTACT CHAIN DRIVE
• INCREASE TENSION, REDUCE SLIPPAGE Same as gear drive

% EFFECIENCY = POWER OUT x 100


POWER IN POWER TRANSMISSION
POWER (W) = (F1 - F2) x Speed of Belts (m/s)
TRANSMISSION
LINEAR VELOCITY
F1 = tension tight side (N)
Linear Velocity = r/min x 2 πR F2 = tension slack side
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