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Power Engineering fourth class Canada part AB Mechanical 2

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MECHANICS MOMENTS

SIMPLE

MACHINES LINEAR VELOCITY &

ACCELERATION

ELELMEMENTARY

MECHANICS

SCALARS AND FRICTIONS 1

VECTORS 1 FORCE, WORK,

POWER PRESSURE, POWER

STRESS & AND ENERGY

TRANSMISSION

STRAIN

Statics deals with forces and their

STATICS Every body will continue in its state of rest,

effects on rigid bodies at rest NEWTONS LAWS

OF MOTION

1 or uniform motion in a straight line, unless

it is acted upon by an external force.

effects of forces acting upon rigid The rate of change of motion is proportional

DYNAMICS

bodies in motion. 2 to the force producing the change and takes

place in the direction in which the force acts.

equal and opposite reaction.

BASIC MECHANICS

MASS

Mass is the quantity of matter a

body contains.

FORCE

area (m2) which tends to change its size or

= Pascal (Pa) shape, its state of rest, or its state

of motion.

Pressure is force per unit are Force = Mass (kg) * Acceleration (m/s2)

and acts in a direction normal to = kg m/s2

or at right angles to a surface = Newton (N)

VELOCITY ACCELERATION

Velocity is the rate of change of position Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.

Velocity = change in position Acceleration = Velocity (m/s) Gravity = 9.81 m/s2

time

time

POTENTIAL

Potential energy is the ability of a body to do work

by virtue of its position.

Kinetic energy is the ability of a body to PE = m * g * h

do work due to its motion

Kinetic Energy (J) = 1/2 mass (kg) * velocity 2 (m/s)2

KE = Nm or Joule

INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY

Energy is the capacity of a

body or substance to

WORK

POWER

If a force is applied to a body and

Power is the rate of doing work. causes it to move through a distance,

then work is done.

Power (W) = work done (Nm) or (J)

time (s) Work (J) = Force (N) * Distance (m)

Watt (W) = Joule / Second Joule (J) = Newton Meter (Nm)

FORCE A force acting at any distance from a point will

MOMENT

A force is the pull or push exerted tend to produce a rotation around that point.

on a body, and it may make a body Moment = Force x perpendicular distance

move or bring it to rest. = Nm

FORCES AND

100 N 40 N

MOMENTS 1m 2m

BEAM EQUILIBRIUM

A beam is a rigid member or Upward forces = Downward forces Taking moments about A:

bar supported in some way so

that it is capable of carrying a Forces acting sideways to right = Clockwise moment = 40 N * 2 m = 80 Nm

load or system of loads Forces acting sideways to left

Counter moment = 100 N * 1 m = 100 Nm

SIMPLY SUPPORTED Clockwise moments = Counter

Beam rests on supports so that it is clockwise moments Bar will move in counter clockwise dire

free to bend without restriction from

the supports. STEPS TO SOLVE

Point load Point load

about fulcrum

2. State clockwise = counter Single support about

3. Substitute known values which a bar is free to

& solve for unknown rotate.

Support Support

REACTION REACTION

MACHINE ACTUAL MECHANICAL

A machine is a device which receives energy VELOCITY RATIO (VR)

ADVANTAGE (MA)

from some source and uses this energy to do

VR = distance moved by effort

work. MA = Load distance moved by load

SIMPLE MACHINE Effort

A simple machine is one which receives energy

by means of a single applied force, and produces

work by means of a single output force.

D d

LAW OF

SIMPLE VR = D

d

CONSERVATION OF

ENERGY

Work Input = Work Out + Work Wasted

MACHINES

PULLEY

PERCENT EFFECIENCY

Percentage efficiency = actual MA * 100

LEVER VR

VR = # ropes

A lever is a straight bar or other

supporting load

rigid structure supported at a

block = 5

fulcrum in such a way that a small

force (or effort) can balance or Load

move a much larger load. Block

load Effort

6m

2m

VR = 6 =3

2

VECTOR

SCALAR A Vector is a quantity which has magnitude and direction

A scalar quantity is one which has magnitude only VELOCITY is a Vector because it

and which can be completely described by a number Has speed and direction.

with the necessary units.

PLOT FROM ONE POINT

SCALE = MAGNITUDE

STEPS DRAW

30˚

VECTOR DIAGRAM N

1. Determine north

2. Select scale

3. Order & Draw head to tail. 20˚

N CONCURRENT VECTORS

30˚

Vectors who’s lines meet at one point

CO-PLANAR

Located on same plane.

RESULTANT = DISPLACEMENT

LINEAR VELOCITY & NEWTONS LAWS

OF MOTION

ACCELERATION = Change of Velocity 1 or uniform motion in a straight line, unless

it is acted upon by an external force.

Rate of change of velocity (m/s )

2 time

a=v-µ

LAR

The rate of change of motion is proportional

t

C IR C U 2 to the force producing the change and takes

place in the direction in which the force acts.

MOTION

DERIVED FORMULA LIN

UNIFORM LINEAR MOTION E AR

v = µ + at 3 For every action, there is an

equal and opposite reaction.

v2 = µ2 + 2as

s = µt + 1/2 at2

= Distance traveled

DISTANCE

AVERAGE Total time

Quantity & has magnitude only

SPEED Distance traveled from A to D is 11 m

= speed + direction

VELOCITY Scalar = 20 m/s

s=µ+v*t

2 4m

s = displacement (m)

µ = Initial Velocity (m/s) D C

v = Final Velocity (m/s) DISPLACEMENT N

t = time (s) velocity Quantity Magnitude and change in position 3m

Relative to some reference point.

time taken 4m

VELOCITY

Vector = 20 m/s North

Force is a push or pull exerted on an object, If a force is applied to a body and

which causes it to change state of motion or causes it to move through a distance

rest, shape or size. then work is done by the force.

Force = Mass (kg) * Acceleration (m/s2)

1 N = 1 kg/m/s2

Work done (J) = Force (N) * Distance (m)

Variable force is practical application in reality

FORCE

area

Force WORK

Distance

ABSOLUTE

GAGE

Absolute = Gage + Atmosphere (101.3 kPa)

Pressure (Pa) = Force (N)

Area (m2)

POWERPower (Watt) = Work (J)

Time (s)

1 kilowatt hour = 3.6 MJ

MECHANICAL POTENTIAL

ELECTRICAL

ENERGY KINETIC

KE = 1/2 mv2

PE = mass * g * h

THERMAL

FRICTIONS 1

LAWS

1 Static friction is always greater than kinetic friction

2 The forces of friction, kinetic or static, are not affected by the

area of the two surfaces in contact.

3 Force of friction is proportional to the force which presses two

surfaces together. (downward force doubled friction doubled)

4 Kinetic friction is not affected by the speed of the body.

5 Force of friction either kinetic or static is affected by the

relative roughness of the two surfaces.

6 Kinetic friction is greater than rolling friction.

FORCE OF

ROLLING

FRICTION

A force that opposes motion of The resistance which

one surface over another. opposes the motion of FLUID

a wheel or roller as it The resistance to

rolls along a surface. movement within the

layers of a fluid

STATIC

COEFFICIENT OF KINETIC

The resistance which opposes the

initial movement of a body at rest. FRICTION

The resistance which opposes the

continued movement of an object.

Fw Gravity

Fw Gravity

FA Start Move

FA Start Move

µ = FF

µ = FF

FF Friction RN

RN FF Friction

FF = Force of friction

RN Reaction

FA = Force keep moving

FA = Force start moving

RN = Force opposing gravity

RN = Force opposing gravity

STRESS STIFFNESS

The ability of a material to resist a change in

shape or size when a load is applied.

ELASTICITY

The ability of a material to return to its

original shape after the force or load which

caused the deformation is removed.

Internal resistance in a material developed TOUGHNESS

to counteract an external force (load). The ability of a material to absorb

DUCTILITY

STRESS (Pa) = Load (N) energy before breaking. The ability of a material to be stretched and

Area (m2) reduced in cross section without breaking.

HARDNESS

TENSILE The ability to resist penetration.

PLASTICITY

The ability of a material to retain its

deformed shape when the load

P (N) Tie P (N) BRITTLENESS causing the deformation is removed.

Brittle materials break without much

deformation occurring before fracture.

Tensile stress (Pa) σ = Load (N) P

Area (m2) A

ELASTIC LIMIT

COMPRESSIVE MAX ALLOWABLE LOAD The maximum stress value that the

material can be subjected to and still

The greatest load that can be applied to a

P (N) Strut P (N) return to its original size and shape when

material under its design conditions.

load is removed.

Area (m2) A

FACTOR OF SAFETY ULTIMATE STRESS

SHEAR Factor of Safety = Ultimate Stress The stress at the instant a material breaks.

Allowable Stress

C ALLOWABLE STRESS

A P The amount of stress that a

X X material is allowed to carry

P B

SHEAR PLANE

STRAIN

Strain ε = ∆ l Change in length A measure of the deformation

l Original Length produced in a member by a load.

POWER

GEAR DRIVES

Same as belt only opposite rotation

TRANSMISSION

# teeth 1 = r/min 2

1 2 # teeth 2 r/min 1

DRIVER ROTATIONAL SPEED

Start/ Stop slop in teeth mesh can

SLACK SIDE FOLLOWER OF PULLEY Cause excessive forces

F2

Dia 1 = r/min 2

Dia 2 r/min 1

INTERMEDIATE

GEARS

F1 TIGHT SIDE PULLEY TRAIN

No change of speed r/min

• TRANSMISSION OF POWER Change direction

• CHANGE SPEEDS

A B C D

GEAR TRAIN

Dia A = r/min B Dia C = r/min D Similar to pulley train

BELT SLIPPAGE Dia B r/min A Dia D r/min C

INCREASE POWER BY R/min C = r/min B

• INCREASE ANGLE OF CONTACT CHAIN DRIVE

• INCREASE TENSION, REDUCE SLIPPAGE Same as gear drive

POWER IN POWER TRANSMISSION

POWER (W) = (F1 - F2) x Speed of Belts (m/s)

TRANSMISSION

LINEAR VELOCITY

F1 = tension tight side (N)

Linear Velocity = r/min x 2 πR F2 = tension slack side

60

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