Dr Bindu John Pulparampil AMO, VSSC Govt Of India

What is Sampling ?
• Procedure by which some members of
a population are selected as representative of the entire population

• The sub-group thus selected to

represent the whole population is known as SAMPLE

Methods Of Sampling
• Several methods are used to
ascertain a particular aspect of the population,through an unbiased sample drawn from the population

• Sampling is divided in two categories • 1. Probability Sampling • 2. Non-probability Sampling

Probability sampling
• It is any method of sampling that
utilizes some form of random selection • The procedure should assure that the different units in the population have equal probabilities of being chosen.

Non probability sampling
• It does not involve random selection • May or may not represent the
population well • Used when researcher lacks a sampling frame for the population

Probability sampling
• Includes: • Simple Random Method • Systematic Sampling • Stratified Sampling • Cluster Sampling • Multistage Sampling

Nonprobability Sampling
• Includes : • Accidental Sampling • Voluntary Sampling • Purposive Sampling • Quota Sampling

Simple Random Sampling
• A sample selected such that each
possible sample combination has equal probability of being chosen. • Also called Unrestricted random sampling

Simple random sampling without replacement:
• In this method the population
elements can enter the sample only once • The units once selected is not returned to the population before the next draw

Simple random sampling with replacement
The population units may enter the sample more than once

Methods of selection of a simple random sampling:
• Lottery Method • Table of Random numbers • Random number selections using
calculators or computers

Systematic Random Sampling
• Also called Quasi-random sampling • Divide the population size by the
sample size, to get sampling fraction • Select a random number b/w 1 and sampling fraction, which is the first sampling unit • Systematically select the remaining sample units, by adding sampling faction

Stratified Random Sampling
• Stratification means division into groups. • In this method the population is divided

into a number of subgroups or strata • From each stratum a simple random sample is selected and combined together to form the required sample from the population

Multi- Stage Sampling
• Used in large scale investigations • First stage- preparation of large sized sampling
units • Randomly selecting a certain number • Second stage- Another list prepared from them • Sub-samples drawn by random sampling

Multi –Phase Sampling
• Used to obtain supplementary
information • Certain items of information collected from all units of sample • Other items collected from only some of sampling units

Cluster Sampling
• Each sampling unit is a collection or
cluster of elements • Used when units of population are natural groups or clusters like wards, villages etc • The group is taken as a sampling unit

Non- Probability Sampling

Accidental Sampling
• The "person on the street" interviews
conducted frequently by television news programs • Sampling those most convenient • Gets a quick reading of public opinion • Also called Haphazard or Convenience Sampling

Voluntary sampling
• The sample is self selected • Sample consists of people who chose
themselves by responding to a general appeal. • They often over represent people with strong opinions, most often negative opinions.

Purposive Sampling
• Sampling with a purpose in mind • Handpicking supposedly typical or

interesting cases • Reaches a targeted sample quickly • Also known as Judgemental sampling

Types of Purposive Sampling
• Sampling for specific types of people
- modal instance, expert, or quota sampling. • Sampling for diversity - heterogeneity sampling. • Snowball sampling - capitalize on informal social networks to identify specific respondents who are hard to locate otherwise

Modal instance sampling
• Sampling the most frequent case, or
the "typical" case • Is only sensible for informal sampling contexts.

Expert sampling
• It involves the assembling of a
sample of persons with known or demonstrable experience and expertise in some area

Quota sampling
• The population is first segmented into
mutually exclusive sub-groups. • People are selected nonrandomly according to some fixed quota • Judgement is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion • Convienience sampling within population groups

Quota sampling
• Proportional and non proportional • Proportional quota sampling :It is

representing the major characteristics of the population by sampling a proportional amount of each • Nonproportional quota sampling : The minimum number of sampled units in each category is specified

Heterogeneity Sampling
• When all opinions or views are to be
included and are not concerned about representing these views proportionately

Snowball sampling
• It begins by identifying someone who
meets the criteria for inclusion in the study. • They are asked to recommend others who they may know who also meet the criteria

Other Kinds Of Sampling
• Event Sampling : Using routine or
special events as the basis for sampling

• Time Sampling : Recognising that

different parts of the day, week or year may be significant

In A Nut Shell
• Probability Sampling
- Simple Random – Selection at Random - Systematic – Selecting every nth case - Stratified – Sampling w/n groups of Populn - Cluster – Surveying whole clusters of P/n - Multistage – Sub samples from large smpl

• Non- Probability Sampling - Accidental – Sampling those most convnt - Voluntary – Sample is self selected - Purposive – Handpicking typical cases - Quota – Sampling w/n groups of Ppln - Snowball – building sample thru informnts


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