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ANTENNAS & WAVE PROPAGATION

BY:
Deepti Chahar
Astt. Professor
DRONACHARYA COLLEGE OF ENGG.
SYLLABUS
SECTION A:
Retarded potential, field of short dipole, antenna pattern and
antenna parameters, Gain, Directivity, Radiation resistance,
aperture, beam-width etc, reciprocity theorem for antenna.
SECTION B:
Wave Eq for radiated fields from current and voltage sources in
terms of electric scalar potential and magnetic vector potential.
Fields and pattern of an infinite small dipole. Definition of
various potentials used in antenna
Relationship between current distribution and field pattern of an
antenna, linear antenna, halfwave dipole, antenna impedance,
directivity, radiation resistance, directional properties, effect of
ground on antenna pattern, input impedance , broad band
matching.
SECTI ON C:
two element array, broad side, end fired pattern, beam width
pattern multiplication, multi element array and their properties,
synthesis of an array, parabolic feed antenna, conical , helix,
log periodic horn. Microwave , gndwave, sky wave
propagation.
SECTION D:
Picture transmission, sound transmiision, picture receptio,
sound reception synchronisation, receiver cntrols, color tv.
Monochrome picture tube, beam deflection, screen phosphor,
face plate, picture tube characteristics, picture tube, circuits
controls. Tv camera tubes: basic principla. Image orthicon.
Vidicon.
Books
1. Antenna and Wave Propagation by K.D Prasad.
2. Antennas By: J.D Krauss.

Antenna Definition
An antenna is an electrical conductor or system of ELEVATED
conductors
Transmission - radiates electromagnetic energy into space
Reception - collects electromagnetic energy from space

What is an antenna?
Region of transition between guided and free space
propagation
Launches waves from a guiding structure into space or air
(transmitting case)
Not limited to electromagnetic waves (e.g. acoustic waves)
Transition from guided wave to free space wave
Polytechnic University 2002 by H. L. Bertoni 9
Antennas Radiate Electromagnetic Waves
EM waves have:
Electric field E (V/m)
Magnetic field H (A/m)
E and H
Perpendicular to each other and
to direction of propagation
Amplitude depends on direction
of propagation - Radiation Pattern
Transmitting
Antenna
Cable
E
H
Radiation Mechanism
11
Antennas
Transmission line uses
conductor to carry voltage &
current
Radio signal travels through air
(insulator)
Antennas are transducers
- convert voltage & current into
electric & magnetic field
-bridges transmission line & air
- similar to speaker/microphone
with acoustic energy.
Transmission Line
Voltage & current variations
produce EM field around conductor

EM field expands & contracts at
same frequency as variations
EM field contractions return energy
to the source (conductor)
Nearly all the energy in the
transmission line remains in the
system.
Types of Antennas
Wire antennas
Aperture antennas
Array antennas
Reflector antennas
Lens antennas
Patch antennas
Wire antennas
Aperture antennas
Patch antennas
Array antennas
Polytechnic University 2002 by H. L. Bertoni 17
Log Periodic Dipole Array
Antenna Basics
High Frequency
1.6 - 30 Mhz + 50 Mhz
160 - 6 metres
An antennas size/length depends on the frequency
Its functionality largely depends on the height above
ground, as well as the polarity and its configuration
Types of Antennas
1. Isotropic antenna (idealized)
1. Radiates power equally in all directions
2. Dipole antennas
1. Half-wave dipole antenna (or Hertz antenna)
2. Quarter-wave vertical antenna (or Marconi
antenna)
3. Directional Antennas
4. Reflective Antenna
Polytechnic University 2002 by H. L. Bertoni 20
Omnidirectional Antennas
Polytechnic University 2002 by H. L. Bertoni 21
Parabolic Reflector Antenna
Isotropic Radiators
An isotropic antenna is one which radiates equally in
all directions.
If the total power radiated by the isotropic antenna is P , then
the power is spread over a sphere of radius r ,so that the
power density S at this distance in any direction is given as:

Half-wave Dipole (Hertz) Antenna
An antenna having a physical length that is one-half
wavelength of the applied frequency is called a
Hertz antenna or a half-wave dipole antenna.
Hertz antennas are not found at frequencies below
2MHz because of the physical size needed of the
antenna to represent a half-wave
The Antenna Formula
c 186,000 misec
c is the speed of light
is the wavelength of the signal
use 3 x 10
8
when dealing in meters for the speed of light

frequency of the signal
The Antenna Formula - applied
If a half-wave dipole antenna needed to be
constructed for a 60 Hz signal, how large
would it need to be?
c 186,000 misec
60
= 3100 mi
2 = 1550 miles!
Antenna Parameters
All antenna have important parameters
common to all types of antenna irrespective of
type of application listed below :
Radiation pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation Intensity
Gain, Directive gain


Antenna Parameters(cont)
Directivity, Power Gain
Antenna Efficiency
Effective Apperture
Radiation Resistance
Antenna Bandwidth
Antenna Beam width
Polarization
Antenna Temperature
Self Impedance
Mutual Impedance