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Overview of Network
Management
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Table of Contents
Todays Networks
Network Management Requirements
Network Management Systems
NMS Software Architecture
Distributed Network Management
Proxy Agent
Standard Management Frameworks
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Fast
Ethernet
B-ISDN
ATM
SDH
PSTN
Computer Networks
Telecom Networks
Todays Networks
ISDN
Token
Ring
Gigabit
Ethernet
FDDI
WANs
SS#7
IN/AIN
PSDN
PCS
Access
Networks
Ethernet
World-Wide Web
Email, DNS, FTP
News, Telnet, IRC
RealAudio, RealVideo
MBone
Video Conferencing
Electronic Commerce
Internet Phone
Banking, Accounting
Distance Learning
Local, Long-distance,
Oversea Phone service
080, 070, collect-call
third-party IN service
cellular, C2, PCS, TRS
Video-on-Demand
Tele-conferencing
Video-conferencing
Internet Telephony
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NM Users Requirements
Controlling corporate strategic assets
effective control of network & computing resources
Controlling complexity
continued growth of devices, users, applications & protocols
Improving service
users expect better service with increased resources
Balancing various needs
must assign and control resources to balance various needs
Reducing downtime
more users and applications depend on availability
Controlling costs
effective resource utilization in order to control costs
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NM Functional Requirements
Fault Management
detection, isolation and correction of abnormal operations
Configuration Management
identify managed resources and their connectivity, discovery
Accounting Management
keep track of usage for charging
Performance Management
monitor and evaluate the behavior of managed resources
Security Management
allow only authorized access and control
FCAPS
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Fault Management
concerned with:
providing a reliable networking environment
ensuring that the systems as a whole, and each essential component
individually, are in proper working order
redundant components and routes can be used to increase fault
tolerance

when a fault occurs, the manager should be able to:
determine exactly where the fault (i.e., abnormal condition) is
isolate the rest of the network from failure
reconfigure or modify the network for continued operation
repair or replace the failed components to restore the network
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Configuration Management
concerned with:
initializing a network & shutting down part or all of the network
maintaining, adding and updating the relationships among
components
monitoring the status of components during network operation

the network manager should be able to:
startup and shutdown operations on a network
identify the components that comprise the network (discovery)
change the connectivity of the components (possibly as a result of
network upgrade, fault recovery or security checks)
detect changes in the network configuration
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Accounting Management
concerned with:
keeping track of the usage of network resources
charging the use of network resources
monitoring the end-user activities for possible abuse, for suggesting
better usage to users and for network planning

the manager should be able to:
specify the kinds of accounting information to be recorded at various
nodes
specify the algorithms to be used in calculating the charging
generate accounting reports
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Performance Management
concerned with:
providing an efficient communication environment
monitoring and analyzing the performance of the components
making proper adjustments to improve network performance

the manager should be able to:
determine the capacity utilization, throughput, the average and worst-
case response times
monitor and gather data on the activities of components
analyze the gathered data and assess performance levels
determine the sources of performance problems & fix them
use the performance stats for future network planning
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Security Management
concerned with:
providing a secure networking environment
preventing hacking, illegal and unauthorized access
managing information protection and access-control facilities

the manager should be able to:
generate, distribute and store encryption keys
maintain and distribute passwords and other authorization or access-
control information
monitor and control access to networks
collect, store and examine audit records and security logs
enable & disable the logging facilities
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Network Management Systems
A network management system (NMS) is a collection of
tools for network monitoring and control
based on the manager-agent paradigm
the manager sends mgmt requests to one or more agents
an agent performs the requested operation and returns results
when agents detect faults and they report to the manager
NMS typically provides a GUI through which most or all
management tasks can be performed
Many commercial and freely available NMSs exist:
HP OpenView, IBM NetView, Sun Net Manager, etc.
research prototypes from CMU, MIT, UC Davis, U. of Twente
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Agent
Agent
Agent
Agent
Agent Agent
Agent
Collect, organize & interpret
Operational Data
Administrator
Workstation
Management Platform
Observation
& Control
mgmt requests/replies
event reports
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Elements of an NMS
NMA
NME Appl
Comm
OS
NME Appl
Comm
OS
NME Appl
Comm
OS
NME
Comm
OS
Network control
host (manager)
Server
(agent)
Workstation
(agent)
Router
(agent)
NMA = network management application
NME = network management entity
Appl = application
Comm = communications software
OS = operating system
Networks
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Network Management Entity (NME)
NME is a collection of software devoted to the network
management tasks
is typically known as an management agent
Each NME performs the following tasks
collects statistics on communications and network-related activities
stores statistics locally
responds to commands from the network manager, including
commands to:
transmit collected stats to network manager
change an attribute value
provide status information
generate artificial traffic to perform a test
etc.
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Network Mgmt Application (NMA)
NMA is a collection of software for performing network
monitoring and control
is typically known as network manager
NMA provides an operator interface to allow an authorized
user to manage the network
NMA responds to user commands by displaying information
and/or issuing commands to NMEs
Standard protocols (e.g., SNMP, CMIP) are used to manage
a multi-vendor network
there may be more than one NMA in a large network which
can lead to the need of a hierarchy of managers (e.g., top
level manager, middle level managers, etc.)
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NM Software Architecture
User Presentation Software
interfaces between user and NM software
a unified user interface desirable
includes graphical tools to display summarized NM information
Network Management Software
a set of NM applications (configuration, performance, etc.)
a set of application elements (alarm handling, logging, etc.)
NM data transport service
Communication and Database Support Software
local Management Information Base (MIB) access module
communications protocol stack (e.g., TCP/IP, OSI) to interact with
remote agents and managers
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Architectural Model of NMS
Unified user interface
Presentation of network management information to users
Network management
application
Network management
application
...
application element
application element
application element
Network management data transport service
MIB access
module
Communication
protocol stack
Managed networks
...
Management
Information
Base
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Distributed Network Management
Resources to be managed are widely distributed
widespread use of departmental LANs
need for local control & optimization of distributed applications
Hierarchical NM architecture desirable
distributed NMSs are given limited access for network monitoring and
control of departmental resources
top-level NMS has a global access rights and the ability to manage all
network resources
Benefits of Distributed NM
NM traffic overhead is minimized - traffic is localized
Dist. mgmt offers greater scalability
use of multiple NMSs eliminates the single point of failure
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Typical Dist. Mgmt System Architecture
Management clients (PCs, workstations)
Network
Network
Management server
Management
application
MIB
Element
manager
Element
manager
Network resources (servers, routers, hosts) with management agents
Management server
Management
application
MIB
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Proxy Agents
Managed resources may have various mgmt interfaces
some with different mgmt protocols (e.g., OSI vs. SNMP, XML vs.
SNMP)
some with proprietary mgmt interfaces (e.g., older systems)
small systems not capable of possessing NME (e.g., modems)

Proxy agents are used to manage these devices
managers use standard protocols to communicate with proxies
proxy agents use proprietary protocols to communicate with
proprietary devices
proxy agents perform translations between managers and proprietary
devices
an agent to the manager and a manager to proprietary devices
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Proxy Agent Architecture
Proxy Agent
Protocol
stack
Client proxy
stub
Protocol
stack
Proprietary management
interface
Server proxy
stub
Management
application
Client
stub
Protocol
stack
Server stub
Protocol stack
Standard operations
and event reports
Proprietary operations
and event reports
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Standard Management Frameworks
Internet Network Management Framework (IETF)
SNMPv1 (Internet Full Standard)
SNMPv2 (Internet Full Standard)
SNMPv3 (Internet Proposed Standard)

OSI Network Management Framework (ISO/ITU-T)
CMIP (X.700 Series)

Telecommunication Management Network (ITU-T)
TMN (M.3000 Series)

Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)
DMI, CIM, WBEM
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Summary
Network Management Requirements
Users Requirements
Functional Requirements (FCAPS)
Network Management Systems
Network Management Entity (NME)
Network Management Application (NMA)
NMS Software Architecture
Distributed Network Management
Proxy Agent
Standard Management Frameworks

READ Chapter 1 of Stallings
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Useful Internet Resources
USENET News Groups
comp.protocols.snmp
info.snmp
comp.dcom.net-management

Web Sites
http://netman.cit.buffalo.edu/
http://snmp.cs.utwente.nl/
http://www.tmforum.org/
http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/wg-dir.html
http://www.dmtf.org
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Questions?