The Classes of food

Carbohydrate Function – to supplies energy Source – rice , bread Protein Function – to body building Source – chicken, milk Fat Function – to provides energy Source – oil cooking,margerin

Fibre Function – to prevents constipation Source – vegetables , fruits Water Function – to transports organic compounds and mineral and salts. Transports food waste substances

Vitamin Function – Prevents diseases Source – eggs,vegetables,fruits Mineral salts Function – to preserves the body health Source – meat, salts,milk

Vitamin A
Function – for keeping skin,bones,teeth and hair strong - for normal vision Source - Eggs,milk,dairy

products,liver,fish,vegetables such as carrots and pumpkins,fruits

Vitamin B Function
– For the breakdown of carbohydrates protein and fats to release energy - For proper functioning of the heart the nervous system - for normal growth - for the formation of red blood cells


bread - Eggs,milk,dairy products,yeast,liver vegetables,fruits, whole- grain and cereals,meat,fish, legumes,nuts,

Vitamin C
Function - For healthy teeth and gums - Helps in iron absorption by bones - For the formation of connective tissues - For healing wounds and fighting infection Source - Citrus fruits ,potatoes,guavas,green

Vitamin D Function - To form strong bones and teeth - Promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the intestines Source - Eggs,milk,dairy productc,liver,fish, Vitamin D is also produced by our skin cells in the presence of

Vitamin E
Function - For maintaning healthy red blood cells - To resist diseases Source - Egg yolk,vegetables oils,margarine,green and leafy vegetables,wheat germ,wholegrain bread and cereals,seeds,nuts.

Vitamin K
Function - Helps in blood clothing Source - Milk,liver,green and leafy vegetables. Vitamin K is also produced by bacteria in our intestines.

Calcium Function - To form strong bones and teeth - Helps in blood clotting - For nerve and muscle functions Source - Milk,cheese,butter,green vegetables, tofu,legumes,eggs

Function - To produce hormones ( chemical message ) Source - Seafood,green vegetables,iodised salt.

Iron Function - Formation of haemoglobin ( the red pigment in red blood cells ) - For transporting oxygen by red blood cells Source - Liver,meat,seafood,eggs,leafy vegetables,apricots,dried fruits ,

Function - for making healthy bones and teeth - for helping in the release of energy Source - Milk, cheese,butter,fish,eggs,poultry, meat .

Potassium Function - for maintaining water balance - for nerve and muscle functions Source Gains,fruits,vegetables,meat, fish

Sodium Functions - for maintaining water balance - for nerve and muscle functions Source - Table salt,processed food,fish, cheese,meat


Balance Diet

A balance diet contains all classes of food in correct proportions are as follow 70 % carbohydrate 15 % protein 15 % fat and sufficient quantity of vitamin and mineral.

Why a balance diet is important

A balance diet is very important because it provides sufficient energy,prevents diseases and maintains good health. Children and elderly people require more protein to build new tissues. Pregnant mothers require more calcium,phosphorus and iron

Excessive intake
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Sugar can cause diabetes Fat can cause heart disease and high blood pressure. Salt can cause heart disease and high blood pressure. Lack of protein in children can cause kwashiorkor.

The quantity of energy needed by an individual depends on
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Age A teeneger who is actively growing needs more energy. Gender Men need more energy because they are more active in their live. Body size The bigger the body is the more energy it requires Activity A construction worker or a labour requires more energy compared to an office worker Weather In cold places more energy is needed to maintain the body temperature

Discuss about

The issue of junk food – state disadvantages Food management ; - Objective maintaining the nutrients of the food and preventing food poisoning - Methods of preparing food - The correct methods of cooking food

Test for starch
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Iodine solution is used to test for starch The iodine solution will turn dark blue if starch is present Mashed banana contains starch When 2-3 drops of iodine solution is added into the mashed banana , it turns dark blue to indicate the presence of starch

Test for glucose
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Benedict solution is used to test for glucose A dark red precipitate will form when the mixture of glucose and the benedict solution is heated in a water bath Honey contains glucose 2 Cm3 of the benedict solution is added into the honey Then the mixture is heated in a water bath for 5 minute A dark red precipitate is formed to indicate the presence of glucose

Test for protein
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Millons reagent is used to test for protein A dark red precipitate will form when the mixture of protein and the reagent is heated Egg white contains protein 2 to 3 drops of the Millons reagent is added into the egg white When the solution is heated,a dark red precipitate will form to indicate the presence of protein

Test for fats

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Filter paper is used to test for fats Cooking oil contains fats Some oil is smeared onto the filter paper The paper is then dried under the flames of the Bunsen burner A translucent spot is formed on the filter paper to indicate the presence of fats

Human Digestive System

Definition of food digestion A process of breaking down food into small , soluble molecules that can be absorbed by the body(small intestine) The human digestive system consists of The alimentary canal which starts from mouth and followed by esophagus, stomach, small intestine,large

The organs which are associated

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The organs which are associated with food digestion are the liver, gall bladder and pancreas. Salivary glands in the mouth. The process of peristalsis is carried out by the muscle of the walls of the oesophogus,stomach,duodenum,small intestine and large intestine. The muscle of the wall contract and dilate alternately. This will push the food along the alimentary canal.

Digestion in the mouth

Physical digestion. Food is broken down into small pieces by the teeth.

Chemical digestion  The saliva which is alkaline and contains an enzyme called amylase changes starch to maltose.

Digestion in the stomach

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Hydrochloric acids kills bacteria and neutralizes the saliva to unable the enzymes pepsin and rennin to react. Rennin coagulates milk protein Pepsin digests the protein to peptone

Digestion in the duodenum

Bile salt from the liver neutralizes the acidic mixture from the stomach and mix the fat Pancreatic juice contains enzymes, which digest fat,carbohydrate and peptone

Digestion in the small intestine
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Four alkaline enzymes are produced to digest all complex sugars into glucose Sucrase Sucrose to glucose Maltase Maltose to glucose Lactase Lactose to glucose and galactose Lipase Fat to fat acidic and glycerol The erepsin enzyme digest peptone into amino acid

The flow of food particles in the alimentary canal
Mouth Oesophagus Stomach



Large Intestine

Small Intestine

Characteristics of enzymes

Types of proteins that act as catalysts to speed up the digestion process Digest only one type of certain food Unchanged or destroyed by reaction with food Functions at a certain acidic or alkaline condition and at the body temperature of 37 0 C

Absorption of digestive product Digested food will be absorbed into the

blood stream and lymphatic gland On the wall of the small intestine,absorption takes place through the thin and semipermeable villi. The villi on the wall of the small intestine increase the surface area of the small intestine Blood capillaries and the villi lacteal transport the digested food out quickly and efficiently Only digested food,mineral salts,and vitamin in the form of small molecules are able to penetrate the wall of the villi

Digested food is divided into two group
Group A Simple sugar,acid amino,mineral salts,vitamin B and C that dissolve in water . Group B Fatty acids,glycerol,vitamin A,D,E,K that dissolves in fat.

The flow of digested food
Digested food Group A Group B

Blood Capillary


Liver Circulatory System Body Cell

Lymphatic System



Cell respiration. Glucose will be oxidised by oxygen to produce heat energy Assimilation Building new protoplasm ( amino acid is used to replace the dead cells )

Process of defecation

Undigested substances such as fibres move into the large intestine Excess water is absorbed through the large intestine wall and the remaining undigested solid that remain are call faeces Faeces will be removed through the anus in a process called

Problem of Defecation
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The difficulty of removing the faeces is known as constipation It is caused by the lack of water and fibre in our food Water is important because it makes the faeces softer,not too dry or stick to the internal wall of the large intestine Eat more fruits which contain a lot of fibres and vegetables to get more cellulose which can assist the faeces to move along the large intestine