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OSI Reference Model

V1.0
Data Customer Service Dept.
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Course Objectives
• Grasp the basic knowledge of network
• Understand network evolution history and classification of
network
• Know standardization organizations in data communication
field
• Grasp OSI model and each layer’s function
• Grasp the function of different kind of network devices and its
position

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Course Outline
• Chapter I Network Overview
• Chapter II OSI Reference Model
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Course Contents
• Chapter I Network Overview
Section 1 Definition and Evolution History of Network
Section 2 Classification of Network
Section 3 Network Topology
Section 4 International Standardization Organizations
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Definition of Network

Computer network refers to interconnect the separately distributed
computers and external communication lines to form a system for
easy info exchanging and resource sharing among multiple pieces of
computers.

IP Hotel
Mobile
Server
SOHO
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Network Evolution History
Phase 2:70’s- 80’s
Phase 4: 80’s till now
Phase 1: 50’s- 60’s
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Course Contents
• Chapter I Network Overview
Section 1 Definition and Evolution History of Network
Section 2 Classification of Network
Section 3 Network Topology
Section 4 International Standardization Organizations
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Classification of Network

Local Area Network (LAN)

Metro Area Network (MAN)

Wide Area Network (WAN)

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LAN
LAN usually covers an area of several kilometers and integrated
several independent data devices to enable users to share
network resources.
Features: short distance, low latency, high data-transmitting rate
and reliable transmission.
 The infrastructures of LAN include servers, clients, network
equipments and communication media.
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MAN
 MAN usually covers an area of several kilometers to
hundreds of kilometers
 Data transmission rate ranged from several Kbit/s to several
Gbit/s
 Optical fiber is the best transmission media of MAN

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WAN



 WAN is mainly used to connect LANs, and provide data
communication within wide areas.
 WAN covers an area of hundreds to thousands of
kilometers.

 Classification of WAN:
ISDN
DDN
X.25 packet switching network
Frame Relay
ATM
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Internal Use Only▲
Course Contents
• Chapter I Network Overview
Section 1 Definition and Evolution History of Network
Section 2 Classification of Network
Section 3 Network Topology
Section 4 International Standardization Organizations
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Network Topology






Star Topology
Tree Topology
Distributed Topology
Ring Topology
Bus Topology
Hybrid Topology
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Course Contents
• Chapter I Network Overview
Section 1 Definition and Evolution History of Network
Section 2 Classification of Network
Section 3 Network Topology
Section 4 International Standardization Organizations
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Standardization Organizations
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE)
American National Standard Institute (ANSI)
Electronic Industries Association/ Telecommunication
Industry Association (EIA / TIA)
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)

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Course Contents
• Chapter II OSI Reference Model
Section 1 OSI Model Overview
Section 2 Physical Layer
Section 3 Data-link Layer
Section 4 Network Layer
Section 5 Transport Layer
Section 5 Session/Presentation/Application Layer
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OSI Reference Model Overview
Data Transmission
between Networks
Transport Layer
Data-link Layer
Network Layer
Physical Layer
Data Transmission
between Hosts
Session Layer
Presentation Layer
Application Layer
 OSI RM:Open System Interconnection Reference Model

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Functions of Each Layer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Provide communication between
application programs
Process data format and encryption
Establish, maintain and manage sessions
Establish end-to-end connection
Addressing and routing
Provide media access and link
management
Bit stream transmission
Transport Layer
Data-link Layer
Physical Layer
Session Layer
Presentation Layer
Application Layer
Network Layer
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Relationship between Each Layer of OSI Model
Only peer layers with same protocol are able to communicate.

Transport Layer
Data-link Layer
Network Layer
Physical Layer
Session Layer
Presentation Layer
Application Layer
APDU
Bits
Frame
Packet
Segment
SPDU
PPDU
Transport Layer
Data-link Layer
Network Layer
Physical Layer
Session Layer
Presentation Layer
Application Layer
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Upper Layer Data
Upper Layer Data TCP Header
IP Header
LLC Header
0101110101001000010
MAC Header
Segment

Packet

Bits

Frame

PDU
FCS
FCS
Data Encapsulation
Transport
Layer
Data-link Layer
Physical
Layer
Network
Layer
Presentation Layer
Application Layer
Session Layer
Upper Layer Data
Upper Layer Data
Upper Layer Data
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Upper Layer Data
LLC Hdr + IP + TCP + Upper Layer Data
IP + TCP + Upper Layer Data
TCP+ Upper Layer Data
Upper Layer Data
0101110101001000010
Transport Layer
Data-link Layer
Physical
Layer
Network
Layer
Presentation Layer
Application Layer
Session Layer
Data De-encapsulation
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Internal Use Only▲
Study Contents
• Chapter II OSI Reference Model
Section 1 OSI Model Overview
Section 2 Physical Layer
Section 3 Data-link Layer
Section 4 Network Layer
Section 5 Transport Layer
Section 5 Session/Presentation/Application Layer
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Physical Layer
EIA/TIA-232
V.35
Physical Layer
• Moves bits between devices
• Specified voltage, rate and pin-out cables

 Physical Layer is the first and bottom layer of OSI
Reference Model.
 Physical Layer mainly provides bit stream transmission.
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Physical Layer also defines:
Media Type
Connector Type
Signal Type
Function of Physical Layer
E
t
h
e
r
n
e
t

8
0
2
.
3

V
.
3
5

P
h
y
s
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c
a
l

L
a
y
e
r


E
I
A
/
T
I
A
-
2
3
2

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HUB
Host
Host
10Base2—Ethernet thin-wire
10Base5—Ethernet thick-wire
10BaseT—TP
Ethernet/802.3
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 HUB works on Physical Layer
 The work stations connected via HUB are physically Star
Topology but Bus Topology logically.
 All devices are in one Collision Domain
 The more terminals, the more collisions
 All devices share the bandwidth
 Collision Domain:an assembling of all the workstations on the
same cable or of all the nodes on the same physical segment or a
group of nodes contending the same bandwidth.
HUB
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Internal Use Only▲
Study Contents
• Chapter II OSI Reference Model
Section 1 OSI Model Overview
Section 2 Physical Layer
Section 3 Data-link Layer
Section 4 Network Layer
Section 5 Transport Layer
Section 5 Session/Presentation/Application Layer
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802.3 / 802.2
HDLC
EIA/TIA-232
V.35
Data-link Layer
Data-link
Layer
• Combines packets into bytes and bytes to
frames
• Provides access to media using MAC address
• Performs error detection not correction

Physical
Layer
• Moves bits between devices
• Specified voltage, rate and pin-out cables

 Data-link Layer is the second layer of OSI Reference Model
 Mainly responsible to precisely transmit the data packet to Network
Layer of destination host.
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Data-link Layer defines:
 Physical source and destination addresses
 Associate SAP (service access point) to upper layer protocols
 Define network topology
 Control of frame order
 Flow Control
data-



EIA/TIA-232
v.35



802.2
802.3
Function of Data-link Layer
D
a
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a
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l
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n
k


P
h
y
s
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c
a
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EIA/TIA-232
v.35
FR
802.2
802.3
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Data
Source
address
FCS Length
Destination
address
Variable Length 2 6 6 4
00.d0.d0 xx.xx.xx
Distributed by
manufacturer
The manufacturer
code assigned by
IEEE
Preamble
Ethernet II uses
“Type” in this
field.
MAC address
8 # Bytes
MAC Address
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 Layer 2 Switch and Bridge work on Data-link Layer
Each network segment connected to each port is an
individual Collision Domain
All network segments are in one Broadcast Domain
 Broadcast Domain:assembly of nodes that receive same
broadcast message, able to be classified into one logical network
segment with other broadcast nodes.
Switch/Bridge
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HUB Bridge Switch Router
Number of
Collision
Domain:
1 4 4 4
Number of
Broadcast
Domain:
1 1 1 4
Collision Domain and Broadcast Domain
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Internal Use Only▲
Study Contents
• Chapter II OSI Reference Model
Section 1 OSI Model Overview
Section 2 Physical Layer
Section 3 Data-link Layer
Section 4 Network Layer
Section 5 Transport Layer
Section 5 Session/Presentation/Application Layer
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Network Layer
EIA/TIA-232
V.35
IP
IPX
Network
Layer
• Provides logic addressing which
routers use for path determination
Data-link
Layer
• Combines packets into bytes and bytes to
frames
• Provides access to media using MAC address
• Performs error detection not correction
Physical
Layer
• Moves bits between devices
• Specifies voltage, rate and pin-out cables
802.3 / 802.2
HDLC
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 Defines Logical
Address
 Addressing and
Routing
Network
Layer
IP, IPX
Data-link
Layer
Physical
Layer
EIA/TIA-232
v.35
HDLC
802.2
802.3
Functions of Network Layer
FR
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Network Layer address is globally unique, constituted
by two parts: Network address and Host address.
IP
address
IPX
address
Network address Host address
10.
8.2.48
Network address
Host address
1aceb0b1.
0000.0c00.6e25
Logical Address(1)
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11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
10101100 00010000 01111010
11001100
Binary Mask
Binary Address
172.16.122.204 255.255.0.0
172 16 122 204
255
Address
Mask
255 0 0
Network
Host
Logical Address(2)
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Functions:
 Logical routing
 Select best routing path
 Broadcast control
 Multicast Control
 Flow Control
 Connected to WAN
Router
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Course Contents
• Chapter II OSI Reference Model
Section 1 OSI Model Overview
Section 2 Physical Layer
Section 3 Data-link Layer
Section 4 Network Layer
Section 5 Transport Layer
Section 5 Session/Presentation/Application Layer
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TCP
UDP
SPX
802.3 / 802.2
HDLC
EIA/TIA-232
V.35
IP
IPX
Transport Layer
Transport
Layer
• Provides reliable or unreliable delivery
• Performs error correction before
retransmit
Network
Layer
• Provides logical addressing,
which routers use for path determination
Data-link
Layer
• Combines packets into bytes and bytes into frames
• Provides access to media using MAC address
• Performs error detection not correction
Physical
Layer
• Moves bits between devices
• Specifies voltage, rate, and pin-out cables

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Functions:
 Segment Upper Layer Data
 Establish end-to-end connection between application programs
 Flow control
 Connection-oriented and connectionless Communication
Network
Layer
IPX IP
Transport
Layer
SPX TCP UDP
Function of Transport Layer
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Synchronizing
Acknowledgement, Synchronizing
Acknowledgement
Data Transmission
Sender Receiver
Connection Established
Connection-oriented Session
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Course Contents
• Chapter II OSI Reference Model
Section 1 OSI Model Overview
Section 2 Physical Layer
Section 3 Data-link Layer
Section 4 Network Layer
Section 5 Transport Layer
Section 5 Session/Presentation/Application Layer
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Session Layer
Transport
Layer
• Provides reliable or unreliable delivery
• Performs error correction before retransmit
Network
Layer
• Provides logical addressing,
which routers use for path determination
Data-link
Layer
• Combines packets into bytes and bytes into frames
• Provides access to media using MAC address
• Performs error detection not correction
Physical
Layer
• Moves bits between devices
• Specifies voltage, rate, and pin-out cables
• Keeps different applications’ data separate

Session
Layer
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Presentation Layer
• Presents data
• Handles processing such as encryption
Presentation
Layer
Transport
Layer
• Provides reliable or unreliable delivery
• Performs error correction before retransmit
Network
Layer
• Provides logical addressing,
which routers use for path determination
Data-link
Layer
• Combines packets into bytes and bytes into frames
• Provides access to media using MAC address
• Performs error detection not correction
Physical
Layer
• Moves bits between devices
• Specifies voltage, rate, and pin-out cables
• Keeps different applications’ data separate

Session
Layer
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•Provides a user interface

Application
Layer
• Presents data
• Handles processing such as encryption
Presentation
Layer
Transport
Layer
• Provides reliable or unreliable delivery
• Performs error correction before retransmit
Network
Layer
• Provides logical addressing,
which routers use for path determination
Data-link
Layer
• Combines packets into bytes and bytes into frames
• Provides access to media using MAC address
• Performs error detection not correction
Physical
Layer
• Moves bits between devices
• Specifies voltage, wire speed, and pin-out cables
• Keeps different applications’ data separate

Session
Layer
Application Layers
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Summary
 Definition of Network
 Network Evolution History
 Classification of Networks
 Network Topology
 Standardization Organizations in Data
Communication Field
 OSI Model and Functions of Each Layer
 Common Network Devices