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BBSYDP @t AIMS ORG
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Is this really all that important to
know ?
Server
Program
Client
Network
CPU
Operating System
bit, byte, kilobyte,
megabyte
Memory
Storage
Expansion Slots
MHz
Application Software
Upload
FTP
IT
Network Drive
World Wide Web
Internet
etc.

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Will there be computers in your
place of work?
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Will you have to communicate with
those you work with?

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Becoming Computer Savvy
Understand general computer terms.
Have a better sense of computers when
buying.
Know how to fix ordinary problems
Efficiently use the Internet
Know how to learn new and different
programs
Using Information
Technology
Chapter 1
Introduction to Information Technology
Your Digital World
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What is a computer?
A programmable machine
A machine that accepts input (raw
data), processes that input, and
produces output (information).
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What is a network?
Two or more computers connected
together using communications
equipment.
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Then along came
Being online using a computer to access information
from another computer through the use of a network.
The Internet
World Wide Web
E-mail
Information technology (infotech):
IT - Technology that helps in the production, processing, storing,
communication and dissemination of information.
The E-World (E-business, E-commerce, E-government,
E-learning, E-pinions, E-tailing, E-waste)

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The Internet, the World Wide Web, & the
Plumbing of Cyberspace
Cyberspace
encompasses the whole wired and wireless world
of communications.
Term created by William Gibson author
Not a commonly used term in the field of
Computer Science.
Internet
A global network of networks (tangible)
Do not confuse with WWW.
World Wide Web
Most common use of the Internet
Encompasses information that can be viewed
through a web browser (web pages).
Do not confuse with the Internet.

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1.2 The All-Purpose Machine:
The Varieties of Computers
1. Supercomputers
2. Mainframes
3. Workstations
4. Microcomputers
5. Microcontrollers
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Supercomputers
Fastest computer
Can cost one million to 350
million dollars
looks like rows of refrigerator-
size boxes
Consists of thousands of
processors and can carry out
several trillion calculations per
second.
Used for computer simulations
tracking hurricanes, biological
contamination, or
understanding ocean currents.
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Mainframes
Small mainframes (mid-
size computers or
minicomputers).
5,000 to 5 million dollars
Used in large
organizations banks,
airlines, insurance
companies, colleges.
Processes billions of
instructions per second.
Often used with a
terminal.
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Workstations
usually used for complex
scientific, mathematical,
and engineering
calculations and for
computer-aided design
Example: designing
airplanes, special effects
in movies
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Microcomputer
$500 - $5000
Personal Computer (PC)
Tower PC
Desktop PC
Laptop / Notebook
Personal digital assistants
(PDAs), also called
handheld computers or
palmtops
Mac
While a Mac is a PC, most
people relate the term, PC,
with systems that run the
Windows operating system.
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Other types of microcomputers.
Laptop computer
Personal Digital Assistant
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Microcontrollers
tiny, specialized
microprocessors
installed in smart
appliances and
automobiles
also called embedded
computers
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Servers
The word server refers to how a computer is
used.
Server - a central computer that holds collections
of data & programs for clients
Clients - PCs, workstations, & other devices
attached to a server
Server + Clients linked together form a
client/server network
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How Computers Work
The purpose of a computer is to process
data into information.
Data (Input)
The raw facts and figures that are processed into
information
Information (Output)
Data that has been summarized or otherwise
manipulated for use in decision making
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Computers consist of hardware and
software.
Hardware
All the machinery and equipment in a
computer system
Tangible
Software
All the instructions that tell the computer
how to perform a task
Intangible
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All computers follow the same five
basic operations.
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
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Input
Keyboard
Mouse
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Processing
- Manipulating data into information
Case or system cabinet
the box that houses
the processor chip
(CPU Central Processing Unit)
memory chips (RAM)
motherboard with power supply
secondary storage devices
video card
Etc. ..
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Motherboard
Motherboard - the main
circuit board in the
computer.

Everything else attaches
to the motherboard
through connections
called ports.

Expansion slots - plugs
on the motherboard for
expanding the PCs
capabilities via additional
circuit boards.

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Processing
Processor chip
A tiny piece of silicon that contains millions of miniature
electronic circuits.


Front Back
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Storage
Primary storage
Computer circuitry that temporarily holds data
waiting to be processed and after it has been
processed
Also called:
Memory or primary memory
RAM Random Access Memory
Temporary storage
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RAM
Memory chips
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Secondary storage
The area in the computer where data or
information is held permanently
Also simply called:
Storage
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Storage capacity is measured in:
1 byte - 1 character is represented using 1 byte.
= 8 bits (a bit is a 0 or a 1)
1 kilobyte - 1,024 characters.
= 2
10
bytes (approx. 10
3
bytes)
1 megabyte - 1,048,576 characters.
= 2
20
bytes (approx. 10
6
bytes)
1 gigabyte - more than 1 billion characters.
= 2
30
bytes (approx. 10
9
bytes)
1 terabyte - more than 1 trillion characters.
= 2
40
bytes (approx. 10
12
bytes)


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Storage
Zip disk
Floppy disk
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Storage
Hard-disk drive
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Storage
CD drive
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Storage
Flash Memory Sticks
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Output
Speakers
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Speaker output requires a sound
card.
Sound card
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Output
Monitor
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A video card controls the video
display of your monitor.
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Output
Printer
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Communications
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Put all the hardware together and
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You still need the software!
System software

Helps the computer
perform essential
operating tasks and
enables the
application software
to run
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You still need the software!
Application software

Enables you to
perform specific
tasks--solve
problems, perform
work, or entertain
yourself
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The slides that follow will not
be covered in class.
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1.4 Where Is Information
Technology Headed?
Three Directions of Computer
Development
Miniaturization

Speed

Affordability
Then (1946) Now
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Three Directions of
Communications Development
Connectivity

Interactivity

Multimedia
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When Computers &
Communications Combine:
Convergence, Portability, &
Personalization
Convergence

Portability

Personalization
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E Also Stands for Ethics
Speed and scale

Unpredictability

Complexity
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Onward: Handling Information in
the Era of Pervasive Computing
Learn to deal with information overload

Have a strategy to memorize information:
reduce dependence on technology

Learn how to make your multitasking
efficient
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Onward: Handling Information in
the Era of Pervasive Computing
Be aware that smart mobs could also be
dumb mobs: Know when technology is
being used against you.

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Concept Check
What are the two key components of information
technology?

Computers and communications
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Concept Check
What are the two key aspects of cyberspace?

The Internet and the World Wide Web
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Concept Check
What are the five sizes of computers from
largest to smallest?

Supercomputer, mainframe, workstation,
microcomputer, microcontroller
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Concept Check
What is a LAN?
A local area network is a connected group of
desktop PCs and other devices such as printers,
normally located in an office or building.
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Concept Check
Which size of computer is also called an
embedded computer?
Microcontroller
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Concept Check
What is the term for a computer used to hold
collections of data and programs for connecting
PCs, workstations, and other devices?
Server
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56
Concept Check
What are the five basic operations that
computers have in common?
Input, processing, storage, output, and
communications
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57
Concept Check
Which type of storage is composed of computer
circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting to be
processed?
Primary storage (memory)
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58
Concept Check
What computer device consists of electronic
circuitry that executes instructions to process
data?
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
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59
Concept Check
Are RAM chips used for primary or secondary
storage?
Primary - theyre also called memory chips.
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60
Concept Check
What is the name of the main circuit board in the
computer, to which everything else is attached
via connections called ports?
Motherboard
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61
Concept Check
How many characters can be represented by a
byte? A kilobyte?
A byte represents a single character; 1, 024
characters make a kilobyte
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62
Concept Check
What is the name for the unit of storage capacity
representing one billion characters?
One gigabyte
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63
Concept Check
What is the name for any component or piece of
equipment that expands a computers input,
storage, and/or output capabilities? A zip-disk
drive is an example of this type of component.
Peripheral device
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64
Concept Check
What type of software includes the operating
system and the master control program that runs
the computer?
System software
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65
Thanx To Allah
& ALL OF YOU
Presented By: Muhammad Ali