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Solidarity &

Politeness & Solidarity
By the end of the lesson we will be
able to:
Mention the concept definition of
address system and politeness

Identify address system and
We will discuss about :
Tu and Vous
Address term
When we speak, we must constantly make a
choices of many different kinds: what we
want to say, how we want to say it, and the
sentence types, words, and sounds that best
unite the what with how

Tu and Vous
TV distinction is derived from French language tu and
This distinction began as a difference between plurarl and
IV century: the use of plural vous was to address the emperor.
There were two emperors: one in Constantinople and another
in Rome, but the Empire was administratively unified. By
addressing one, you were in fact addressing both emperors.
As a consequence, the medieval upper classes began to use V-
forms among them to show mutual respect and politeness

T-V Distinction
Vous is used to address individuals on certain occasions.
Tu (T) is sometimes described as familiar form
Vous (V) is the polite form or mutual
Lower classes used mutual T-forms
Upper classes used T to address lower classes, but
received V addressing
Other languages with T-V distinction:
Italian (tu/Lei) Javanese (kowe/panjenengan)

Tu is the familiar "you," which
demonstrates a certain closeness and
informality. Use tu when speaking to one
peer / colleague

Vous is the formal "you." It is used to
show respect or maintain a certain
distance or formality with someone.
Use vous when speaking to
someone you don't know well
an older person
an authority figure
anyone to whom you wish to show respect

Terms of Addressee
How do you address your?
Boss in work?
Best friend?

Addressee in English
Generally, by:
Title (T) :
Generic : Mr., Mrs., Sir, Madam
Doctor, Professor, Captain, Colonel
First name (FN) : Daniel, Jonas, Annabeth
Last name (LN) : Smith, Cullen, Parker
Nickname : Dan, Joe, Annie
Combination of those all
Nothing at all

The Address Process
George Jane
Mr. Black Mrs. Reed
Mrs. Watson James

Factors of the Usage of Address Terms
Particular occasion
Some circumstances might require some different terms.
Social status or rank
Asymmetrical use of title, last name and first name
indicated inequality in power.
Switch from mutual TFL to FN is usually initiated by
the most powerful member in the relationship.
E.g: The Nuer people.
E.g: a person called his mother when he is still child and
turn into teenager
Family relationship
As your family relationships change, issues of naming
and addressing may arise; for example: how do you
address your father/mother in law?
Occupational hierarchy
Choosing the right terms of address
Transactional status
E.g: doctor-patient, service encounter, priest-penitent
in the southern states of the United States, whites used naming and
addressing practices to put blacks in their place.
Degree of intimacy
Mutual title, last name indicated inequality and unfamiliarity. Mutual
first name indicated equality and familiarity since using anothers
first name is a sign of considerable intimacy.
In each country there are different rules stating how people should
address each other. In England we can omit the address term when
greeting someone but in France that avoidance could be impolite.

In those societies in which a persons status
derives from his or her own achievements,
few distinctions in address are made.
However, in societies where status is
ascribed, i.e., derived from birth into a
particular social group, we are much more
likely to find sets of finely graded address
(Robinson, 1972)
Is this polite? look so amazing, dude!!
Tell me whats going on!!
To your best friend?
To your lecturer?
To your dad?
The Concept Of Politeness
Politeness = practical application of good manners or
It is culturally defined phenomenon or socially
Therefore, what is considered polite in one culture,
may sometimes be impolite in another culture.

It is first important that you understand the
concept of 'face'.
Face is defined as the public self-image every
adult expose, which must be attended to in

2 kinds of Face
Positive face is the desire to be
appreciated and liked.

Negative face is the desire to have
freedom and not to be imposed upon.

Kinds Of Politeness
Positive politeness = attempts to
establish a positive relationship
between people in the same level.

Negative politeness = it leads to
deference, indirectness and formality
in language use.

Politeness - Examples
Would it be really bothering you if I asked you to
move over one seat?
Move aside, please!
Excuse me, do you happen to have a minute or
two to spare?
Come here. We need to talk!
Is it possible for you to close the window a little?
Close the window!
Wardaugh, Ronald. 2006. An Introduction to
Sociolinguistics 5
Edition. Blackwell
Publishing Ltd.
Thank you >_<